Advertisement

Effects of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides on nontarget organisms

Conference paper
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 97)

Abstract

Pyrethroids1 are among the most potent insecticides known. They are synthetic compounds structurally derived from pyrethrin I, one of the six active components of pyrethrum, which is an extract from the dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. The natural pyrethrins have excellent insecticidal properties and low mammalian toxicity, but are of limited use because of their low photostability and high biodegradability (Wouters and van den Bercken 1978). However, pyrethroids are relatively stable, have a high toxicity to a wide spectrum of insects (Elliott 1976), are relatively nontoxic to mammals (Elliott 1976), and have tremendous agricultural potential (Harris and Turnbull 1978). Moreover, pyrethroids are much less persistent than the organochlorine insecticides, such as DDT and dieldrin, and apparently do not accumulate in the environment.

Keywords

Rainbow Trout Nontarget Organism Fathead Minnow Pyrethroid Insecticide Synthetic Pyrethroid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ali A (1981) Laboratory evaluation of organophosphate and new synthetic insecticides against pestiferous chirononmid midges of central Florida. Mosquito News 41: 157–161Google Scholar
  2. Aliniazee MT, Cranham JE (1980) Effect of four synthetic pyrethroids on a predatory mite, Typhlodromus pyril and its prey, Panonychus ulmi, on apples in southeast England. Environ Entomol 9: 436–439Google Scholar
  3. Anderson RL (1982) Toxicity of fenvalerate and permethrin to several nontarget aquatic invertebrates. Environ Entomol 11: 1251–1257Google Scholar
  4. Atkins EL, Kellum D, Atkins KW (1978) Integrated pest management strategies for protecting honey bees from pesticides. Amer Bee J 118: 542–548Google Scholar
  5. Belanger A, Hamilton HA (1979) Determination of disulfoton and permethrin residues in an organic soil and their translocation into lettuce, onion and carrot. J Environ Sci Health B14: 213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bocquet J-C, L’Hotellier M (1985) The effect of deltamethrin on the aquatic environment. Pest Sci 16: 198Google Scholar
  7. Bocquet J-C, Pastre P, Roa L, Baumeister R (1981) Study of the action of deltamethrin on Apis mellifera in open field conditions. Phytiatr Phytopharm Rev Fr Med Pharm Veg 29: 83–92Google Scholar
  8. Caplan JA, Isensee AR, Judd ON (1984) Fate and effect of [14C] fenvalerate in a tidal marsh sediment ecosystem model. J Agr Food Chem 32: 166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cazenave A, Debray P, Estuelle M (1980) Study of the behaviour of bees, Apis mellifera, on flowering plants treated with phenvalerate. Phytiatr Phytopharm Rev Fr Med Pharm Veg 29: 93–106Google Scholar
  10. Chapman RA, Harris CR (1981) Persistence of four pyrethroid insecticides in a mineral and an organic soil. J Environ Sci Health B16: 605–615Google Scholar
  11. Chapman RA, Tu CM, Harris CR, Cole C (1981) Persistence of five pyrethroid insecticides in sterile and natural, mineral and organic soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 26: 513–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coats JR, O’Donnell-Jeffery NL (1979) Toxicity of four synthetic pyrethroid insecticides to rainbow trout. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 23: 250–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cox RL, Wilson WT (1984) Effects of permethrin on the behavior of individually tagged honey bees, Apis mellifera L. ( Hymenoptera: Apidae). Environ Entomol 13: 375–378Google Scholar
  14. Crossland NO (1982) Aquatic toxicology of cypermethrin. II. Fate and biological effects in pond experiments. Aquatic Toxicol 2: 205–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crossland NO, Shires SW, Bennett D (1982) Aquatic toxicology of cypermethrin. III. Fate and biological effects of spray drift deposits in fresh water adjacent to agricultural land. Aquatic Toxicol 2: 253–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. David D (1981) Laboratory evaluation of repellent properties against birds of the synthetic pyrethroid decamethrin. Poultry Sci 60: 1149–1151Google Scholar
  17. David D (1982) Influence of technical and commercial decamethrin, a new synthetic pyrethroid, on the gonadic germ population in quail embryos. Arch Anat Histol Embryol 65: 99–110Google Scholar
  18. Dickson IW, Kramer RH (1971) Factors influencing scope of activity and active and standard metabolism of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Fish Res Bd Can 28: 587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eller LL (1975) Gill lesions in fresh water teleosts. In: Ribelin WE, Migaki G (ed) The pathology of fishes. Univer Wis Press, Wis p 305–330Google Scholar
  20. Elliott M (1976) Future use of natural and synthetic pyrethroids. Adv Environ Sci Technol 6: 163–190Google Scholar
  21. Elliott M (1980) Established pyrethroid insecticides. Pest Sci 11: 119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elliott M Farnham AW, Janes NF, Needham PH, Pearson BC (1967) 5-benzyl-3-furyl-methyl chrysanthemate: a new potent insecticide. Nature 213: 493–494Google Scholar
  23. Elliott M Farnham AW, Janes NF, Needham PH,Pulman DA, Stevenson JH (1973) A photostable pyrethroid. Nature 246: 169–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elliott M, Farnham AW, Janes NF, Needham (1974) Synthetic insecticide with a new order of activity. Nature 248: 710–711Google Scholar
  25. Elliott M Farnham AW, Janes NF, Needham PH,Pulman DA, Stevenson JH (1975) Insecticidal activity of the pyrethrins and related compounds. VII. Insecticidal dihalovinyl analogues of cis and trans chrysanthemates. Pest Sci 6: 537–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elliott M, Farnham AW, Potter C (1978) The future of pyrethroids in insect control. Ann Rev Entomol 23: 443–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans MH (1976) End-plate potentials in frog muscle exposed to a synthetic pyrethroid. Pest Biochem Physiol 6: 547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Everts JW, van Frankenhuyzen K, Roman B, Koeman JH (1983) Side effects of experimental pyrethroid applications for the control of tsetse flies in a riverine forest habitat ( Africa ). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 12: 91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fujimoto K, Itaya N, Okuno Y, Kadota T, Yamaguchi T (1973) A new insecticidal pyrethroid ester. Agr Biol Chem 37: 2681–2682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gerig L (1985) Testing the toxicity of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides to bees. Pest Sci 16: 206Google Scholar
  31. Glickman AH, Lech JJ (1981) Hydrolysis of permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, by rainbow trout and mouse tissues in vitro: a comparative study. Toxicol Applied Pharmacol 60: 186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glickman AH, Shono T, Casida JE, Lech JJ (1979) In vitro metabolism of permethrin isomers by carp and rainbow trout liver microsomes. J Agr Food Chem 27: 1038–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harris CR, Kinoshita GB (1977) Influence of posttreatment temperature on the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides. J Econ Entomol 70: 215–218Google Scholar
  34. Harris CR, Turnbull SA (1978) Laboratory studies on the contact toxicity and activity in soil of four pyrethroid insecticides. Can Entomol 110: 285–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Holcombe GW, Phipps GL, Tanner DK (1982) The acute toxicity of kethane, dursban, disulfoton, pydrin, and permethrin to fathead minnows Pimephales promelas and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Environ Pollut A29: 167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoyt SC, Westigard PH, Burts EC (1978) Effects of 2 synthetic pyrethroids on the codling moth, pear psylla and various mite species in northwest apple and pear orchards. J Econ Entomol 71: 431–434Google Scholar
  37. Jolly AL, Avault JW, Koonce KL, Graves JB (1978) Acute toxicity of permethrin to several aquatic animals. Trans Amer Fish Soc 107: 825–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaneko H, Ohkawa H, Miyamoto J (1978) Degradation and movement of permethrin isomers in soil. J Pest Sci 3: 43–51Google Scholar
  39. Kato T, Ueda K, Fujimoto K (1964) New insecticidally active chrysanthemates. Agr Biol Chem 28: 914–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaufman DD, Haynes SC, Jordan EG, Kayser AJ (1977) Permethrin degradation in soil and microbial cultures. In: Elliott M (ed) Synthetic pyrethroids. Amer Chem Soc, Washington p 147–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaushik NK, Stephenson GL, Solomon KR, Day KE (1985) Impact of permethrin on zooplankton communities in limnocorrals. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42: 77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kingsbury PD (1976) Effects of an aerial application of the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin on a forest stream. Manitoba Entomol 10: 9–17Google Scholar
  43. Kumaraguru AK, Beamish FWH (1981) Lethal toxicity of permethrin (NRDC 143) to rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in relation to body weight and water temperature. Water Res 15: 503–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kumaraguru AK, Beamish FWH, Ferguson HW (1982) Direct and circulatory paths of permethrin (NRDC 143) causing histopathological changes in the gills of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J Fish Biol 20: 87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leahey JP (1979) The metabolism and environmental degradation of the pyrethroid insecticides. Outlook on Agric 10: 135–142Google Scholar
  46. Le Blanc J (1985) Field experiments on the effects of a new pyrethroid insecticide WL-85871 on bees foraging artificial aphid honeydew on winter wheat. Pest Sci 16: 206Google Scholar
  47. Lhoste J, Martel J, Rauch F (1971) Insecticidal activity of 5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl-D-cis-chrysanthemate. Meded Fac Landbouwwetensch Rijksuniv Gent 36: 978–983Google Scholar
  48. Linden E, Bengtsson BE, Svanberg O, Sundstrom G (1979) The acute toxicity of 78 chemicals and pesticide formulations against two brackish water organisms, the bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and the harpacticoid Nitocra spinipes. Chemosphere 8: 843–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lu AYH (1976) Liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system: functional components and their properties. Fed Proc, Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 35: 2460–2463Google Scholar
  50. Lutz-Ostertag Y, Lutz H (1974) Sexualité et pesticides. Ann Biol 13: 173–185Google Scholar
  51. Mathur SP, Belanger A, Hamilton HA, Khan SU (1980) Influence on microflora and per-sistence of field-applied disulfoton, permethrin and prometryne in an organic soil. Pedobiologia 20: 237–242Google Scholar
  52. Matsuo T, Itaya N, Mizutani T, Ohno N, Fujimoto K, Okuno Y, Yoshioka H (1976) 3-phenoxy-a-cyano-benzyl esters, the most potent synthetic pyrethroids. Agric Biol Chem 40: 247–249Google Scholar
  53. Mauck WL, Olson LE, Marking LL (1976) Toxicity of natural pyrethrins and five pyrethroids to fish. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 4: 18–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McLeese DW, Metcalfe CD, Zitko V (1980) Lethality of permethrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate to salmon, lobster and shrimp. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 25: 950–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Meissner WA, Diamandopoulos GT (1977) Neoplasia. In: Anderson WAD, Kissane JM (ed) Pathology Vol 1. C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, p 640–691Google Scholar
  56. Miura T, Takahashi RM (1976) Effects of a synthetic pyrethroid, SD43775, on nontarget organisms when utilized as a mosquito larvicide. Mosquito News 36: 322–326Google Scholar
  57. Miyamoto J (1976) Degradation, metabolism and toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids. Environ Health Perspec 14: 15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muirhead-Thomson RC (1978) Lethal and behavioral impact of permethrin (NRDC 143) on selected stream macroinvertebrates. Mosquito News 38: 185 - 190Google Scholar
  59. Muirhead-Thomson RC (1979) Experimental studies on macroinvertebrate predator-prey impact of pesticides. The reactions of Rhyacophila and Hydropsyche (Trichoptera) larvae to Simulium larvicides. Can J Zool 57: 2264–2270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mulla MS, Darwazeh HA (1976) Field evaluation of new mosquito larvicides and their impact on some nontarget insects. Mosquito News 36: 251–256Google Scholar
  61. Mulla MS, Navvab-Gojrati HA, Darwazeh HA (1978 a) Biological activity and longevity of new synthetic pyrethroids against mosquitoes and some nontarget insects. Mosquito News 38: 90–96Google Scholar
  62. Mulla MS, Navvab-Gojrati HA, Darwazeh HA (1978 b) Toxicity of mosquito larvicidal pyrethroids to four spe¬cies of freshwater fishes. Environ Entomol 7: 428–430Google Scholar
  63. Mulla MS, Majori G, Arata A A (1979) Impact of biological and chemical mosquito control agents on nontarget biota in aquatic ecosystems. Residue Rev. 71: 121–173Google Scholar
  64. Mulla MS, Darwazeh HA, Dhillon MS (1980) New pyrethroids as mosquito larvicides and 117 their effects on nontarget organisms. Mosquito News 40: 6–12Google Scholar
  65. Mulla MS, Darwazeh HA, Dhillon MS (1981) Impact and joint action of decamethrin and permethrin and freshwater fishes on mosquitoes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 26: 689–695 Mulla MS, Darwazeh HA, Ede L (1982) Evaluation of new pyrethroids against immature mosquitoes and their effects on nontarget organisms. Mosquito News 42: 583–590Google Scholar
  66. Murray A (1985) Acute and residual toxicity of a new pyrethroid insecticide, WL85871 to honey-bees. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 34: 560–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ohkawa H, Kikuchi R, Miyamoto J (1980) Bioaccumulation and biodégradation of the (S)-acid isomer of fenvalerate ( Sumicidin) in an aquatic model ecosystem. J Pest Sci 5: 11–22Google Scholar
  68. Ohno N, Fujimoto K, Okuno Y, Mizutani T, Hirano M, Itaga N, Honda T, Yoshioka H (1974) A new class of pyrethroidal insecticides; «-substituted phenyl-acetic acid esters. Agr. Biol Chem 38: 881–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pike KS, Drake SR (1980) Influence of insecticides on sweet corn quality and their effectiveness in control of corn earworm. Hort Science 15: 523–524Google Scholar
  70. Pike KS, Mayer DF, Glazer M, Kious C (1982) Effects of permethrin on mortality and foraging behavior of honey bees in sweet corn. Environ Entomol 11: 951–953Google Scholar
  71. Plapp FW, Vinson SB (1977) Comparative toxicities of some insecticides to the tobacco budworm and its ichneumonid parasite, Campoletis sonorensis. Environ Entomol 6: 381–384Google Scholar
  72. Plapp FW, Bull DL (1978) Toxicity of some insecticides to Chrysopa carnea, a predator of the tobacco budworm. Environ Entomol 7: 431–434Google Scholar
  73. Rawn GP, Webster GRB, Muir DCG (1982) Fate of permethrin in model outdoor ponds. J Environ Sci Health B17: 463–486Google Scholar
  74. Riley D (1985) The safety of pyrethroid insecticides to mammals, plants, birds, earthworms and soil microorganisms. Pest Sci 16: 204–205Google Scholar
  75. Riviere JL, Bach J, Grolleau G (1983) Effect of pyrethroid insecticides and N-(3,5-di- chlorophenyl) biocarboximide fungicides on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 31: 479–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Roberts TR (1981) The metabolism of the synthetic pyrethroids in plants and soils. Prog Pest Biochem 1: 115–146Google Scholar
  77. Rock GC (1979) Relative toxicity of two synthetic pyrethroids to a predator Amblyseius fallacis and its prey Tetranychus urticae. J Econ Entomol 72: 293–294Google Scholar
  78. Roush RT, Hoy MA (1978) Relative toxicity of permethrin to a predator, Metaseiulus occidentalis and its prey, Tetranychus urticae. Environ Entomol 7: 287–288Google Scholar
  79. Rozee KR, Lee SHS, Crocker JFS, Safe SH (1978) Enhanced virus replication in mammalian cells exposed to commercial emulsifiers. Applied Environ Microbiol 35: 297–300Google Scholar
  80. Salibian A (1983) Studies on the effect of the pyrethroid insecticide decamethrin on ionic transport through the in vitro skin of Rana esculenta. Comp Biochem Physiol 76C: 157–162Google Scholar
  81. Schechter MS, Green N, LaForge FB (1949) Constituents of pyrethrum flowers. XXIII. Cinerolone and the synthesis of related cyclopentenolones. J Amer Chem Soc 71: 3165–3173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schimmel SC, Garnas RL, Patrick JM, Moore JC (1983) Acute toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of AC 222,705, benthiocarb, chloropyrifos, fenvalerate, methyl parathion, and permethrin in the estuarine environment. J Agr Food Chem 31: 104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shires SW (1985) A step-wise evaluation of the effects of a new pyrethroid insecticide WL-85871 on honey-bees. Pest Sci 16: 205Google Scholar
  84. Shires SW, Debray PH (1982) Pyrethroids and the bee problem. Shell Agr May 1982: 1–3Google Scholar
  85. Shires SW Murray A, Debray P, Le Blanc J ( 1984 a) The effects of a new pyrethroid insecticide WL-85871 on foraging honey bees ( Apis melliferu L. ). Pest Sci 15: 491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shires SW Le Blanc J, Debray P, Forbes S, Louveaux J (1984 b) Field experiments on the effects of a new pyrethroid insecticide WL-85871 on bees foraging artificial aphid honeydew on winter wheat. Pest Sci 15: 543–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shires SW, Bennett D, Debray P, Le Blanc J (1984 c) The effects of large scale aerial applications of the pyrethroid insecticide, Ripcord, on foraging honey bees. V Symp Intern Pollin Versailles Ed INRA Publ 1984, p 169–173Google Scholar
  88. Smart LE, Stevenson JH (1982) Laboratory estimation of toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to honey bees: relevance to hazard in the field. Bee World 63: 150–152Google Scholar
  89. Smies M, Evers RHJ, Peijnenburg FHM, Koeman JH (1980) Environmental aspects of field trials with pyrethroids to eradicate tsetse fly in Nigeria. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 4: 114–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Spehar RL, Tanner DK, Nordling BR (1983) Toxicity of the synthetic pyrethroids, permethrin and AC 222,705 and their accumulation in early life stages of fathead minnows and snails. Aquatic Toxicol 3: 171–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stephenson RR (1982) Aquatic toxicology of cypermethrin. I. Acute toxicity to some freshwater fish and invertebrates in laboratory tests. Aquatic Toxicol 2: 175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stratton GW (1983) Interaction effects of permethrin and atrazine combinations toward several nontarget microorganisms. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 31: 297–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stratton GW (1985 a) Interaction effects of mercury-pesticide combinations towards a cyanobacterium. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 34: 676–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stratton GW (1985 b) The influence of solvent type on solvent-pesticide interactions in bioassays. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 14:651–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stratton GW, Corke CT (1981) Interaction of permethrin with Daphnia magna in the presence and absence of particulate material. Environ Pollut A24: 135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stratton GW Corke CT (1982 a) Comparative fungitoxicity of the insecticide permethrin and ten degradation products. Pest Sci 13: 679–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stratton GW, Corke CT (1982 b) Toxicity of the insecticide permethrin and some degradation products towards algae and cyanobacteria. Environ Pollut A29: 71–80Google Scholar
  98. Stratton GW, Burrell RE, Corke CT (1982) Technique for identifying and minimizing solvent-pesticide interactions in bioassays. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11: 437–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tu CM (1978) Effect of pesticides on acetylene reduction and microorganisms in a sandy loam. Soil Biol Biochem 10: 451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tu CM (1979) Influence of pesticides on acetylene reduction and growth of microorganisms in an organic soil. J Environ Sci Health B14: 617–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tu CM (1980 a) Influence of pesticides and some of the oxidized analogues on microbial populations, nitrification and respiration activities in soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24: 13–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tu CM (1980 b) Influence of five pyrethroid insecticides on microbial population and activities in soil. Microbial Ecol 5: 321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tu CM (1981 a) Effects of some pesticides on enzyme activities in an organic soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 27: 109–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tu CM (1981 b) Effects of pesticides on activities of enzymes and microorganisms in a clay soil. J Environ Sci Health B16: 179–191Google Scholar
  105. Tu CM (1982 a) Effect of pyrethroid insecticides on soybean and its pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn. J Environ Sci Health B17: 43–50Google Scholar
  106. Tu CM (1982 b) Influences of pesticides on activities of invertase, amylase and level of adenosine triphosphate in organic soil. Chemosphere 11: 909–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tu CM (1983) Effects of pyrethroid insecticide seed treatments on Rhizobium japonicum and its symbiotic relationship with, and growth of soybean. J Environ Sci Health B18: 369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vijverberg HPM, van den Bercken J (1979) Frequency-dependent effects of the pyrethroid insecticide decamethrin in frog myelinated nerve fibres. Eur J Pharmacol 58: 501–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vijverberg HPM, Ruigt GSF, van den Bercken J (1982) Structure-related effects of pyrethroid insecticides on the lateral-line sense organ and on peripheral nerves of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Pest Biochem Physiol 18: 315–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vijverberg HPM van der Zalm JM, van Kleef RGDM, van den Bercken J (1983) Temperature- and structure-dependent interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channels in frog Node of Ranvier. Biochim Biophys Acta 728: 73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Walsh GE, Alexander SV (1980) A marine algal bioassay method: Results with pesticides and industrial wastes. Water Air Soil Pollut 13: 45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ware GW (1980) Effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms. Residue Rev 76: 173–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Williams IH, Brown MJ (1979) Persistence of permethrin and WL 43775 in soil. J Agr Food Chem 27: 130–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Worthing CR, Walker SB (1983) The pesticide manual. 7th ed, Croydon The British Crop Protection Council 695 ppGoogle Scholar
  115. Wouters W, van den Bercken J (1978) Action of pyrethroids. Gen Pharmacol 9: 387–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Zitko V, Carson WG, Metcalfe CD (1977) Toxicity of pyrethroids to juvenile Atlantic salmon. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 18: 35–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zitko V, McLeese DW, Metcalfe CD, Carson WG (1979) Toxicity of permethrin, decamethrin, and related pyrethroids to salmon and lobster. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 21: 338–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, Department of BiologyNova Scotia Agricultural CollegeTruroCanada

Personalised recommendations