Theoretical Analysis of Slotted ALOHA, CSMA, and CSMA-CD Protocols
During the past ten years, the development of random access methods in the packet-switching (broadcasting) multi-user communications environment has been an active research topic [1–11]. A typical system consists of many users trying to send packets to a central station through a common channel. The original research began with the ALOHA scheme, where each individual user can access the channel whenever he has packets to be transmitted; if more than one user is attempting to transmit at the same time, packets collide and have to be retransmitted at a later time. This scheme is simple; no coordination among users is required. However, the maximum achievable channel utilization is only about 18 percent. Therefore, researchers have been trying to improve the channel utilization. One improvement is to synchronize all users so that the partial overlapping of colliding packets is eliminated and the maximum achievable channel utilization is raised to about 37 percent.
KeywordsPacket Delay Channel Utilization Packet Switching Stable Equilibrium Point Carrier Sense Multiple Access
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