Observational Studies and Program Evaluation

  • William S. Peters
Part of the Springer Texts in Statistics book series (STS)


The principles of experimental design were taught by R. A. Fisher and succeeding generations of statisticians and researchers. First among these principles is the random assignment of experimental material to treatments. This ensures that variables not controlled in the experiment do not introduce spurious effects and permits a measure of error separate from the effects of the treatments. This error is used as the basis for tests and estimates concerning treatment effects.


Program Evaluation Demand Curve Program Effect Supply Curve Path Diagram 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sonja M. McKinley, “The Design and Analysis of the Observational Study—A Review,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 70, No. 351 (September 1975), 503–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Donald T. Campbell and Julian C. Stanley, Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1966.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Donald B. Rubin, “William G. Cochran’s Contributions to the Design, Analysis, and Evaluation of Observational Studies,” in W.G. Cochran’s Impact on Statistics ( Poduri S. R. S. Rao and Joseph Sedransk, eds.), Wiley, New York, 1984, pp. 37–69.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leslie Kish, “Some Statistical Problems in Research Design,” American Sociological Review. 24 (June 1959), 328–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Edward C. Bryant, “Survey Statistics in Social Program Evaluation.” in Papers in Honor of HO. Hartley (H.A. David, cd.), Academic Press, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thomas D. Cook and Donald T. Campbell. Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Sellings, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1979.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. West Churchman. Theory of Experimental Inference, Macmillan. New York. 1948, pp. 85–116.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kish. op. cit., p. 329.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cook and Campbell, op. cit., p. 23.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Campbell and Stanley, op. cit., p. 5.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Edward R. Tufte, Data Analysis for Politics and Policy, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs. NJ. 1974. pp. 5–18.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laura Irwin Langbcin, Discovering Whether Programs Work: A Guide to Statistical Methods for Program Evaluation, Scott, Eoresman, Glencoe, IL, 1980.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Theodore Colton and Robert C. Buxbaum, “Motor Vehicle Inspection and Motor Vehicle Accident Mortality,” in Statistics and Public Policy ( William B. Fairley and Frederick Mosteller, eds.), Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1977, pp. 131–142.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Donald T. Campbell and Robert F. Boruch, “Making the Case for Randomized Assignment to Treatments by Considering the Alternatives: Six Ways in Which Quasi–Experimental Evaluations in Compensatory Education Tend to Underestimate Effects,” in Evaluation and Experiment ( Carl A. Bennett and Arthur A. Lumsdaine. eds.). Academic Press. New York. 1975. pp. 195–275.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E.J. Working. “What Do Statistical ‘Demand Curves’ Show.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 4 (1927), 212–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mordecai Ezekiel and Karl A. Fox, Methods of Correlation and Regression Analysis,. Wiley, New York. 1959. p. 420.MATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sewell Wright, “Correlation and Causation,” Journal of Agricultural Research, 20 (1921), 557–585.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sewell Wright, “The Method of Path Coefficients,” Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 5 (1934), 161–215.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sewell Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Vol 1 Genetic and Biometric Foundations. University of Chicago Press. Chicago 1968.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. A. Fisher, “The Use of Multiple Measurements in Taxonomic Problems,” Annals of Eugenics. 7 (1936), 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kirschner Associates. Inc.. longitudinal Stud\ Design for Evaluation of the National Nutrition Program for the Elderly, Contract No. HEW-OS-74–89. Albuquerque, NM, 1974.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    James W. Tankard. Jr.. The Statistical Pioneers. Schenkman. Cambridge. MA. 1984, p. 106.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Paul Meier, “The Biggest Public Health Experiment Ever: The 1954 Field Trial of the Salk Poliomyelitis Vaccine.” in Statistics: A Guide to the Unknown (Judith Tanur. ed. ). Holden-Day. 1972. pp. 2–13.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Henry J. Aaron. Politics and the Professors: The Great Society in Perspective. The Brookings Institute, Washington. DC. 1978.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Daniel Bell, The Social Sciences Since the Second World War. Transaction Books. New Brunswick, NJ. 1982.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    William W. Cooley and Paul R. Lohnes, Evaluation Research in Education. Irvington. New York, 1976. p. 165.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ibid. pp. 218–219.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Robert A. Levine. “How and Why the Experiment Came About.” in Work Incentives and Income Guarantees: The New Jersey Negative Income Tax Experiment ( Joseph A Pechman and Michael A. Timpane, eds). The Brookings Institute. Washington. DC. 1975. p. 16.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Robert Ferber and Werner Z. Hirsch. Social Experimentation and Economic Policy. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. UK. 1982.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M Kenneth Bowler. The Nixon Guaranteed Income Proposal. Ballinger. Cambridge. MA. 1974.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Robert G. Speigelman and K.E. Yeager. “Overview.” The Journal of Human Resources. XV. No. 4 (1980), 463–479.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Aaron, op. cit., pp. 30 32.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sar A. Lcvitan and Gregory K. Wurzburg, Evaluating Federal Social Programs. W. E. Upjohn Institute. Kalamazoo. MI. 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • William S. Peters
    • 1
  1. 1.Robert O. Anderson Schools of ManagementUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations