Advertisement

New Fossil Fuel Technologies

  • James W. Moore
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

Research and development activities in the energy sector increased with the onset of two major issues during the 1970s (Darmstadter et al., 1984). One was the need for environmental protection during the production, conversion, transportation, and consumption of energy. The other was the oil embargo, which underscored the need for alternate energy sources. The outcome of these points has been a series of new, energy-related projects, many of which are still in the developmental stage. These include:
  • enhanced oil recovery

  • tar sands development

  • oil shales development

  • gasification and liquefaction

Keywords

Coal Gasification Gross National Product Coal Worker Pneumoconiosis Arbor Science Publisher Chemical Market Reporter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abelson, P.H. 1983. Oil recovery with supercritical C02. Science 221: 815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert, R.E. 1983. A review of the 1982 Department of Energy health and environmental effects assessments of coal liquefaction and oil shale technologies. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  3. Allan, R., and T. Jackson. 1978. Heavy metals in bottom sediments of the mainstem Athabasca River system in the AOSERP study area. Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program, Report 34, pp. 72.Google Scholar
  4. Aliar, B. 1984. No more coal-smoked skies? Environment 20: 25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alley, W.M. 1983. Ground water for oil-shale development, Piceane Basin, Colorado. Ground Water 21: 456–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anonymous. 1980. First joint S PEI DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, April 20–23, 1980. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, Texas, 418 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, R.E. 1983. Coal use and the environment. International Energy Agency, Paris, 66 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, R., and A. Witter. 1979. Health and environmental effects of coal gasification and liquefaction technologies. Mitre Corporation, McLean, Virginia, 358 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Campbell, D.A. 1981. Enhanced oil-recovery and its environmental and economic implications in the United States. Environmental Conservation 8: 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canby, T.Y., and J. Blair. 1981. Synfuels: Fill’er up! With what? National Geographic Special Report: 74–95.Google Scholar
  11. Chemical Marketing Reporter. 1983. DOE study finds ’82 oil down sharply but coal, nuclear, hydro take up slack. Chemical Marketing Reporter, 28 November 1983, Vol. 225, p. 52.Google Scholar
  12. Chemical Marketing Reporter. 1984. Cool water coal plant is seen to demonstrate readiness of technology. Chemical Marketing Reporter, 18 June 1984, Vol. 228, p. 5.Google Scholar
  13. Claydon, M.F., F. Christian, A.R. Eyres, G. Guelfo, and H. Lentge. 1984. Review of bitumen fume exposures and guidance on measurement. Concawe, The Hague, 37 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Cleveland, C.J., R. Costanza, C.A.S. Hall, and R. Kaufmann. 1984. Energy and the U.S. economy: a biophysical approach. Science 225: 890–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Colley, D.G., and R.W. Poon 1982. Alberta sulphur dioxide emissions forecast 1980-1982. Alberta Environment Report RMD 82/16, Edmonton, pp. 101.Google Scholar
  16. Collins, A.G. 1977. Enhanced oil recovery injection waters. In: D.C. Wright, A.G. Ostroff, and J.R. Stanford (Eds.), Oil field subsurface injection of water. ASTM STP 641, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 2–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cunningham, C. 1981a. A world full of coal. New Scientist 90: 338–442.Google Scholar
  18. Cunningham, C. 1981b. Can coal gasification pick up steam? New Scientist 92: 106–109.Google Scholar
  19. Cunningham, C. 1982. Gas from coal that can’t be mined. New Scientist 93: 447–450.Google Scholar
  20. Darmstadter, J., H.H. Landsberg, and H.C. Morton. 1984. Research and development: widening the energy horizon. Environment 26: 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Emanuel, W.R., J.S. Olson, and G.G. Killough. 1980. The expanded use of fossil fuels by the U.S. and the global carbon dioxide problem. Journal of Environmental Management 10: 37–49.Google Scholar
  22. Froning, H.R., D.D. Fussell, and E.W. Heffern. 1982. Petroleum (enhanced oil recovery). In: M. Crayson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of chemical terminology, Vol. 17, Wiley, New York, pp. 168–182.Google Scholar
  23. Gavaghan, H. 1984. Coal fired and pollution free. New Scientist 104: 16–18.Google Scholar
  24. Giddings, J.M., S.E. Herbes, and C.W. Gehrs. 1985. Coal liquefaction products. Environmental Science and Technology 19: 14–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gratt, L.B., B.W. Perry, W.M. Marine, and D.A. Savitz. 1984. High risk groups in oil shale workforce. IWG Corp., San Diego, California, 13 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Gribbin, J. 1981. The politics of carbon dioxide. New Scientist 90: 82–84.Google Scholar
  27. Gribbin, J. 1984a. Meteorology blows hot and cold. New Scientist 106: 17–20.Google Scholar
  28. Gribbin, J. 1984b. Hot summers and cold winters ahead. New Scientist 103: 19.Google Scholar
  29. Hall, C.A.S., and C.J. Cleveland. 1981. Petroleum drilling and production in the United States: yield per effort and net energy analysis. Science 211: 576–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hall, L.W., and D.T. Burton. 1982. Effects of power plant coal pile and coal waste runoff and leachate magnatic biota: an overview with research recommendations. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 10: 287–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hansen, J., D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, and G. Russell. 1981. Climatic impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science 213: 957–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hawthorne, S.B., and R.E. Slevers. 1984. Emission of organic air pollutants from shale oil wastewaters. Environmental Science and Technology 18: 483–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hecox, W.E. 1983-1984. Regional management of the energy-environment interface: techniques applied to Colorado oil shale development. Journal of Environmental Systems 13: 257–278.Google Scholar
  34. Hileman, B. 1982. The greenhouse effect. Environmental Science and Technology 16: 90A–93A.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hileman, B. 1984. Recent reports on the greenhouse effect. Environmental Science and Technology 18: 45A–46A.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hirsch, R.L., J.E. Gallagher, R.R. Lessard, and R.D. Wesselhoft. 1982. Catalytic coal gasification: an emerging technology. Science 215: 121–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Immen, W. 1984. Sea’s ability to “swallow” carbon dioxide studied. Globe and Mail Toronto, 28 August 1984.Google Scholar
  38. Josephson, J. 1980. Toxic by-products of coal conversion. Environmental Science and Technology 14: 1283–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kandel, R.S. 1981. Surface temperature sensitivity to increased atmospheric C02. Nature (London) 293: 634–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kenward, M. 1982. Oil shale on the rocks. New Scientist 94: 411–412.Google Scholar
  41. Kerr, R.A. 1981. How much oil? It depends on whom you ask. Science 212:427– 429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kerr, R.A. 1982. C02-climate models defended. Science 217: 620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kerr, R.A. 1984. Another oil resource warning. Science 223: 382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kinzelbach, W.K.H. 1983. China: energy and environment. Environmental Management 7: 303–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kukla, G. and J. Gavin. 1981. Summer ice and carbon dioxide. Science 214:497–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lakhani, H.G. 1980. Impact of substituting coal for oil. Journal of Environmental Management 11: 17–25.Google Scholar
  47. Luthy, R.G. 1981. Treatment of coal coking and coal gasification wastewaters. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 53: 325–339.Google Scholar
  48. Mackenzie, A.S., D. Leythaeuser, R.G. Schaefer, and M. Bjoroy. 1983. Expulsion of petroleum hydrocarbons from shale source rocks. Nature (London) 301:506–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maguire, M., and J.D. Keenan. 1983-1984. Policy incentives for fluidized bed coal conversion. Journal of Environmental Systems 13: 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marshall, E. 1984a. The synfuels shopping list. Science 223: 31–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marshall, E. 1984b. Synfuels program gets the knife but not the ax. Science 225: 816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maugh, T.H. 1980a. Work on U.S. oil sands heating up. Science 207: 1191–1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maugh, T.H. 1980b. Mining could increase petroleum reserves. Science 207: 1334–1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McElroy, M.B. 1983. Marine biological controls on atmospheric C02 and climate. Nature (London) 302: 328–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Millemann, R.E., S.J. Tumminia, J.L. Forte, and K.L. Daniels. 1984. Comparative toxicity of coal- and shale-derived crude oils and a petroleum-derived fuel oil to the freshwater snails Helisoma trivolvis and Physa gyrina. Environmental Pollution Series A 33: 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mossop, G.D. 1980. Geology of the Athabasca oil sands. Science 207: 145–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Neufeld, R.D., and S. Wallach. 1984. Chemical and toxicity analysis of leachates from coal conversion solid wastes. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 56: 266–273.Google Scholar
  58. NIOSH. 1980. Comparative assessment of health and safety impacts of coal use. U.S. Department of Energy EV-0069, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  59. Orr, F.M., and J.J. Taber. 1984. Use of carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery. Science 224: 563–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Peake, E., and A. MacLean. 1983. The toxicity of waters produced during in-situ recovery of oil from the Athabasca oil sands as determined by the Microtox bacterial system. Proceedings Ninth Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, 1–5 November 1982, Edmonton, Alberta, Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, pp. 113–121Google Scholar
  61. Purde, M., and S. Etlin. 1980. Cancer cases among workers in the Estonian oil shale processing industry. In: W.N. Rom and V.E. Arcler (Eds.), Health implications of new energy technologies. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Ar-bor, Michigan, pp. 527–528.Google Scholar
  62. Raper, S.C.B., T.M.L. Wigley, P.D. Jones, P.M. Kelley, P.R. Mayes, and D.W.S. Limbert. 1983. Recent temperature changes in the Arctic and Antarctic. Nature (London) 306: 458–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Renne, R.A., J.E. Lund, K.E. McDonald, and L.G. Smith. 1980. Morphologic effects of intratracheally administered oil shale in rats. In: W.N. Rom and V.E. Archer (Eds.), Health implications of new energy technologies. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 501–514.Google Scholar
  64. Rogers, S.E., and D.A. Savitz. 1980. Toxic substances from coal: some policy implications for the future. Journal of Environmental Management 11: 165–182.Google Scholar
  65. Rom, W.N., and V.E. Archer. 1980. Health implications of new energy technologies. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 785.Google Scholar
  66. Rom, W.N., and J. Lee. 1983. Energy alternatives: What are their possible health effects? Environmental Science and Technology 17: 132A–144A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rom, W.N., H. Barkman, W. Turner, R. Kanner, W. Wright, M. Nichols, and A. Renzetti. 1980. Coal workers respiratory disease in Utah: a preliminary report. In: W.N. Rom and V.E. Archer (Eds.), Health implications of new energy technologies. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 247–256.Google Scholar
  68. Rubin, E.S. 1981. Air pollution constraints on increased coal use by industry. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Federation 31: 349–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rubin, E.S. 1983. International pollution control costs of coal-fired power plants. Environmental Science and Technology 17: 366A–377A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shendrikar, A.D., and D.S. Ensor. 1984. Mercury emissions from a modified in- situ oil shale retort. Atmospheric Environment 18: 2559–2563.Google Scholar
  71. Singh, J.J., and A. Deepak. 1980. Environmental and climatic impact of coal utilization. Academic Press, Toronto, 655 pp.Google Scholar
  72. Sklarew, D.S., D.J. Hayes, M.R. Petersen, and K.B. Olsen. 1984. Trace sulfur- containing species in the off gas from two oil shale retorting processes. Environmental Science and Technology 18: 592–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith, T. 1985. Oil from setting the North Sea on fire. New Scientist 105: 34–36.Google Scholar
  74. Sohn, H.Y. 1980. The oil shale retorting processes. In: W.N. Rom and V.E. Archer (Eds.), Health implications of new energy technologies. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 415–425.Google Scholar
  75. Spencer, D.F., M.J. Gluckman, and S.B. Alpert. 1982. Coal gasification for electrical power generation. Science 215: 1571–1576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Springham, D. 1982. Bugs to the oil industry’s rescue. New Scientist 94: 408–411.Google Scholar
  77. Stansell, J. 1980. Tapping the world’s hidden energy. New Scientist 88: 499–501.Google Scholar
  78. Suloway, J.J., R.M. Schuller, and R.A. Griffin. 1981. Acute toxicity of leachates from coal gasification and liquefaction solid wastes to fathead minnow, Pi- mephales promelas. Journal of Environmental Science and Health A16: 419–445.Google Scholar
  79. Suncor. 1981. Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Division. Information sheet. Fort McMurray, Alberta.Google Scholar
  80. Timourian, H., J.S. Felton, D.H. Stuermer, S. Healy, P. Berry, M. Tompkins, G. Battaglia, F.T. Hatch, L.H. Thompson, A.V. Carrano, J. Minkler, and E. Salazar. 1982. Mutagenic and toxic activity of environmental effluents from underground coal gasification experiments. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 9: 975–994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tripodi, R.A. and P.N. Cheremisinoff. 1980. Coal ash disposal: solid waste impacts. Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut, 51 pp.Google Scholar
  82. Tsui, P.T.P., B.R. McMahon, P.J. McCart, and J.V. McCart. 1980. A laboratory study of long-term effects of mine depressurization groundwater on fish and invertebrates. Report 113, Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program, Edmonton, 211 pp.Google Scholar
  83. Wigley, T.M.L., P.D. Jones, and P.M. Kelley. 1980. Scenario for a warm, high C02 world. Nature (London) 283: 17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Woodwell, G.M., J.E. Hobbie, R.A. Houghton, J.M. Melillo, B. Moore, B.J. Petersen, and G.R. Shaves. 1983. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science 222: 1081–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wright, W.E., and W.N. Rom. 1980. A preliminary report: investigation for shalosis among oil shale workers. In\ W.N. Rom and V.E. Archer (Eds.), Health implications of new energy technologies. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 481–489.Google Scholar
  86. Zwally, J.H., C.L. Parkinson, and J.C. Comso. 1983. Variability in Antarctic sea ice and carbon dioxide. Science 220: 1005–1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • James W. Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.Alberta Environmental CentreVegrevilleCanada

Personalised recommendations