Self/Other Relations and the Social Nature of Reality

  • Robert M. Farr
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)


In order to understand the nature of conspiracy it is first of all necessary, in my opinion, to grasp the social nature of reality, especially the nature of social reality. I shall approach this theme by giving an exposition of the work of two men-Gustav Ichheiser, who outlined a proposal for a sociology of interpersonal relations, and Fritz Heider, who wrote a psychology of interpersonal relations. Both men were Austrians who migrated to the United States in the late 1930s/early 1940s. They must have been familiar with each other’s work. Heider certainly quotes the work of Ichheiser, though I have not been able, to date, to identify any citation by Ichheiser of the work of Heider. At one stage or another in their careers both men were concerned with guiding Austrian youth in their choice of careers-Ichheiser in Vienna and Heider in Graz.


Social Psychology Social Representation Social Reality Human Relation Interpersonal Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adorno, T.W, Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  2. Allport, F.H. (1924). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  3. Allport, G.W. (1967). Attitudes. In C. Murchison (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 798–844). Worcester, MA: Russell and Russell. (Originally published 1935)Google Scholar
  4. Burt, M.-R. (1980). Cultural myths and support for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 217–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deutscher, I. (1984). Choosing ancestors: Some consequences of the selection from intellectual traditions. In R.M. Farr & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Social representations (pp. 71–100). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Durkheim, E. (1898). Représentations individuelles et représentations collectives. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, VI, 273–302.Google Scholar
  7. Farr, R.M. (1980). On reading Darwin and discovering social psychology. In R. Gilmour & S. Duck (Eds.), The development of social psychology (pp. 111–136). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Farr, R.M. (1986). The social psychology of William McDougall. In C. Graumann & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Changing conceptions of crowd mind and behavior (pp. 83–95). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Farr, R.M., & Anderson, T. (1983). Beyond actor/observer differences in perspective: Extensions and applications. In M. Hewstone (Ed.), Attribution theory: Social and functional extensions (pp. 45–64). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Farr, R.M., & Moscovici, S. (Eds.) (1984a). Social representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Farr, R.M., & Moscovici, S. (1984b). On the nature and role of representations in self’s understanding of others and of self. In M. Cook (Ed.), Issues in person perception (pp. 1–27). London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  12. Gergen, K.J. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goffman, E. (1956). The presentation of self in everyday life. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Social Sciences Research Centre.Google Scholar
  14. Graumann, C.F. (1986). The individualization of the social and the desocialization of the individual: Floyd H. Allport’s contribution to social psychology. In C.G. Graumann & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Changing conceptions of crowd mind and behavior (pp. 97–116). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Graumann, C.F., & Moscovici, S. (Eds.) (1986). Changing conceptions of leadership. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  16. Harré, R., & Secord, PF. (1972). The explanation of social behaviour. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  17. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ichheiser, G. (1930). Kritik des Erfolges: Eine sociologische Undersuchung. Leipzig: Hirschfried.Google Scholar
  19. Ichheiser, G. (1946). Diagnosis of Antisemitism. Sociometry Monograph, No. 8.Google Scholar
  20. Ichheiser, G. (1949). Misunderstandings in human relations: A study in false social perception. American Journal of Sociology (Suppl.) Vol. LV.Google Scholar
  21. Ichheiser, G. (1970). Appearances and realities: Misunderstanding in human relations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  22. Jahoda, M. (1983). The emergence of social psychology in Vienna: An exercise in long-term memory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 22, 343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jahoda-Lazarsfeld, M., & Zeisel, H. (1933). Die Arbeitslosen von Marienthal. Leipzig: Hirzl.Google Scholar
  24. Jaspars, J., & Fraser, C. (1984). Attitudes and social representations. In R.M. Farr & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Social representations (pp. 101–123). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Lerner, D. (1980). The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  26. McDougall, W. (1908). Introduction to social psychology. London: Methuen.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McDougall, W. (1920). The group mind. Cambridge: The University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Mead, G. H. (1934). In C.W. Morris (Ed.), Mind, seifand society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Meyer, M.F. (1921). The psychology of the other-one: An introductory textbook. Columbia, MA: The Missouri Book Co.Google Scholar
  30. Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  31. Milgram, S. (1977). The individual in a social world: Essays and experiments. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  32. Morin, E. (1977). La méthode. Vol. I: La nature de la nature. Paris: Ed. du Seuil.Google Scholar
  33. Morishima, M. (1982). Why has Japan “succeeded”?: Western technology and the Japanese ethos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moscovici, S. (1963). Attitudes and opinions. Annual Review of Psychology, 231–260.Google Scholar
  35. Moscovici, S. (1984). The phenomenon of social representations. In R.M. Farr & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Social representations (pp. 3–69). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Ross, L. (1977). The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution process. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 10). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Thomas, W.I., & Znaniecki, F. (1918–1920). The Polish peasant in Europe and America. Boston: Badger.Google Scholar
  38. Turner, J.C., & Giles, H. (Eds.) (1981). Intergroup behaviour. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  39. Wundt, W. (1900–1920). Völkerpsychologie: Eine Untersuchung der Entwicklungsgesetze von Sprache, Mythus und Sitte (10 volumes). Leipzig: EngelmannGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Farr

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations