Miller’s Primality Test
Factoring integers into their prime factors is one of the oldest and most important computational problems. It is a problem that goes back to Euclid and is still thriving today. It is generally assumed that factoring is computationally intractible, and many modern cryptographic protocols are based on this assumption. If someone discovered an efficient factoring algorithm tomorrow, there would be a lot of unhappy CIA and KGB agents around.
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