Primates pp 823-835 | Cite as

Nutrition of Primates in Captivity

  • Duane E. Ullrey
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)

Abstract

The evolutionary development of the order Primates has led to an extant world population of as many as 203 species in 56 genera and 15 families (Nowak and Paradiso, 1983). They differ remarkably in size, from a mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) weighing less than 100 g to the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) weighing over 100 kg, and in natural dietary habits, from a galago (Galago elegantulus), a specialized gum eater, to the gelada (Theropithecus gelada), dependent on grass seeds, blades, and rhizomes. The morphologies of their digestive tracts range from a relatively simple tube, such as that of the angwantibo (Arctocebus calabarensis), to the much more complex arrangement of the forestomachs in langurs and colobids (subfamily Colobinae). These morphological features are related to the natural food supply, which is primarily invertebrates for the angwantibo and leaves, fruit, and flowers for the Colobinae. Many invertebrates are significant sources of protein and fat and require a relatively short and simple gut for their digestion. Leaves, flowers, and many fruits contain high concentrations of plant cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), none of which can be digested by mammalian enzymes. Thus, primates that depend on leaves as an important source of nutrients have developed gastrointestinal compartments designed to harbor symbiotic microorganisms that can digest cellulose and hemicellulose.

Keywords

Cellulose Fermentation Phosphorus Starch Arsenic 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen ME, Oftedal OT (1982) Calcium and phosphorus levels in live prey. Proc Reg Conf Amer Assoc Zool Parks Aquar, pp 120–128.Google Scholar
  2. Ayer AA (1948) The anatomy of Semnopithecus entellus. Indian Publ House, Madras, India.Google Scholar
  3. Baranga D (1982) Nutrient composition and food preferences of colobus monkeys in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Afr J Ecol 20: 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranga D (1983) Changes in chemical composition of food parts in the diet of colobus monkeys. Ecology 64: 668–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauchop T, Martucci RW (1968) Ruminant-like digestion of the langur monkey. Science 161: 698–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bills CE (1954) Vitamin D group. II. Chemistry. In: Sebrell WH, Harris RS (eds) The vitamins, vol 2. Academic, New York, pp 132–209.Google Scholar
  7. Braza F, Alverez F, Azcarate T (1983) Feeding habits of the red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in the llanos of Venezuela. Mammalia 47: 205–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cant JGH, Temerin LA (1984) A conceptual approach to foraging adaptations in primates. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH (eds) Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 304–342.Google Scholar
  9. Chivers DJ, Hladik CM (1980) Morphology of the gastrointestinal tract in primates: comparisons with other mammals in relation to diet. J Morphol 166: 337–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DeLuca HF, Schnoes HK (1983) Vitamin D: recent advances. Ann Rev Biochem 52: 411–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ensley PK, Rost TL, Anderson M, Benirschke K, Brockman D, Ullrey D (1982) Intestinal obstruction and perforation caused by undigested Acacia leaves in langur monkeys. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 181: 1351–1354.Google Scholar
  12. Gautier-Hion A (1983) Leaf consumption by monkeys in western and eastern Africa: a comparison. Afr J Ecol 21:107–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gilmour D (1961) Biochemistry of insects. Academic, New York. Hay AWM, Watson G (1977) Vitamin D2 in vertebrate evolution. Comp Biochem Physiol 56B: 375–380.Google Scholar
  14. Hess AF (1929) Rickets, osteomalacia and tetany. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  15. Hill WCO (1952) The external and visceral anatomy of the olive colobus monkey (Procolobus verus). Proc Zool Soc, London 122: 127–186.Google Scholar
  16. Hill WCO (1964) The maintenance of langurs (Colobidae) in captivity: experiences and some suggestions. Folia Primatol 2: 222–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hladik A (1978) Phenology of leaf production in rain forest of Gabon: distribution and composition of food for folivores. In: Montgomery GG (ed) The ecology of arboreal folivores. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 51–71.Google Scholar
  18. Holick MF, Adams JS, Clemens TL, MacLaughlin J, Horiuchi N, Smith E, Holick SA, Nolan J, Hannifan N (1982) Photoendocrinology of vitamin D: the past, present and future. In: Norman AW, Schaefer K, Herrath DR, Grigoleit HG (eds) Vitamin D, chemical, biochemical and clinical endocrinology of calcium metabolism. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 1151–1156.Google Scholar
  19. Hollis BW, Roos BA, Draper HH, Lambert PW (1981) Vitamin D and its metabolites in human and bovine milk. J Nutr 111: 1240–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Horst RL, Littledike ET, Riley JL, Napoli JL (1981) Quantitation of vitamin D and its metabolites and their plasma concentrations in five species of animals. Anal Biochem 116: 189–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huldschinsky K (1919) Heilung von Rachitis durch künstliche Höhensonne. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 45: 712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hunt RD, Garcia FG, Hegsted DM (1967) Vitamin D2 and D3 in new world primates: production and regression of osteodystrophia fibrosa. Lab Anim Care 17: 222–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuhn JJ (1964) Zur Kenntnis von Bau und Funktion des Magens der Schlankaffen (Colobinae). Folia Primatol 2: 193–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McCollum EV, Simmonds N, Becker JE, Shipley PG (1922) Studies on experimental rickets. XXI. Experimental demonstration of the existence of a vitamin which promotes calcium deposition. J Biol Chem 53: 293–321.Google Scholar
  25. McKey DB, Gartlan JS, Waterman PG, Choo GM (1981) Food selection by black colobus monkeys (Colobus satanas) in relation to plant chemistry. Biol J Linnaen Soc 16: 115–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mellanby E (1921) Experimental rickets. Medical Research Council, Special Reports, Series SRS-61.Google Scholar
  27. Milton K (1980) The foraging strategy of howler monkeys: a study in primate economics. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Milton K (1984) The role of food-processing factors in primate food choice. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH (eds) Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 249–279.Google Scholar
  29. National Research Council (1978) Nutrient requirements of nonhuman primates. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. National Research Council (1980) Recommended dietary allowances. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  31. Norman AW (1979) Vitamin D: the calcium homeostatic steroid hormone. Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Nowak RM, Paradiso JL (1983) Walker’s mammals of the world, vol 1, 4th ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  33. Oates JF (1977) The guereza and its food. In: Clutton-Brock TH (ed) Primate ecology: studies of feeding and ranging behavior in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Academic, London, pp 276–319.Google Scholar
  34. Reeve LE, Jorgenson NA, DeLuca HF (1982) Vitamin D compounds in cow’s milk. J Nutr 112: 667–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Rosenberg HR, Waddell J (1951) Nature of the provitamin D of the ribbed mussell, Modiolus demissus (Dillwyn). J Biol Chem 191: 757–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Setlow RB (1974) The wavelengths in sunlight effective in producing skin cancer: a theoretical analysis. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1: 3363–3366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sommerfeldt JL, Napoli JL, Littledike ET, Beitz DC, Horst RL (1983) Metabolism of orally administered [3H] ergocalciferol and [3H] cholecalciferol by dairy calves. J Nutr 113: 2595–2600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Steenbeck H, Black A (1924) The induction of growth-promoting and calcifying properties in a ration by exposure to ultra-violet light. J Biol Chem 61: 405–422.Google Scholar
  39. Struhsaker TTS (1978) Food habits of five monkey species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. In: Chivers DJ, Herbert J (eds) Recent advances in primatology. Academic, London, pp 225–248.Google Scholar
  40. Takada K, Okano T, Tamura Y, Matsui S, Kobayashi T (1979) A rapid and precise method for the determination of vitamin D3 in rat skin by high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 25: 385–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ullrey DE, Robinson PT, Reichard TA, Whetter PA, Brockman DK (1982) Dietary studies with colobids at the San Diego Zoo. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  42. Waterman PG, Choo GM (1981) The effects of digestibility-reducing compounds in leaves on food selection by some colobinae. Malaysian J Appi Biol 10: 147–162.Google Scholar
  43. Watkins BE, Ullrey DE, Whetter PA (1985) Digestibility of a high-fiber biscuit-based diet by black and white colobus (Colobus guereza). Amer J Primatol 9: 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duane E. Ullrey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations