Advertisement

Reproduction in the Male

  • A. L. Johnson

Abstract

Testes of the male bird are paired, and unlike those of most mammals are located within the body cavity, ventral and toward the cephalic border of the kidneys (Figure 19–1). Each testis is attached to the body wall by the mesorchium and is encapsulated by a fibrous inner coat, the tunica albuginea, and a thin outer layer, the tunica vaginalis. One or the other of the two testes may be larger, depending on the species (Lofts and Murton, 1973; Lake, 1981), but both are functional. The weight of the testes in chickens constitutes about 1% of the total body weight, or about 9–30 g per testis at sexual maturity, depending on the breed (Sturkie and Opel, 1976). In seasonal breeders, testis size may increase by 300- to 500-fold during the reproductively active season as compared to the nonbreeding state.

Keywords

Luteinizing Hormone Sertoli Cell Leydig Cell Seminiferous Tubule Japanese Quail 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adkins, E.K. (1978). Sex steroids and the differentiation of avian reproductive behavior. Am. Zool., 18, 501.Google Scholar
  2. Adkins, E.K., J.J. Boop, D.L. Koutnik, J.B. Morris, and E.E. Pniewski. (1980). Further evidence that androgen aromatization is essential for the activation of copulation in male quail. Physiol. Behav., 24, 441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adkins-Regan, E.K. (1981). Hormone specificity, androgen metabolism, and social behavior. Am. Zool., 21, 257.Google Scholar
  4. Aire, T.A. (1973). Development of puberty in Nigerian and White Leghorn cockerels. Poult. Sci., 52, 1765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold, A.P., F. Nottebohm, and D.W. Pfaff. (1976). Hormone concentrating cells in vocal control and other areas of the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata). J. Comp. Neurol., 165, 487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakst, M.R., and B. Howarth. (1975). The head, neck and midpiece of cock spermatozoa examined with the transmission electron microscope. Biol. Reprod., 12, 632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakst, M.R., and T.J. Sexton. (1979). Fertilizing capacity and ultrastructure of fowl and turkey spermatozoa before and after freezing. J. Reprod. Fertil., 55, 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Balthazart, J. (1983). Hormonal correlates of behavior. In “Avian Biology” Vol. 7 (D.S. Farner, J.R. King, and K.C. Parkes, Eds.). London and New York: Academic Press, Chapter 4.Google Scholar
  9. Balthazart, J., and M. Schumacher. (1984). Changes in testosterone metabolism by the brain and cloacal gland during sexual maturation in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). J. Endocrinol., 100, 13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Balthazart, J., and M. Stevens. (1975). Plasma testosterone levels in very young domestic ducklings. IRCS Med. Sci., 3, 345.Google Scholar
  11. Balthazart, J., R. Massa, and P. Negri-Cesi. (1979). Photoperiodic control of testosterone metabolism, plasma gonadotropins, cloacal gland growth, and reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 39, 222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Balthazart, J., J.D. Blaustein, M.-F. Cheng, and H.H. Feder. (1980). Hormones modulate the concentration of cytoplasmic protestin receptors in the brain of male ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). J. Endocrinol., 86, 251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Balthazart, J., G. Malacarne, and P. Deviche. (1981). Stimulatory effects of 5β-dihydrotestosterone on the sexual behavior in the domestic chick. Horm. Behav., 15, 246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Balthazart, J., M. Schumacher, and M.A. Ottinger. (1983). Sexual differences in the Japanese quail: Behavior, morphology, and intracellular metabolism of testosterone. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 51, 191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barfield, R.J. (1969). Activation of copulatory behavior by androgen implanted into the preoptic area of the male fowl. Horm. Behav., 1, 37.Google Scholar
  16. Barfield, R.J., G. Ronay, and D.W. Pfaff. (1978). Autoradiographic localization of androgen-concentrating cells in the brain of the male domestic fowl. Neuroendocrinology, 26, 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bennett, T., and T. Malmfors. (1970). The adrenergic nervous system of the domestic fowl [Gallus domesticus (L.)] Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat., 106, 22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Benoit, J. (1964). The role of the eye and of the hypothalamus in the photostimulation of gonads in the duck. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 117, 204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernon, D.E., and P.B. Siegel. (1981). Fertility of chickens from lines divergently selected for mating frequency. Poult. Sci., 60, 45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bischoff, M.B. (1969). Photoreceptoral and secretory structures in the avian pineal organ. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 28, 16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Blivaiss, B.B. (1947). Interrelations of thyroid and gonad in the development of plumage and other sex characters in Brown Leghorn roosters. Physiol. Zool., 20, 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Blohowiak, C.C., P.B. Siegel, and H.P. Van Krey. (1980). Sexual behavior of dwarf and normal genotypes in divergent growth lines of chickens. Appl. Anim. Ethol., 6, 189.Google Scholar
  23. Bottani, L., and R. Massa. (1980). Seasonal changes in testosterone metabolism in the pituitary gland and central nervous system of the European Starling (Sturnis vulgaris). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 43, 532.Google Scholar
  24. Brantas, G.C., H.G. Dennert, and A.L. Dennert-Distelbrink. (1972). The influence of the number of cocks on the conception rate among White Leghorns. Arch. Gefleugelkd., 36, 16.Google Scholar
  25. Breneman, W.R. (1939). Effect of androgens on the chick. Proc. World’s Poult. Congr. 7th, 91.Google Scholar
  26. Breucker, H. (1978). Macrophages, a normal component in seasonally involuting testes of the swan, Cygnus olor. Cell Tissue Res., 193, 463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown, K.I. (1974). Effects of sperm number on onset and duration of fertility in turkeys. Research Summary 80, Ohio Agricultral Research Development Center, Wooster.Google Scholar
  28. Brown, N.L., J.-D. Bayle, C.G. Scanes, and B.K. Follett. (1975). Chicken gonadotrophins: Their effects on the testes of immature and hypophysectomized Japanese quail. Cell Tissue Res., 156, 499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Budras, K.-D., and T. Sauer. (1975). Morphology of the epididymis of the cock (Gallus domesticus) and its effect upon the steroid sex hormone synthesis I. Ontogenesis, morphology and distribution of the epididymis. Anat. Embryol., 148, 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Burrows, W.H., and J.P. Quinn. (1937). The collection of spermatozoa from the domestic fowl and turkey. Poult. Sci., 16, 19.Google Scholar
  31. Chandola, A., and D. Bhatt. (1982). Tri-iodothyronine fails to mimic gonado-inhibitory action of thyroxine in spotted munia: Effects of injections at different times of the day. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 48, 499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cheng, M.-F. (1979). Progress and prospects in ring dove research: A personal view. Adv. Study Behav., 9, 97.Google Scholar
  33. Christensen, V.L., and N.P. Johnston. (1977). Effect of time of day of insemination and the position of the egg in the oviduct on the fertility of turkeys. Poult. Sci., 56, 458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Clermont, Y. (1958). Structure de l’epithelium seminal et mode de renouvellement des spermatogones chez le canard. Arch. Anat. Microsc. Morphol. Exp., 47, 47.Google Scholar
  35. Cogburn, L.A., and P.C. Harrison. (1977). Retardation of sexual development in pinealectomized single comb white Leghorn cockerels. Poult. Sci., 56, 876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cooksey, E.J., and B. Rothwell. (1973). The ultrastructure of the Sertoli cell and its differentiation in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). J. Anat., 114, 329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gilbert, J., P.J. Sharp, and J.W. Wells. (1977). Concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone and LH in the blood before and after the onset of spermatogenesis in the cockerel. J. Reprod. Fertil., 51, 153.Google Scholar
  38. Davies, D.T., R. Massa, and R. James. (1980). Role of testosterone and of its metabolites in regulating gonadotrophin secretion in the Japanese quail. J. Endocrinol., 84, 211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dawson, A. (1983). Plasma gonadal steroid levels in wild starlings (Sturnis vulgaris) during the annual cycle and in relation to the stages of breeding. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 49, 286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. de Reviers, M. (1981). Influence of night-interrupted photo-schedules on testicular development in cockerels. In “Photoperiodism and Reproduction” (R. Ortavant, J. Pelletier, and J.-P. Ravault, Eds.). Nouzilly, France: INRA Publishing, p. 19.Google Scholar
  41. Dharmarajan, M. (1950). Effect on the embryo of staleness of the sperm at the time of fertilization in the domestic hen. Nature (London), 165, 398.Google Scholar
  42. Donham, R.S. (1979). Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Biol. Reprod., 21, 1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Drent, R. (1975). Incubation. In “Avian Biology,” Vol. 5 (D.S. Farner and J.R. King, Eds.). London and New York: Academic Press, p. 333.Google Scholar
  44. Driot, F.J.M., D.H. Gamier, and M. Terqui. (1978). Development and validation of a “direct” radioimmunoassay for plasma testosterone in the fowl (Gallus domesticus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 36, 244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Driot, F.J.M., M. de Reviers, and J. Williams. (1979). Plasma testosterone levels in intact and hemicastrated growing cockerels. J. Endocrinol., 81, 169.Google Scholar
  46. Farner, D.S., and J.C. Wingfield. (1978). Environmental endocrinology and the control of annual reproductive cycles in passerine birds. In “Environmental Endocrinology” (I. Assenmacher and D.S. Farner, Eds.). New York: Springer, p. 44.Google Scholar
  47. Farner, D.S., M.L. Morton, and B.K. Follett. (1970). The limitation of rate of photoperiodically induced testicular growth in the white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. The effect of hemicastration. Arch. Anat., 51, 189.Google Scholar
  48. Farner, D.S., R.S. Donham, R.A. Lewis, P.W. Mattocks, T.R. Darden, and J.P. Smith. (1977). The circadian component in the photoperiodic mechanism of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Physiol. Zool., 50, 247.Google Scholar
  49. Feder, H.H., A. Storey, D. Goodwin, C. Reboulleau, and R. Silver. (1977). Testosterone and “5α-dihydrotestoster- one” levels in peripheral plasma of male and female ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) during the reproductive cycle. Biol. Reprod., 16, 666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Follett, B.K. (1976). Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone during photoperiodically induced sexual maturation in male Japanese quail. J. Endocrinol., 69, 117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Follett, B.K., and P.J. Sharp. (1969). Orcadian rhythmicity in photoperiodically induced gonadotrophin release and gonadal growth in the quail. Nature (London), 223, 968.Google Scholar
  52. Follett, B.K., and S.L. Maung. (1978). Rate of testicular maturation, in relation to gonadotrophin and testosterone levels, in quail exposed to various artificial photoperiods and to natural day lengths. J. Endocrinol., 78, 267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Follett, B.K., D.T. Davies, and B. Gledhill. (1977). Photoperiodic control of reproduction in Japanese quail: Changes in gonadotrophin secretion on the first day of induction and their pharmacological blockade. J. Endocrinol., 74, 449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Foss, D.C., L.B. Carew, and E.L. Arnold. (1972). Physiological development of cockerels as influenced by selected wavelengths of environmental light. Poult. Sci., 51, 1922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fujihara, N., and H. Nishiyama. (1976). Studies on the accessory reproductive organs in the drake. 4. Effects of androgen on the ejaculatory groove region of the drake. Poult. Sci., 55, 1324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fujihara, N., H. Nishiyama, and N. Nakashima. (1976). Studies on the accessory reproductive organs in the drake. 2. Macroscopic and microscopic observations on the cloaca of the drake with special reference to the ejaculatory groove region. Poult. Sci., 55, 927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Furr, B.J.A. (1973). Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in peripheral plasma of the domestic fowl in various physiological states and in follicular venous plasma. Acta Endocrinol., 72, 89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Galli, F.E., O. Irusta, and G.F. Wassermann. (1973). Androgen production by testes of Gallus domesticus during postembryonic development. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 21, 262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gardner, J.E., and A.E. Fisher. (1968). Induction of mating in male chicks following preoptic implantation of androgen. Physiol. Behav., 3, 709.Google Scholar
  60. Gamier, D.H., A. Tixier-Vidal, D. Gourdji, and R. Picart. (1973). Ultrastructure des cellules de Sertoli au cours du cycle testiculaire du Canard Pékin. Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat., 144, 369.Google Scholar
  61. Gibson, W.R., B.K. Follett, and B. Gledhill. (1975). Plasma levels of luteinizing hormone in gonadectomized Japanese quail exposed to short or to long daylengths. J. Endocrinol., 64, 87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Giesen, A.F., G.R. McDaniel, and T.J. Sexton. (1980). Effect of time of day of artificial insemination and oviposition-insemination interval on the fertility of broiler breeder hens. Poult. Sci., 59, 2544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Grieve, B.J., R. Wachob, A. Peltz, and A. van Tienhoven. (1973). Synchronous hatching of Japanese quail and maturity of the chicks hatched prematurely. Poult. Sci., 52, 1445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Grosse, A.E., and J.V. Craig. (I960). Sexual maturity of males representing twelve strains of six breeds of chickens. Poult. Sci., 39, 164.Google Scholar
  65. Guhl, A.M. (1951). Measurable differences in mating behavior of cocks. Poult. Sci., 30, 687.Google Scholar
  66. Guhl, A.M., and D.C. Warren. (1946). Number of offspring sired by cockerels related to social dominance in chickens. Poult. Sci., 25, 460.Google Scholar
  67. Guhl, A.M., N.E. Collias, and W.C. Allee. (1945). Mating behavior and the social hierarchy in small flocks of White Leghorns. Physiol. Zool., 18, 365.Google Scholar
  68. Gulati, D.P., T. Nakamura, and Y. Tanabe. (1981). Diurnal variations in plasma LH, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol and estrone in the Japanese quail. Poult. Sci., 60, 668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gwinner, E. (1975). Circadian and circannual rhythms in birds. In “Avian Biology,” Vol. 5 (D.S. Farner and J.R. King, Eds.). New York: Academic Press, p. 221.Google Scholar
  70. Haase, E. (1975). The effects of testosterone proprionate on secondary sexual characters and testes of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 26, 248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Haase, E., E. Paulke, and P.J. Sharp. (1976). Effects of seasonal and social factors on testicular activity and hormone levels in domestic pigeons. J. Exp. Zool., 197, 81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hale, E.B. (1955). Duration of fertility and hatchability following natural matings in turkeys. Poult. Sci., 34, 228.Google Scholar
  73. Harding, C.F., and B.K. Follett. (1979). Hormone changes triggered by aggression in a natural population of blackbirds. Science, 203, 918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Harris, G.C., and K. Goto. (1984). Carbonic anhydrase activity of the reproductive tract tissues of aged male fowls and its relationship to semen production. J. Reprod. Fertil., 70, 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hess, R.A., R.J. Thurston, and H.V. Biellier. (1982). Morphology of the epididymal region of turkeys producing abnormal yellow semen. Poult. Sci., 61, 531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Höhn, E.O., and S.C. Cheng. (1967). Gonadal hormones in Wilson’s phalarope (Steganopus tricolor) and other birds in relation to plumage and sex behavior. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 8, 1.Google Scholar
  77. Howarth, B. (1970). An examination for sperm capacitation in the fowl. Biol. Reprod., 3, 338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Howarth, B. (1981). The phospholipid profile of cock spermatozoa before and after in vitro incubation for twenty-four hours at 41°C. Poult. Sci., 60, 1516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Howarth, B., and M.B. Palmer. (1972). An examination of the need for sperm capacitation in the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo. J. Reprod. Fertil., 28, 443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ingkasuwan, P., and F.X. Ogasawara. (1966). The effect of light and temperature and their interaction on the semen production of White leghorn males. Poult. Sci., 45, 1199.Google Scholar
  81. Ishii, S., and T. Adachi. (1977). Binding of avian testicular homogenate with rat follicle-stimulating hormone and inhibition of the binding by hypophyseal extracts of lower vertebrates. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 31, 287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ishii, S., and D.S. Farner. (1976). Binding of follicle-stimulating hormone by homogenates of testes of photostimulated white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelli. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 30, 443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jallageas, M., and I. Assenmacher. (1974). Thyroid gonadal interactions in the male domestic duck in relationship with the sexual cycle. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 22, 13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jallageas, M., A. Tamisier, and I. Assenmacher. (1978). A comparative study of the annual cycles in sexual and thyroid function in male Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Teal (Anas crecca). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 36, 201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Johnson, O.W. (1966). Quantitative features of spermatogenesis in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Auk, 83, 233.Google Scholar
  86. Johnson, A.L., and V.T. Rendano. (1984). Effects of castration, with and without testesterone replacement, on leg bone integrity in the domestic fowl. Am. J. Vet. Res., 45, 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Jones, P., and H. Jackson. (1972). Estimation of the duration of spermatogenesis in Japanese quail, using antispermatogonial chemicals. J. Reprod. Fertil., 31, 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jones, J.E., H.R. Wilson, R.H. Harms, C.F. Simpson, and P.W. Waldroup. (1967). Reproductive performance in male chickens fed protein deficient diets during the growing period. Poult. Sci., 46, 1569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kamar, G.A.R. (1962). Semen characteristics of various breeds of drakes in the subtropics. J. Reprod. Fertil., 3, 405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kamar, G.A.R., and E.S.E. Hafez. (1975). Sperm maturation and fertility in poultry. Anim. Breed. Abstr., 43, 99.Google Scholar
  91. Kerlan, J.T., and R.B. Jaffe. (1974). Plasma testosterone levels during the testicular cycle of the redwinged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 22, 428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kerlan J.T., R.B. Jaffee, and A.H. Payne. (1974). Sex-steroid formation in gonadal tissue homogenates during the testicular cycle of the redwinged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 24, 352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. King, A.S. (1981). Phallus. In “Form and Function in Birds,” Vol. 2 (A.S. King and J. McLelland, Eds.). London and New York: Academic Press, Chapter 3.Google Scholar
  94. Klemm, R.D., C.E. Knight, and S. Stein. (1973). Gross and microscopic morphology of the glandula proctodealis (foam gland) of Coturnix c. japonica (Aves). J. Morphol., 141, 171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Korenbrot, C.C., D.W. Schömberg, and C.J. Erickson. (1974). Radioimmunoassay of plasma estradiol during the breeding cycle of ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). Endocrinology, 94, 1126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Krueger, K.K., J.A. Owen, C.E. Krueger, and T.M. Ferguson. (1977). Effect of feed or light restriction during the growing and breeding cycles on the reproductive performance of broad-breasted White turkey males. Poult. Sci., 56, 1566.Google Scholar
  97. Kuenzel, W.J., and P.J. Sharp. (1982). Neural surgical effects on precocious puberty in the chick and changes in luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Poult. Sci., 61, 1496.Google Scholar
  98. Kumaran, J.D.S., and C.W. Turner. (1949a). The normal development of the testes in the White Plymoth Rock. Poult. Sci., 28, 511.Google Scholar
  99. Kumaran, J.D.S., and C.W. Turner. (1949b). The endocrinology of spermatogenesis in birds. II: The effect of androgens. Poult. Sci., 28, 739.Google Scholar
  100. Lake, P.E. (1957). The male reproductive tract of the fowl. J. Anat., 91, 116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lake, P.E. (1971). The male in reproduction. In “Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowl,” Vol. III (D.J. Bell and B.M. Freeman, Eds.). London and New York: Academic Press, Chapter 60.Google Scholar
  102. Lake, P.E. (1981). Male genital organs. In “Form and Function in Birds,” Vol. 2 (A.S. King and J. McLelland, Eds.). London and New York: Academic Press, Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  103. Lake, P.E. (1983). Factors affecting the fertility level in poultry, with special reference to artificial insemination. World’s Poultry Sci. J., 39, 106.Google Scholar
  104. Lake, P.E., and D.G.M. Wood-Gush. (1956). Diurnal rhythms in semen yields and mating behaviour in the domestic cock. Nature (London), 178, 853.Google Scholar
  105. Lake, P.E., W. Smith, and D. Young. (1968). The ultrastructure of the ejaculated fowl spermatozoon. Q.J. Exp. Physiol., 53, 356.Google Scholar
  106. Lam, F., and D.S., Farner. (1976). The ultrastructure of the cells of Leydig in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucopbrys gambelii) in relation to plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Cell Tissue Res., 169, 93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Langford, B.B., and B. Howarth. (1974). A trypsin-like enzyme in acrosomal extracts of chicken, turkey and quail spermatozoa. Poult. Sci., 53, 834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lincoln, G.A., P.A. Racey, P.J. Sharp, and H. Klandorf. (1980). Endocrine changes associated with spring and autumn sexuality of the rook, Corvus frugilegus. J. Zool., 190, 137.Google Scholar
  109. Lofts, B., and R. Massa. (1980). Male Reproduction. In “Avian Endocrinology” (A. Epple and M.H. Stetson, Eds.). London and New York: Academic Press, p. 413.Google Scholar
  110. Lofts, B., and R.K. Murton. (1973). Reproduction in birds. In “Avian Biology,” Vol. 3 (D.S. Farner, J.R. King, and K.C. Parkes, Eds.). London and New York: Academic Press, Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  111. Lofts, B., R.K. Murton, and R.J.P. Thearle. (1973). The effects of testosterone proprionate and gonadotropins on the bill pigmentation and testes of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 21, 202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lorenz, F.W., and F.X. Ogasawara. (1968). Distribution of spermatozoa in the oviduct and fertility in domestic birds. VI. The relations of fertility and embryo normality with site of experimental insemination. J. Reprod. Fertil., 16, 445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Marini, P.J., and B.L. Goodman. (1969). Semen characteristics as influenced by selection for divergent growth rate in chickens. Poult. Sci., 48, 859.Google Scholar
  114. Marquez, B.J., and F.Y. Ogasawara. (1975). Scanning electron microscope studies of turkey semen. Poult. Sci., 54, 1139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Marshall, A.J. (1961). Reproduction. In “Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds,” Vol. II. (A.J. Marshall, Ed.). New York: Academic Press, Chapter 18.Google Scholar
  116. Mashaly, M.M., and B.C. Wentworth. (1974). A profile of progesterone in turkey sera. Poult. Sci., 53, 2030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Maslieu, I.T., and A.D. Davtyan. (1969). Influence of nutrition on the semen production of roosters. World’s Poult. Sci. J., 25, 315.Google Scholar
  118. Mass, J.H., and W.J. Kuenzel. (1983). Precocious development of the testes in chicks following parasagittal knife cuts of the lateral hypothalamic area. Dev. Brain Res., 10, 165.Google Scholar
  119. Massa, R., and P.J. Sharp. (1980). Conversion of testosterone to 5β-reduced metabolites in the neuroendocrine tissues of the maturing cockerel. J. Endocrinol., 88, 263.Google Scholar
  120. Massa, R., D.T. Davies, L. Bottoni, and L. Martini. (1979). Photoperiodic control of testosterone metabolism in the central and peripheral structures of avian species. J. Steroid Biochem., 11, 937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Massa, R., D.T. Davies, and L. Bottoni. (1980). Cloacal gland of the Japanese quail: Androgen dependence and metabolism of testosterone. J. Endocrinol., 84, 223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Maung, Z.W., and B.K. Follett. (1977). Effects of chicken and ovine luteinizing hormone on androgen release and cyclic AMP production by isolated cells from the quail testes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 33, 242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. McCartney, M.G., and K.I. Brown. (1959). Spermatozoa concentration in three varieties of turkeys. Poult. Sci., 38, 390.Google Scholar
  124. McCreery, B.R., and D.S. Farner. (1979). Progesterone in male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 37, 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Menaker, M., and H. Underwood. (1976). Extraretinal photoreception in birds. Photochem. Photobiol., 23, 299.Google Scholar
  126. Menge, H., and L.T. Frobish. (1976). Dietary restrictions during adolescence and subsequent reproductive performance of turkey breeder males. Poult. Sci., 55, 1724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Meyer, C.C. (1974). Effects of lesions in the medial preoptic region on precocial copulation in the male chick. Horm. Behav., 5, 377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Mitchell, H.H., L.E. Card, and W.T. Haines. (1927). The effect of age, sex, and castration on the basal heat production of chickens. J. Agric. Res., 34, 945.Google Scholar
  129. Mori, M., K. Suzuki, and B.-I. Tamaoki. (1974). Testosterone metabolism in rooster comb. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 337, 118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Munro, S.S. (1938). Functional changes in fowl sperm during their passage through the excurrent ducts of the male. J. Exp. Zool., 79, 71.Google Scholar
  131. Munson, P.L., and M.C. Sheps. (1958). An improved procedure for the biological assay of androgens by direct application to the combs of baby chicks. Endocrinology, 62, 173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Murton, R.K., and N.J. Westwood. (1977). “Avian Breeding Cycles.” Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  133. Nakamura, T., and Y. Tanabe. (1972). In vitro steroidogenesis by testes of the chicken (Gallus domesticus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 19, 432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Nakamura, T., and Y. Tanabe. (1973). Dihydrotestosterone formation in vitro in the epididymis of the domestic fowl. J. Endocrinol., 59, 651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Nalbandov, A.V., and L.E. Card. (1943). Effect of stale sperm on fertility and hatchability of chicken eggs. Poult. Sci., 22, 218.Google Scholar
  136. Nicholls, T.J., and G.P. Graham. (1972). Observations on the ultrastructure and differentiation of Leydig cells in the testes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japónica). Biol. Reprod., 6, 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Nishida, T. (1964). Comparative and topographical anatomy of the fowl. XLII. Blood vascular system of the male reproductive organs. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci., 26, 211.Google Scholar
  138. Nishiyama, H. (1955). Studies on the accessory reproductive organs in the cock. J. Fac. Agrie. Kyushu Univ., 10, 277.Google Scholar
  139. Nishiyama, H., N. Nakashima, and N. Fujihara. (1976). Studies on the accessory reproductive organs in the drake. 1. Addition to semen of the fluid from the ejaculatory groove region. Poult. Sci., 55, 234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Nottebohm, F., and A.P. Arnold. (1976). Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain. Science, 194, 211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Oishi, T., and J.K. Lauber. (1973). Photoreception in the photosexual response of quail. II. Effects of intensity and wavelength. Am. J. Physiol., 225, 880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Okamura, F., and H. Nishiyama. (1978a). The passage of spermatozoa through the vitelline membrane in the domestic fowl. Gallus gallus. Cell Tissue Res., 188, 497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Okamura, F., and H. Nishiyama. (1978b). Penetration of spermatozoon into the ovum and transformation of the sperm nucleus into the male pronucleus in the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus. Cell Tissue Res., 190, 89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Oliver, J., M. Jallageas, and J.D. Baylé. (1979). Plasma testosterone and LH levels in male quail bearing hypothalamic lesions or radioluminous implants. Neuroendocrinology, 28, 114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Olsen, M.W. (1942). Maturation, fertilization, and early cleavage in the hen’s egg. J. Morphol., 70, 513.Google Scholar
  146. Olsen, M.W., and B.H. Neher. (1948). The site of fertilization in the domestic fowl. J. Exp. Zool., 109, 355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Osman, D.I. (1980). The connection between the seminiferous tubules and the rete testis in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Morphological study. Int. J. Androl., 3, 177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Osman, D.I. (1981). Morphological signs of merocrine secretion in the modified Sertoli cells of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). J. Reprod. Fertil., 61, 75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Ottinger, M.A. (1983). Short-term variation in serum luteinizing hormone and testosterone in the male Japanese quail. Poult. Sci., 62, 908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Ottinger, M.A., and H.J. Brinkley. (1979). Testosterone and sex-related physical characteristics during the maturation of the male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Biol. Reprod., 20, 905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ottinger, M.A., and M.R. Bakst. (1981). Peripheral androgen concentrations and testicular morphology in embryonic and young male Japanese quail. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 43, 170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Ottinger, M.A., and J.A. Doerr. (1982). Effects of mycotoxins on avian reproduction. In “Aspects of Avian Endocrinology: Practical and Theoretical Implications” (C.G. Scanes, M.A. Ottinger, A.D. Kenny, J. Balthazart, J. Cronshaw, and I. Chester Jones, Eds.). Lubbock: Texas Tech Press, p. 217.Google Scholar
  153. Parker, J.E. (1939). An avian semen collector. Poult. Sci., 18, 455.Google Scholar
  154. Parker, J.E., F.F. McKenzie, and H.L. Kempster. (1940). Observations on the sexual behavior of New Hampshire males. Poult. Sci., 19, 191.Google Scholar
  155. Paulke, E., and E. Haase. (1978). A comparison of seasonal changes in the concentrations of androgens in the peripheral blood of wild and domestic ducks. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 34, 381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Ralph, C.L. (1981). The pineal and reproduction in birds. In “The Pineal Gland” Vol. II (R.J. Reiter, Ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press, p. 31.Google Scholar
  157. Rashedi, M., R. Maraud, and R. Stoll. (1983). Development of the testes in female domestic fowls submitted to an experimental sex reversal during embryonic life. Biol. Reprod., 29, 1221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Rothwell, B. (1973). The ultrastructure of Leydig cells in the testis of the domestic fowl. J. Anat., 116, 245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Rothwell, B., and M.D. Tingari. (1973). The ultrastructure of the boundary tissue of the seminiferous tubule in the testis of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). J. Anat., 114, 321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Saxena, R.N., L. Malhotra, R. Kant, and P.K. Baweja. (1979). Effect of pinealectomy and seasonal changes in pineal anti- gonadotrophic activity of male Indian weaver bird, Ploceus phillipinus. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 17, 732.Google Scholar
  161. Schanbacher, B.D., W.R. Gomes, and N.L. VanDemark. (1974). Diurnal rhythm in serum testosterone levels and thymidine uptake by testes in the domestic fowl. J. Anim. Sci., 38, 1245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sexton, T.J. (1977). Relationship between number of sperm inseminated and fertility of turkey hens at various stages of production. Poult. Sci., 56, 1054.Google Scholar
  163. Sexton, T.J. (1979). Preservation of poultry semen—A review. In “Beltsville Symposium #3. Animal Reproduction” (H. Hawk, Ed.). Montclair: Allanheld, Osmum, Chapter 12.Google Scholar
  164. Shaklee, W.E., and C.W. Knox. (1954). Hybridization of the pheasant and fowl. J. Hered., 45, 183.Google Scholar
  165. Sharp, P.J., and R. Moss. (1977). The effects of castration on concentrations of luteinizing hormone in the plasma of photorefractory red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 32, 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Sharp, P.J., and C.B. Gow. (1983). Neuroendocrine control of reproduction in the cockerel. Poult. Sci., 62, 1671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Sharp, P.J., J. Culbert, and J.W. Wells. (1977). Variations in stored and plasma concentrations of androgens and luteinizing hormone during sexual development in the cockerel. J. Endocrinol., 74, 467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Siegel, P.B. (1965). Genetics of behavior: Selection for mating ability in chickens. Genetics, 52, 1269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Silver, R., C. Reboulleau, D.S. Lehrman, and H.H. Feder. (1974). Radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone during the reproductive cycle of male and female ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). Endocrinology, 94, 1547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Siopes, T.D., and W.O. Wilson. (1974). Extraocular modification of photoreception in intact and pinealectomized coturnix. Poult. Sci., 53, 2035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Siopes, T.D., and W.O. Wilson. (1980). Participation of the eyes in the photosexual response of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japónica). Biol. Reprod., 23, 352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Steimer, T., and J.B. Hutchinson. (1981). Metabolic control of the behavioural action of androgens in the dove brain: testosterone inactivation by 5β-reduction. Brain Res., 209, 189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Stokkan, K.-A., and P.J. Sharp. (1980). Seasonal changes in the concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone and testosterone in willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) with observations on the effects of permanent short days. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 40, 109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Sturkie, P.D. (1965). Reproduction in the male, fertilization, and early embryonic development. In “Avian Physiology” (2d ed.) (P.D. Sturkie, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Chapter 16.Google Scholar
  175. Sturkie, P.D., and H. Opel. (1976). Reproduction in the male, fertilization, and early embryonic development. In “Avian Physiology” (3d ed.) (P.D. Sturkie, Ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag, Chapter 17.Google Scholar
  176. Takeda, A. (1969). Labelling of cock spermatozoa with radio-active phosphorus. Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci., 40, 412.Google Scholar
  177. Tanabe, Y., and T. Nakamura. (1974). Androgen metabolism in the epididymis of the male domestic fowl. Indian Poult. Rev., 6, 67.Google Scholar
  178. Tanabe, Y., T. Nakamura, K. Fujioka, and O. Doi. (1979). Production and secretion of sex steroid hormones by the testes, the ovary, and the adrenal glands of embryonic and young chickens (Gallus domesticus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 39, 26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Tanabe, Y., T. Yano, and T. Nakamura. (1983). Steroid hormone synthesis and secretion by testes, ovary, and adrenals of embryonic and postembryonic ducks. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 49, 144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Tanaka, S., and M. Yasuda. (1980). Histological changes in the testis of the domestic fowl after adenohypophysectomy. Poult. Sci., 59, 1538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Tanaka, S., and T. Fujioka. (1981). Histological changes in the testis of the domestic fowl after partial adenohypophysectomy. Poult. Sci., 60, 444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Thurston, R.J., R.A. Hess, B.L. Hughes, and D.P. Froman. (1982). Ultrastructure of the guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris) spermatozoon. Poult. Sci., 61, 1738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Tingari, M.D. (1971). On the structure of the epididymal region and ductus deferens of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). J. Anat., 109, 423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Tingari, M.D. (1973a). Observations on the fine structure of spermatozoa in the testis and excurrent ducts of the male fowl, Gallus domesticus. J. Reprod. Fertil., 34, 255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Tingari, M.D. (1973b). Histochemical localization of 3β - and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the male reproduc-tive tract of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Histochem. J., 5, 57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Tingari, M.D., and P.E. Lake. (1972). Ultrastructural evidence for resorption of spermatozoa and testicular fluid in the excurrent ducts of the testes of the domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus. J. Reprod. Fertil., 31, 373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Tsutsui, K., and S. Ishii. (1980). Hormonal regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone receptors in the testes of Japanese quail. J. Endocrinol., 85, 511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Van Krey, H.P., A.T. Leighton, and L.M. Potter. (1967). Sperm gland populations and late seasonal declines in fertility. Poult. Sci., 46, 1332.Google Scholar
  189. van Tienhoven, A. (1983). “Reproductive Physiology of Vertebrates” (2d ed.). Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  190. Vince, M., J. Green, and S. Chin. (1970). Acceleration of hatching in the domestic fowl. Br. Poult. Sci., 11, 483.Google Scholar
  191. Wilson, S.C. (1978). LH secretion in the cockerel and the effects of castration and testosterone injections. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 35, 481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Wilson, F.E., and B.K. Follett. (1974). Plasma and pituitary luteinizing hormone in intact and castrated tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) during a photoinduced gonadal cycle. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 23, 82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Wilson, F.E., and B.K. Follett. (1978). Dissimilar effects of hemicastration on plasma LH and FSH in photostimulated tree sparrows (Spizella arborea). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 34, 251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Wilson, S.C., and M. de Reviers. (1979). Concentrations of luteinizing hormone in the plasma of hemicastrated cockerels. J. Endocrinol., 83, 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Wilson, H.R., N.P. Piesco, E.R. Miller, and W.G. Nesbeth. (1979a). Prediction of the fertility potential of broiler breeder males. World’s Poult. Sci. J., 35, 95.Google Scholar
  196. Wilson, E.K., J.C. Rogler, and R.E. Erb. (1979b). Effect of sexual experience, location, malnutrition, and repeated sampling on concentrations of testosterone in blood plasma of Gallus domesticus roosters. Poult. Sci., 58, 178.Google Scholar
  197. Wingfield, J.C., and D.S. Farner. (1978). The annual cycle of plasma irLH and steroid hormones in feral populations of the white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys gam- belli. Biol. Reprod., 19, 1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Wingfield, J.C., B.K. Follett, K.S. Matt, and D.S. Farner. (1980). Effect of day length on plasma FSH and LH in castrated and intact white-crowned sparrows. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 42, 464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Witschi, E. (1961). Sex and secondary sexual characters. In “Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds,” Vol. 2 (A.J. Marshall, Ed.). New York: Academic Press, Chapter 17, p. 115.Google Scholar
  200. Wood-Gush, D.G. M. (1971). “The Behaviour of the Domestic Fowl.” London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  201. Woods, J.E., and L.V. Domm. (1966). A histochemical identification of the androgen-producing cells in the gonads of the domestic fowl and albino rat. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 7, 559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Yokoyama, K., A. Okshe, T.R. Darden, and D.S. Farner. (1978). The sites of encephalic photoreception in photoperiodic induction of the growth of the testes in the white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. Cell Tissue Res., 189, 441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Young, C.E., and L.J. Rogers. (1978). Effects of steroidal hormones on sexual, attack and search behavior in the isolated male chick. Horm. Behav., 10, 107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Zigmond, R.E., F. Nottebohm, and D.W. Pfaff. (1973). Androgen-concentrating cells in the midbrain of a songbird. Science, 179, 1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. Johnson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations