Whitefly Transmission of Plant Viruses

  • James E. Duffus
Part of the Current Topics in Vector Research book series (VECTOR, volume 4)


Whitefly-transmitted disease agents cause significant losses throughout the world. Although not considered as important as aphids on a worldwide basis, they are responsible for the natural spread of a large number of economically important diseases in the tropical and subtropical areas. Recent years have shown an increase in losses in wide areas north and south of the tropics, approaching areas of intensive agricultural production such as the southern United States, Jordan, and Israel (26, 28, 32, 43). These areas are in the apparently increasing range of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), the most intensively studied whitefly vector. Recent years have shown, if not an absolute increase, at least an increase in the awareness of disease losses caused by two other whitefly species, Trialeurodes vaporarium (Westwood) and T. abutilonea (Hald.), in temperate areas of the United States, Europe, Australasia, and Asia (41, 42, 58, 60, 86, 102).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ahmed, M., 1978, Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmission of a yellow mosaic disease of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Plant Dis. Rep. 62:224–226.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allard, H.A., 1916, A specific mosaic disease in Nicotiana viscosa distinct from mosaic of tobacco, J. Agric. Res. 7:481–486.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allen, R.M., Tucker, H., and Nelson, R.A., 1960, Leaf crumple disease of cotton in Arizona, Plant Dis. Rep. 44:246–250. Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andrews, F.W., 1936, The effect of leaf curl disease on the yield of the cotton plant, Emp. Cotton Grow. Rev. 13:287–293.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benigno, D.A., Fauali-Hedayat, M.A., and Retuerma, M.L., 1975, Sampagnita yellow ring spot mosaic, Phillip. Phytopathol. 11:91–92. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bhargava, K.S., and Joshi, R.D., 1962, Yellow mosaic a virus disease of rose in Gorakhpur, Sci. Cult. 28:184–185.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bink, F.A., 1973, A new contribution to the study of cotton mosaic in Chad. I. Symptoms, transmission by Bemisia tabaci Genn. II. Observations on B. tabaci. III. Other virus diseases on cotton and related plants. Cotton Fibres Trop. 28:365–378. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bird, J., 1957, A whitefly transmitted mosaic of Jatropha gossypifolia, Tech. Pap. Agric. Exp. Stn. 22:35. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bird, J., 1962, A whitefly-transmitted mosaic of Rhychosia minima and its relation to tobacco leaf curl and other virus diseases of plants in Puerto Rico, Phytopathology 52:285–288. Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bird, J., and Maramorosch, K., 1978, Viruses and diseases associated with whiteflies, Adv. Virus Res. 22:55–109. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bird, J., and Sanchez, J., 1971, Whitefly-transmitted viruses in Puerto Rico, J. Agric. Univ. P. Rico 55:461–467.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bird, J., Perez, J.E., Alconero, R., Vakili, N.C., and Melendez, P.L., 1972, A whitefly transmitted golden yellow mosaic virus of Phaseolus lunatus in Puerto Rico, J. Agric. Univ. P. Rico 56:64–74. Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bird, J., Sanchez, J., Rodiguez, R.L., and Julia, F.J., 1975, Rugaceous (whitefly-transmitted) viruses in Puerto Rico, in: J. Bird and K. Maramorosch(eds.), Tropical Diseases of Legumes, Academic Press, New York, pp. 3–25.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bisht, N.S., and Mathur, R.S., 1964, Occurrence of two strains of Jute mosaic virus in U.P., Curr. Sci. 33:434–435.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown, J.K., and Nelson, M.R., 1984, Geminate particles associated with cotton leaf crumple disease in Arizona, Phytopathology 74:987–990. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brunt, A.A., and Kenten, R.H., 1973, Cowpea mild mottle, a newly recognized virus infecting cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Ghana, Ann. Appl. Biol. 74:67–74. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chant, S.R., 1958, Studies on the transmission of cassava mosaic virus by Bemisia spp. (Aleyrodidae), Ann. Appl. Biol. 46:210–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chenulu, V.V., and Phatak, H.C., 1965, Yellow mosaic of Acalypha indica L., a new whitefly transmitted disease from India, Curr. Sci. 34:321–322.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clerk, G.C., 1960, A vein-clearing virus of sweet potato in Ghana, Plant Dis. Rep. 44:931–933. Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cohen, S., 1967, The occurrence in the body of Bemisia tabaci of a factor apparently related to the phenomenon of “Periodic acquisition of tomato yellow leaf curl virus,” Virology 31:180–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cohen, S., 1969, In vivo effects in whiteflies of a possible antiviral factor, Virology 37:448–454. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cohen, S., 1982, Control of whitefly vectors of viruses by colour mulches, in: K.F. Harris and K. Maramorosch (eds.), Pathogen, Vectors, and Plant Diseases, Approaches to Control, Academic Press, New York, pp. 45–56.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cohen, S., and Antignus, Y., 1982, A noncirculative whitefly-borne virus affecting tomatoes in Israel, Phytoparasitica 10:101–109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohen, S., and Harpaz, I., 1964, Periodic, rather than continual acquisition of a new tomato virus by its vector, the tobacco whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.), Entomol. Exp. appl. 7:155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cohen, S., and Marco, S., 1970, Periodic occurrence of an anti-TMV factor in the body of whiteflies carrying the tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Virology 40:363–368. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cohen, S., and Nitzany, F.E., 1960, A whitefly-transmitted virus of cucurbits in Israel, Phytopathol. Medit. 1:44–46. Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cohen, S., and Nitzany, F.E., 1966, Transmission and host range of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Phytopathology 56:1127–1131.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cohen, S., Melamed-Makjar, V., and Hameiri, J., 1974, Prevention of the spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus transmitted by Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera, Aleyrodiadae) in Israel, Bull. Entomol. Res. 64:193–197. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cohen, S., Duffus, J.E., Larsen, R.C., Liu, H.Y., and Flock, R.A., 1983, Purification, serology, and vector relationships of squash leaf curl virus, a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus, Phytopathology 73:1669–1673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Costa, A.S., 1965, Three whitefly-transmitted virus diseases of beans in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Plant Protect. Bull. FAD 13:121–130. Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Costa, A.S., 1969, Whiteflies as virus vectors, in: K. Maramorosch (ed.), Viruses, Vectors, and Vegetation, Wiley, New York, pp. 95–119.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Costa, A.S., 1975, Increase in the populational density of Bemisia tabaci, a threat of widespread virus infection of legume crops in Brazil, in: J. Bird and K. Maramorosch (eds.), Tropical Disease of Legumes, Academic Press, New York, pp. 27–49.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Costa, A.S., 1976, Whitefly-transmitted diseases, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 14:429–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Costa, A.S., and Bennett, C.W., 1950, Whitefly-transmitted mosaic of Euphorbia prunifolia, Phytopathology 40:266–283. Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Costa, A.S., and Carvalho, A.M.B., 1960a, Mechanicaltransmission of the Abutilon mosaic virus, Phytopathol. Z. 37:259–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Costa, A.S., and Carvalho, A.M.B., 1960b, Comparative studies between Abutilon and Euphorbia mosaic virus, Phytopathol. Z. 38:129–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Debrot, C.E., Herold, F., and Dao, F., 1963, Preliminary note on yellowish mosaic of tomato in Venezuela, Agron. Trop. Maracay 13:33–41.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dhanraj, K.S., and Seth, M.L., 1968, Enations in Capsicum annum (Chilli) caused by a new strain of leaf curl virus, Ind. J. Hortic. 25:70–71. Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dhingra, K.L., and Nariani, T.K., 1961, Yellow net virus disease of tobacco plant, Ind. J. Microbiol. 1:94–99. Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dickson, R.C., Johnson, M.McD., and Laird, E.F., 1954, Leaf crumple, a virus disease of cotton, Phytopathology 44:479–480. Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Duffus, J.E., 1965, Beet pseudo-yellows virus, transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), Phytopathology 55:450–453.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Duffus, J.E., 1975, A new type of whitefly-transmitted disease. A link to the aphid-transmitted viruses, in: J. Bird and K. Maramorosch (eds.), Tropical Diseases of Legumes, Academic Press, New York, pp. 79–88.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Duffus, J.E., and Flock, R.A., 1982, Whitefly-transmitted disease complex of the desert southwest, Calif. Agric. 36:4–6.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Duffus, J.E., and Johnstone, G.R., 1981, Beet pseudo yellows virus in Tasmania. The first report of a whitefly transmitted virus in Australasia, Australasian Plant Pathol. 10:68–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Duffus, J.E., Mayhew, D.E., and Flock, R.A., 1982, Lettuce infectious yellows—a new whitefly transmitted virus of the desert southwest, Phytopathology 72:963. Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Duffus, J.E., Larsen, R.C., and Liu, H.Y., 1986, Lettuce infectious yellows virus—A new type of whitefly transmitted virus, Phytopathology 76:97–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Duffus, J.E., Liu, H.-Y., and Johns, M.R., 1985, Melon leaf curl virus—A new geminivirus with host and serological variations from squash leaf curl virus, Phytopathology 75: 1312.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gadd, C.H., and Loos, C.A., 1941, A virus disease of Ageratum conyzoides and tobacco, Trop. Agric. 96:255–264.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goodman, R.M., 1977, Single-stranded DNA genome in a whitefly-transmitted plant virus, Virology 83:171–179. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goodman, R.M., Bird, J., and Thongmeearkom, P., 1977, An unusual viruslike particle associated with golden yellow mosaic of beans, Phytopathology 67:37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Herold, F., 1967, Investigation of a virus disease of Anthorium andraenum, Phytopathology 57:8. Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hoefert, L.L., 1983, Ultrastructure of Cucurbita spp. infected with whitefly-transmitted squash leaf curl virus, Phytopathology 75:790. Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hollings, M., Stone, O.M., and Bock, K.R., 1976, Purification and properties of sweet potato mild mottle, a whitefly-borne virus from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in East Africa, Ann. Appl. Biol. 82:511–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Iwaki, M., Thongmeearkom, P., Prommin, M., Honda, Y., and Hibi, T., 1982, Whitefly transmission and some properties of cowpea mild mottle virus on soybean in Thailand, Plant Dis. 66:365–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kim, K.S., and Martin, E.M., 1982, Nucleolar and extranucleolar perichromatin granules induced by Euphorbia mosaic virus, Phytopathology 72:938. Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kim, K.S., Shock, T.L., and Goodman, R.M., 1978, Infection of Phaseolus vulgaris by bean golden mosaic virus: Ultrastructural aspects, Virology 89:22–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kirkpatrick, T.W., 1930, Leaf curl in cotton, Nature 125:85–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Larsen, R.C., and Kim, K.S., 1985, Ultrastructure of Diodia virginiana infected with a whitefly-transmitted virus-like disease agent, Phytopathology. 75:1324.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Larsen, R.C., Duffus, J.E., and Liu, H.Y., 1984, Tomato necrotic dwarf a new type of whitefly-transmitted virus, Phytopathology 74:795. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lot, H., Onillon, J.C., and Lecoq, H., 1980, Une nouvelle maladie a virus de la laitue de serre: La jaunisse transmise par la mouche blanche, Rev. Hortic. 209:31–34.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lourens, J.H., Laon, P.A.V., and Brader, L., 1972, Contribution to the study of a cotton mosaic in Chad: Distribution in a field: Common Aleurodidae; transmission trials from cotton to cotton by Aleurodidae, Cotton Fibres Trop. 27:225–230.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mathur, R.N., 1933, Leaf curl in Zinnia elegans at Dehra Duri, Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 3:89–96. Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Muniyappa, V., 1980, Whiteflies, in: K. Harris and K. Maramorosch (eds.), Vectors of Plant Pathogens, Academic Press, New York, pp. 39–85.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Muniyappa, V., and Reddy, D.V.R., 1983, Transmission of cowpea mild mottle virus by Bemisia tabaci in a nonpersistent manner, Plant Dis. 67:391–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nair, R.R., and Wilson, K.I., 1969, Studies on some whitefly-transmitted plant virus diseases from Kerala, Agric. Res. J. Kerala 7:123–126. Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nair, R.R., and Wilson, K.I., 1970, Leaf curl of Jatropha curcas L. in Kerala, Sci. Cult. 36:569. Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nariani, T.K., and Pathanian, P.S., 1953, Physalis peruviana L. a new host of tobacco leaf curl virus, Ind. Phytopathol. 6:143–145. Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nene, Y.L., 1972, A survey of viral diseases of pulse crops in UP, G.B. Plant Univ. Agric. Tech. Bull. No.4 191 pp.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nitzany, F.E., Geisenberg, H., and Koch, B., 1964, Tests for the protection of cucumbers from a whitefly-borne virus, Phytopathology 54:1059–1061. Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Orlando, A., and Silberschmidt, K., 1946, Studies on the natural dissemination of the virus of infectious chlorosis of the Malvaceae (Abutilon virus 1. Baur) and its relation with the insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera-Aleyrodidae), Arq. Inst. Biol. S. Paulo 17:1–36. Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ramakrishnan, K., Kandaswamy, T.K., Subramanian, K.S., Janarthanan, R., Mariappan, V., Samuel, G.S., and Navaneethan, G., 1971, Investigations on virus diseases of pulse crops in Tamil Nadu, Final Technical Report, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Roberts, I.M., Robinson, D.J., and Harrison, B.D., 1984, Serological relationships and genome homologies among geminiviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 65:1723–1730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sahambi, H.S., 1958, in: Proceedings of the Mycological Research Workers Conference, Simla, pp. 181–84.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Schuster, M.F., 1964, A whitefly-transmitted mosaic virus of Wissadula amplissima, Plant Dis. Rep. 48:902–905. Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sela, I., Assouline, I., Tanne, E., Cohen, S., and Marco, S., 1980, Isolation and characterization of rod-shaped, whitefly-transmissible, DNA-containing plant virus, Phytopathology 70:226–228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Singh, B.P., and Misra, A.K., 1971, Occurrence of hollyhock yellow mosaic virus in India, Ind. Phytopathol. 24:213–214. Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Smith, K.M., 1957, Hollyhock mosaic virus, in: K.M. Smith (ed.), Plant Virus Diseases, Churchill, London. 641 pp.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Srivastava, K.M., Singh, B.P., Dwadash Shreni, V.C., and Srivastava, B.N., 1977, Zinnia yellow net disease-Transmission, host range, and agent-vector relationship, Plant Dis. Rep. 61:550–554.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Stein, V.E., Coutts, R.H.A., and Buck, K.W., 1983, Serological studies on tomato golden mosaic virus, a geminivirus, J. Gen. Virol. 64:2493–2498. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Storey, H.H., 1931, A new virus disease of the tobacco plant, Nature 128:187–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Storey, H.H., and Nichols, R.F.W., 1938, Studies of the mosaic of cassava, Ann. Appl. Biol. 25:790–806. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sylvester, E.S., 1956, Aphid transmission of plant viruses, in: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Entomology Vol. 3, pp. 195–200.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Takami, N., 1901, On stunt disease of rice plant and Nephotettix apicalis Motsch. var. Cincticeps Uhl, J. Jpn. Agric. Soc. 241:22–30. Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tarr, S.A.J., 1951, Leaf curl disease of cotton, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England, 55 pp.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Van Der Laan, P.A., 1940, Motschilduis en Eupatorium als Oorzaken Van Pseudo-mosaic (whitefly and Eupatorium as causes of pseudomosaic), Vlugschr. Deli-Proefst, Medan 67:4. Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Van Dorst, H.J.M., Huijberts, N., and Bos, L., 1980, A whitefly transmitted disease of glasshouse vegetables, a novelty for Europe, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 85: 311–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Van Schaik, P.H., Erwin, D.C., and Garber, M.J., 1962, Effects of time of symptom expression of the leaf crumple virus on yield and quality of fiber of cotton, Crop Sci. 2:275–277. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Varma, P.M., 1952, Studies on the relationship of the Bhendi yellow-vein mosaic virus and its vector, the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 22:75–91.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Varma, P.M., 1955, Persistance of yellow-vein virus of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench in its vector Bemisia tabaci (Gen.), Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 25:293–302.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Varma, P.M., 1963, Transmission of plant viruses by whiteflies, Bull. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 24:11–33. Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Varma, P.M., Rao, D.G., and Capoor, S.P., 1966, Yellow mosaic of Corchorus trilocularis, Sci. Cult. 32:466. Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Verma, R.N., Srivastava, K.M., and Mathur, A.K., 1975, A whitefly-transmitted yellow mosaic virus disease of tomato from India, Plant Dis. Rep. 59:494–498.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Verma, V.S., 1974a, Salvia yellow-vein mosaic virus, Gartenbauwissenschaft 39:565–566.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Verma, V.S., 1974b, Lupin leaf curl virus, Gartenbauwissenschaft 39:55–56.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Verma, V.S., 1974c, Soapwort leaf curl virus, Gartenbauwissenschaft 39:567–568.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Verma, V.S., and Singh, S., 1973a, Balsam leaf curl disease, Hortic. Res. 13:55–56.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Verma, V.S., and Singh, S., 1973b, Zinnia leaf curl virus, Gartenbauwissenschaft 38: 159–162.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vasudeva, R.S., Varma, P.M., and Capoor, S.P., 1953, Some important whitefly- (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) transmitted virus in India, Atti VI International Congress of Microbiology Roma, Vol. 5, pp. 520–521.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wilson, K.I., 1972, Chlorotic ring spot of Jasmine, Ind. Phytopathol. 25:157–158.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wilson, K.I., and Potty, V.P., 1972, Yellow vein mosaic of Blumea neilgherrensis, Agric. Res. J. Kerala 10:68. Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wolf, F.A., Whitecomb, W.H., and Mooney, W.C., 1949, Leaf curl of tobacco in Venezuela, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 65:38–47. Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yamashita, S., Doi, Y., Yora, K., and Yoshino, M., 1979, Cucumber yellows virus: Its transmission by the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and the yellowing disease of cucumber and muskmelon caused by the virus, Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan 45:484–496. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • James E. Duffus

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations