How Strong is the Association Between Smoking and Disease?

  • H. J. Eysenck


So far I have taken for granted the existence of a strong statistical relationship between cigarette smoking and disease, particularly cancer and CHD. Such a relationship can be demonstrated along two rather different lines. The first of these is the cross-sectional method. Here one studies a group of patients suffering from a given disease and compares them with some form of control group that may be suffering from a different type of disease, or no disease at all, with respect to smoking habits. This method is obviously weak methodologically. The choice of a control group is clearly crucial, but any particular choice may be faulted for a variety of reasons. The method depends a good deal on memory (When did you take up smoking? How many cigarettes did you smoke? What types of cigarettes did you smoke?), and memory is known to be faulty and subject to falsification. The method has many other weaknesses, which are discussed later. Few epidemiologists would doubt that the second method to be discussed, namely, the prospective study, is superior because it is not subject to these weaknesses.


Coronary Heart Disease Cigarette Smoking Risk Ratio Framingham Study Coronary Heart Disease Death Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. J. Eysenck
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PsychiatryUniversity of LondonLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations