Advertisement

The Regulation of Insect Visceral Muscle by Octopamine

  • Ian Orchard
  • Angela B. Lange
Part of the Experimental and Clinical Neuroscience book series (ECN)

Abstract

Insect visceral muscles are striated, yet they display properties similar to smooth muscle of vertebrates, with contractions that are slow and rhythmic and often co-ordinated to form peristaltic waves (Davey, 1964; Miller, 1975; Lange et at., 1984). Whilst these contractions may continue spontaneously when the muscles are isolated from the central nervous system, they can be modified by hormonal and/or nervous input. Insect visceral muscles have therefore provided useful preparations for studying the pharmacological activities of a variety of putative neuroactive chemicals. These studies suggest some interesting facets of control, in that many visceral muscles have been shown to be extremely sensitive to both peptides and to biogenic amines (see Cook and Holman, 1979; Lange and Orchard, 1984a,b). It seems possible, therefore, that insect visceral muscles may provide useful model systems for the examination of both aminergic and peptidergic regulation.

Keywords

Adenylate Cyclase Visceral Muscle Octopamine Receptor Lateral Oviduct Nervous Input 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Christensen T.A., Sherman T.G., McCaman R.E. and Carlson A.D. (1983) Presence of octopamine in firefly photomotor neurons. Neuroscience 9, 183–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cook B.J. and Holman G.M. (1979) The pharmacology of insect visceral muscle. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64C, 183–190.Google Scholar
  3. Davey K.G. (1964) The control of visceral muscles in insects. In, Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 2 (Beament J.W.L., Treherne J.E. and Wigglesworth V.B., eds.) pp. 219–245,Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  4. Evans P.D. and M. O’Shea (1978) The identification of an octopaminergic neurone and the modulation of a myogenic rhythm in the locust. J. Exp. Biol. 73, 235–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Evans P.D. (1981) Multiple receptor types for octopamine in the locust. J. Physiol. 318, 99–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Lange A.B. and Orchard I. (1984a) Some pharmacological properties of neuromuscular transmission in the oviduct of the locust, Locusta migratoria. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 1, 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lange A.B. and Orchard I. (1984b) Dorsal unpaired median neurons, and ventral bilaterally paired neurons, project to a visceral muscle in an insect. J. Neurobiol. 15, 441–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lange A.B., Orchard I. and Loughton B.G. (1984) Spontaneous and neurally evoked contractions of visceral muscles in the oviduct of Locusta migratoria. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 1, 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lange A.B. and Orchard I. (1986) Identified octopaminergic neurons modulate contractions of locust visceral muscle via adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Brain Res. 363, 340–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lange A.B., Orchard I. and Adams M.E. (1986) Peptidergic innervation of insect reproductive tissue: The association of proctolin with oviduct visceral musculature. J. Comp. Neurol. 254, 279–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Miller T. (1975) Insect visceral muscle. In, Insect Muscle (Usherwood, P.N.R., ed.) pp 545–606, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Molinoff P.B., Landsberg L. and Axelrod J. (1969) An enzymatic assay for octopamine and other β-hydroxylated phenylethylamines. J. Pharmac. Exp. Ther. 170, 253–261.Google Scholar
  13. Orchard I. and Lange A.B. (1985) Evidence for octopaminergic modulation of an insect visceral muscle. J. Neurobiol. 16, 171–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Orchard I. and Lange A.B. (1986a) Neuromuscular transmission in an insect visceral muscle. J. Neurobiol. 17, 359–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Orchard I. and Lange A.B. (1986b) Pharmacological profile of octopamine receptors on the lateral oviducts of the locust, Locusta migratoria. J. Insect Physiol. 32, 741–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Orchard I. and Lange A.B. (1987a) The release of octopamine and proctolin from an insect visceral muscle: effects of high-potassium saline and neural stimulation. Brain Res, (in press).Google Scholar
  17. Orchard I. and Lange A.B. (1987b) Cockroach oviducts: The presence and release of octopamine and proctolin. J. Insect Physiol. 4, 265–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Orchard I. and Lange A.B. (1987c) Octopamine in insects, with special reference to the control of haemolymph lipid and visceral muscle in locusts. In, Toxicants affecting GABA, octopamine, and other neuroreceptors in invertebrates, ACS Symposium Series (Green M., Hollingworth R. and Hedin P.A., eds.), ACS books, (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Orchard
    • 1
  • Angela B. Lange
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. ZoologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations