Methods for the Study of Pheromones and Kairomones

  • John F. Andersen
  • Peter J. Wilkin
Part of the Springer Series in Experimental Entomology book series (SSEXP)


In 1964, Cuthbert and Reid published the first evidence of a sex pheromone of the genus Diabrotica. This study dealt with the female-produced attractant of D. balteata LeConte. Although the sex pheromone for D. balteata has yet to be identified, specific sex attractants are now known for a number of Diabrotica species (Guss et al., 1982, 1983a, b, 1984). Two of the known attractants have been identified by direct analysis of female- produced material (Guss et al., 1982, 1983b). These are 8-methyl-2-decyl- propanoate identified from D. virgifera virgifera LeConte and 10-methyl-2-tridecanone from D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber.


Virgin Female Trap Catch Western Corn Rootworm Floral Volatile Female Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andersen JF (1981) Factors influencing sex pheromone communication behavior in two Diabroticite beetle species, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber and Acalymma vittatum (Fabr.). Unpublished M.S. thesis. University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen JF (1981) Factors influencing sex pheromone communication behavior in two Diabroticite beetle species, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber and Acalymma vittatum (Fabr.). Unpublished M.S. thesis. University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  3. Audier HE, Das BC (1966) Mass spectrometry of tetracyclic triterpenes, Part I. The cucurbitacin group. Tetrahedron Lett 2205–2210.Google Scholar
  4. Ball HJ, Chaudbury MFB (1973) A sex attractant of the western corn rootworm. J Econ Entomol 66: 307–310.Google Scholar
  5. Bartelt RJ, Chiang HC (1977) Field studies involving the sex attractant pheromones of the western and northern corn rootworm beetles. Environ Entomol 6: 853–861.Google Scholar
  6. Branson TF, Guss PL (1983) Olfactory responses of Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to cut fruits of bitter and non-bitter Cucurbita spp. Environ Entomol 12: 700–702.Google Scholar
  7. Brownlee RG, Silverstein RM (1968) A micro-preparative gas chromatograph and modified carbon skeleton determinator. Anal Chem 40: 2077–2079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byrne KJ, Gore WE, Pearce GT, Silverstein RM (1975) Porapak-Q collection of airborne organic compounds serving as models for insect pheromones. J Chem Ecol 1: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cross JH, Byler RC, Cassidy RF, Silverstein RM, Greenblatt RE, Burkholder WE, Levinson AR, Levinson HZ (1976) Porapak-Q collection of pheromone components and isolation of (Z)- and (E)-14-methyl-8-hexadecenal sex pheromone components from the females of four species of Trogoderma (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J Chem Ecol 2:457–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cuthbert FP, Reid WJ (1964) Studies of sex attractant of banded cucumber beetle. J Econ Entomol 57: 247–250.Google Scholar
  11. DaCosta, CP, Jones CM (1971) Resistance in cucumber, Cucumis sativus to three species of cucumber beetles. Hortscience 6: 340–347.Google Scholar
  12. Durkee AB, Sirois JC (1964) The detection of some indoles and related compounds on paper chromatograms. J Chromatogr 13: 173–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Enslin PR (1954) Bitter principles of Cucurbitaceae. I. Chemistry of cucurbitacin A. J Sei Food Agric 5: 410 - 416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farkas SR, Shorey HH (1972) Chemical trail following by flying insects. A mechanism for orientation to a distant odor source. Science 178: 67–68.Google Scholar
  15. Ferguson JE, Metealf ER, Metealf RL, Rhodes AM (1983) Influence of cucurbitacin content in cotyledons of Cucurbitaceae cultivars upon feeding behavior of Diabroticina beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J Econ Entomol 76:47–51.Google Scholar
  16. Guss PL (1976) The sex pheromone of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera). Environ Entomol 5: 219–223.Google Scholar
  17. Guss PL, Tumlinson TH, Sonnet PE, Proveaux AT (1982) Identification of a female- produced sex pheromone of the western corn rootworm. J Chem Ecol 8: 545–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guss PL, Carney RL, Sonnet PE, Tumlinson JH (1983a) Stereospecific sex attractant for Diabrotica cristata ( Harris ). Environ Entomol 12: 1296–1297.Google Scholar
  19. Guss PL, Tumlinson JH, Sonnet PE, McLaughlin JR (1983b) Identification of a female-produced sex pheromone from the southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber. J Chem Ecol 9: 1363–1375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guss PL, Sonnet PE, Carney RL, Branson TF, Tumlinson JH (1984) Response of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, D. v. zeae, and D. porracea to stereoisomers of 8-methyl-2-decyl propanoate. J Chem Ecol 10: 1123–1131.Google Scholar
  21. Hein GL, Tollefson JJ (1984) Comparison of adult corn rootworm ( Coleoptera.Chrysomelidae) trapping techniques as population estimators. Environ Entomol 13: 266–271.Google Scholar
  22. Howe WL, Sanborn, JR, Rhodes AM (1976) Western corn rootworm and spotted cucumber beetle associations with Cucurbita and cucurbitacins. Environ Entomol 5: 1042 - 1043.Google Scholar
  23. Hummel HE, Andersen JF (1982) Secondary plant factors of Cucurbita species suppress sex attraction in the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships. Vissen JH, Minks AK (eds), Wageningen, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  24. Kovats E (1965) A retention index system. Adv Chromatogr 1: 229–235.Google Scholar
  25. Metealf RL, Metealf RA, Rhodes AM (1980) Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 77: 3769–3772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Metcalf RL, Rhodes AM, Metealf RA, Ferguson J, Metealf ER, Lu PY (1982) Cucurbitacin contents and diabroticite feeding on Cucurbita species. Environ Entomol 11: 931–937.Google Scholar
  27. Pohlmann J (1975) Die Cucurbitacin in Byronia alba und Byronia dioica. Phytochemistry 14: 1587–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rehm S, Enslin PR, Meeuse ADJ, Wessels JH (1957) Bitter principles of the Cucurbitaceae. VII. The distribution and bitter principles in this plant family. J Sci Food Agric 8: 679–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rhodes AM, Metcalf RL, Metcalf ER, (1980) Diabroticite beetle response to cucurbitacin kairomones in Cucurbita hybrids. J Am Soc Hort Sci 105: 838–842.Google Scholar
  30. Rice CA, Rymal KS, Chambliss OL, Johnson FA (1981) Chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of cucurbitacins of three Cucumis sativus cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 29: 194–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Roelofs WL (1977) The scope and limitations of the electroantennogram technique in identifying pheromone components. In: Crop Protection Agents, Their Biological Evaluation. McFarlane N (ed), Academic, London, pp. 147–165.Google Scholar
  32. Schneider D (1969) Insect olfaction: deciphering system for chemical messages. Science 163: 1031–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schwarz M, Jacobson M, Cuthbert FP Jr (1971) Chemical studies of the sex attractant of the banded cucumber beetle. J Econ Entomol 64: 769–770.Google Scholar
  34. Sharma GC, Hall CV (1971) Influence of cucurbitacins, sugars and fatty acids on cucurbit susceptibility to spotted cucumber beetles. J Am Soc Hort Sci 96: 675–680.Google Scholar
  35. Sharma GC, Hall CV (1973a) Relative attractance of spotted cucumber beetle to fruits of fifteen species of Cucurbitaceae. Environ Entomol 2: 154–156.Google Scholar
  36. Sharma GC, Hall CV (1973b) Identifying cucurbitacins in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. cv. ‘Black Zucchini’. Hortscience 8:136–137.Google Scholar
  37. Shorey HH (1977) Interaction of insects with their chemical environment. In: Chemical Control of Insect Behavior. HH Shorey, McKelvey JJ Jr (eds), Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Andersen
  • Peter J. Wilkin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations