The Calculus

  • Robert E. Ulanowicz


In the last two chapters, flows have been discussed as if they were continuous processes. However, biological transformations, especially those in large-scale systems, actually occur as a series of discrete, often unpredictable transfers. The appropriate mathematical language with which to describe such discrete events is probability theory. Probability was the starting point for statistical mechanics, and it remains the basis for a phenomenological description of growth and development.


Joint Probability Average Mutual Information Average Uncertainty January Temperature Joint Occurrence 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Ulanowicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Chesapeake Biological LaboratoryUniversity of MarylandSolomonsUSA

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