The thoracic outlet syndrome is a term generally descriptive of a number of compressive neurovascular disturbances involving the shoulder girdle area. The resultant disturbance may be severe but, at the same time, respond in a reasonable manner to therapy. The various etiologic factors often apply to each individual type and will be listed together, but the clinical findings will be discussed separately. These will be described individually under the titles: (1) Scalenus anterior and cervical rib syndrome; (2) Costo-clavicular syndrome; (3) Hyperabduction syndrome. The manifestations result from a combination of arterial and venous obstruction and a peripheral neuropathy, with any one or two of the elements predominating.
KeywordsBrachial Plexus Neurovascular Bundle Radial Pulse Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Scalene Muscle
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References and Further Reading
- Eversman, W. W. (1983) Compression and entrapment neuropathies of the upper extremity, J. Hand Surg., 8, No. 5 (Part 2), 759–766.Google Scholar
- Lascelles, R. G., Moore, P. D., Neary, D., and Blood, K. (1977)Google Scholar
- The thoracic outlet syndrome, Brain,100 601–612. Roos, D. B. (1987) Thoracic outlet syndrome: update 1987, Am. J. Surg. 154 568–573.Google Scholar
- Sanders, Richard J., Monsour, James, W., Gerber, William F., Adams, W. Robert, and Thompson, Naid (1979) Scalenotomy vs. first rib resection for treatment of the thoracic outlet syndrome, Surgery 85, 109–121.Google Scholar