The Regulation of Insect Visceral Muscle by Octopamine
Insect visceral muscles are striated, yet they display properties similar to smooth muscle of vertebrates, with contractions that are slow and rhythmic and often co-ordinated to form peristaltic waves (Davey, 1964; Miller, 1975; Lange et at., 1984). Whilst these contractions may continue spontaneously when the muscles are isolated from the central nervous system, they can be modified by hormonal and/or nervous input. Insect visceral muscles have therefore provided useful preparations for studying the pharmacological activities of a variety of putative neuroactive chemicals. These studies suggest some interesting facets of control, in that many visceral muscles have been shown to be extremely sensitive to both peptides and to biogenic amines (see Cook and Holman, 1979; Lange and Orchard, 1984a,b). It seems possible, therefore, that insect visceral muscles may provide useful model systems for the examination of both aminergic and peptidergic regulation.
KeywordsAdenylate Cyclase Visceral Muscle Octopamine Receptor Lateral Oviduct Nervous Input
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