The usual scientific definition of a fjord, and the one adopted in this book, is a deep, high-latitude estuary which has been (or is presently being) excavated or modified by land-based ice. The term derives from the Old Norse “fjorthr,” which is close to the present-day Icelandic usage. Throughout this book we use the modern Norwegian spelling “fjord,” except that the anglicized “fiord” is retained in proper names. There are also many other designators in a variety of local languages, such as the Celtic “loch” or “lough.” In Nordic usage, “fjord” is a generic name for a wide variety of marine inlets (and, formerly, bodies of fresh water), including, in southern Scandinavia, a number of shallow, temperate-zone estuaries somewhat removed from the types of fjords generally referenced here. Fairbridge (1968) has advocated the Swedish name “fjärd” for this latter variety. The distinction is a useful one, but the term itself has not been generally accepted into the scientific literature.
KeywordsFoam Sedimentation Shale Cretaceous Stratification
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