Prospects for Flow Measurements Based on Spectroscopic Methods

  • Donald Baganoff
Conference paper


The shadow, schlieren, and interferometric methods have been very useful in many areas of gas dynamics, particularly for the study of planar or axisymmetric compressible flows. With the development of the laser, the potential exists for the introduction of methods whereby the thermodynamic state of a general three-dimensional nonsteady compressible flow could be routinely measured at an arbitrary point in space. However, all known methods are presently limited by factors which have prevented their common use in general laboratory experiments and wind tunnels. As laser development continues and a wider choice of laser characteristics becomes available, it appears certain that continued research will lead to a routine application of one or more of these approaches. The known methods are reviewed in a general way by introducing a classification which places each into one of three categories. The grouping identifies the basic measurement concept employed, the relationship between the different approaches, their fundamental limitations, and reasons for choosing one approach over another. The motivation for employing laser-induced fluorescence as a diagnostic scheme for measuring density (as well as temperature and velocity) in certain flows is discussed, and the status of research in applying the method to various fluid mechanical problems is reviewed, together with a discussion of the outlook for continued development of the technique.


Probe Beam Radiative Lifetime Nozzle Flow Supersonic Nozzle Iodine Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Ackermann U., Baganoif D., and McDaniel J. C. “Dependence of Laser-Induced Fluorescence on Gas-Dynamic Fluctuations With Application to Measurements in Unsteady Flows,” to be published.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Blendstrup G., and Bershader D. “Resonance Refractivity Studies of Sodium Vapor for Enhanced Flow Visualization,” AIAA Jour. 16 (1978), 1106.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Byer R. L., et al. “Optically Pumped Molecular Iodine Vapor-Phase Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett 20 (1972), 463.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Cenkner A. A., and Driscoll R. J. “Laser-Induced Fluorescence Visualization on Supersonic Mixing Nozzles that Employ Gas-Trips,” AIAA Jour. 20 (1982), 812.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Cheng S., Zimmermann M., and Miles R. B. “Separation of Time- Averaged Turbulence Components by Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Phys. Fluids, 26 (1983), 874.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Daily J. W. “Saturation of Fluorescence in Flames With a Gaussian Laser Beam,” Appl Opt 17 (1978), 225.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Eckbreth A. C., Hall R. J., and Shirley J. A. “Investigation of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) for Combustion,” AIAA paper 79-0083, New Orleans, January 1979.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Epstein A. H. “Fluorescent Gaseous Tracers for Three Dimensional Flow Visualization,” SM thesis, MIT, 1972.Google Scholar
  9. [9].
    Epstein A. H. “Quantitative Density Visualization in a Transonic Compressor Rotor,” Journal of Engineering for Power, Trans. ASME, 99 (1977), 460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Fairbank W. M. Jr., Hänsch T. W., and Schawlow A. L. “Absolute Measurement of Very Low Sodium-Vapor Densities Using Laser Resonance Fluorescence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., 65 (1975), 199.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Farrow R. L. “Spatially Resolved IR Absorption Spectroscopy by Optical Stark Modulation,” Appl. Opt. 21 (1982), 4183.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Hiller W. J., and Schmidt-Ott, W.-D. “Visualization of Low Density Gas-Jets by Laser Induced Fluorescence,” in International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, 68, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Levy, D. H., Wharton, L., and Smalley, R. E. “Laser Spectroscopy in Supersonic Jets,” in Chemical and Biochemical Applications of Lasers.” Ed. C. B. Moore. New York: Moore. 1977, 2, 1.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    McDaniel J. C. “Investigation of Laser-Induced Iodine Fluorescence for the Measurement of Density in Compressible Flows,” Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Aero, and Astro., Stanford Univ., 1981.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    McDaniel J. C. “Quantitative Measurement of Density and Velocity in Compressible Flows Using Laser-Induced Iodine Fluorescence,” AIAA paper 83-0049, Reno, Nevada, January 1983.Google Scholar
  16. 16]
    McDaniel J. C., Baganoff D., and Byer R. L. “Density Measurement in Compressible Flows Using Off-Resonant Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Phys. Fluids, 25 (1982), 1105.Google Scholar
  17. 17]
    McDaniel J. C., Hiller B., and Hanson R. K. “Simultaneous Multiple-Point Velocity Measurement Using Laser-Induced Iodine Fluorescence,” Opt. Lett., 8 (1983), 51.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18]
    McKenzie, R. L. private communication.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    McKenzie R. L., Monson D. J., and Exberger R. J. “Time-Dependent Local Density Measurements in Unsteady Flows,” AIAA paper 79-1088, 14th Thermophysics Conference, June 1979.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Melton L. A. “Spectrally Separated Fluorescence Emissions for Diesel Fuel Droplets and Vapor,” Appl. Opt. 22 (1983), 2224.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Miles R. B. “Resonant Doppler Velocimeter,” Phys. Fluids, 18 (1975), 751.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Miles R. B., Udd E., and Zimmermann M. “Quantitative Flow Visualization in Sodium Vapor Seeded Hypersonic Helium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (1978), 317.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Neal D. R. “Application of Iodine Fluorescence to the Study of Droplet Evaporation,” Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Aero, and Astro., Stanford Univ., to be published.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Owen F. R. “Applications of Nonintrusive Instrumentation in Fluid Flow Research,” AGARD Conference Proceedings, No. 198, London: Hanfor House, paper 7–1, 1976.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Peterson C. W. “A Survey of the Utilitarian Aspects of Advanced Flowfield Diagnostic Techniques,” AIAA Journal, 17 (1979), 1352.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Rapagnani N. L., and Davis S. J. “Laser-Induced Iodine Fluorescence Measurements in a Chemical Laser Flowfield,” AIAA Jour 17 (1979), 1402.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Schawlow A. L. “Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules,” Science 202 (1978), 141.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Schmidt-Ott W.-D., von Dincklage R.-D., and Hiller W. J. “Production and Measurement of Dispersion Aerosols: Application to the Transport of Deuteron-Induced and 84Kr-induced Reaction Recoils,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 144 (1977), 553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Stevenson W. H. “Principles of Laser Velocimetry,” in Experimental Diagnostics in Gas Phase Combustion Systems. Ed. B. T. Zinn. New York: AIAA, 1977, 53 of Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, 307.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Yariv A. “Phase Conjugate Optics and Real-Time Holography,” IEEE Jour. of Quantum ElectrQE-14 (1978), 650.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Yeh Y., and Cummins H. Z. “Localized Fluid Flow Measurements With an He-Ne Laser Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4 (1964), 176.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Zimmermann M., and Miles R. B. “Hypersonic-Helium-Flow-Field Measurements With the Resonant Doppler Velocimeter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37 (1980), 885.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald Baganoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations