Lead and Neuropsychological Function in Children: Progress and Problems in Establishing Brain-Behavior Relationships

  • David Bellinger
Part of the Advances in Child Neuropsychology book series (CHILDNEUROPSYCH, volume 3)

Abstract

Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant whose contribution to the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases has long been recognized, albeit not completely understood (NRC, 1993). Surprisingly, knowledge about lead’s devastating influence on the developing central nervous system dates only from the end of the nineteenth century (Gibson, Love, Hardine, Bancroft, & Turner, 1892). In their case series, a benchmark investigation in this literature, Byers and Lord (1943) demonstrated that lead poisoning need not progress to frank encephalopathy (i.e., cerebral edema and hemorrhage) for children to experience severe intellectual and behavioral sequelae. This discovery spawned worry over “low-level” or subclinical lead exposures, those within the range of exposures that may be incurred by residence in a modern industrial setting but not high enough to produce classic symptoms of lead poisoning. The hypothesis that such exposures impair children’s mental function has been a topic of spirited, often acrimonious debate since the 1970s.

Keywords

Toxicity Cadmium NMDA Biphenyl Rosen 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T„ Howell. C.. Aoki. M.. & Rauh. V. (1993). Nine-year outcome of the Vermont Intervention Program for low birth weight infants. Pediatrics, 91, 45–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkondon M.. Costa. A.. Radhakrishnan. V., Aronstam, R., & Albuquerque, F.. (1990). Selective blockade of NMDA-activated channel currents may be implicated in learning deficits caused by lead. FEBS Leiten. 261. 124–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health. (1993). Uad poisoning: From screening to primary prevention. Pediatrics, 92. 176–183.Google Scholar
  4. Annest, J., Pirkle. J., Makuc. D.. Neese. J.. Bayse. D.. & Kovar. M. (1983). Chronological trend in blood lead levels between 1986 and 1980. New England Journal of Medicine, 308, 1373–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Audesirk. G. (1985). Effects of lead exposure on the physiology of neurons. Progress in Neurobiology, 24. 199–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aylward, G (1992). The relationship between environmental risk and developmental outcome. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 13. 222–229.Google Scholar
  7. Aylward. G. (1993). Perinatal asphyxia: Effects of biologic and environmental risks. Clinks in Perinatology, 20, 433–449. BellingerGoogle Scholar
  8. Baghurst. P.. McMichacl. A., Wigg. N.. Vimpani, G.. Robertson. E.. Roberts. R.. & Tong. S-L. (1992). Environmental exposure to lead and children’s intelligence at the age of seven years. New England Journal of Medicine. 327, 1279–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellinger, D., Needleman, H.. Bromfield. R.. & Mintz. M. (1984). A follow-up study of the academic attainment and classroom behavior of children with elevated dentine lead levels. Biological Trace Element Research. 6. 207–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bellinger. D.. Needleman. H., Levitón. A.. Waternaux, C.. Rabinowitz. M., & Nichols, M. (1984). Early sensory-motor development and prenatal exposure to lead. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. 6, 387–402.Google Scholar
  11. Bellinger, D., Levitón, A.. Waternaux, C., A Allred, F.. (1985). Methodological issues in modeling the relationship between low-level lead exposure and infant development: Examples from the Boston Lead Study. Environmental Research. 38, 119–129.Google Scholar
  12. Bellinger. D.. Levitón. A.. Needleman. H.. Waternaux. C. & Rabinowitz. M. (1986). low-level lead exposure and infant development in the first year. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. 8, 151–161.Google Scholar
  13. Bellinger. D.. Levitón. A.. Rabinowitz. M.. Needleman. H. & Watcmaux. C. (1986). Correlate of low-level lead exposure in urban children at two years of age. Pediatrics. 77. 826–833.Google Scholar
  14. Bellinger, D., Levitón, A., Waternaux, C.. Needleman, H., & Rabinowitz, M. (1987). Longitudinal analyses of pre- and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. New England Journal of Medicine, 316. 1037–1043.Google Scholar
  15. Bellinger. D.. Levitón. A.. Waternaux. C.. Needleman, H.. & Rabinowitz. M. (1988). Low-level lead exposure, social class, and infant development. Neu-rotoxicology and Teratology. 10. 497–503.Google Scholar
  16. Bellinger, D., Levitón, A.. & Waternaux, C. (1989). lead, 10. and social class. International Journal of Epidemiology. 18. 180–185.Google Scholar
  17. Bellinger. D., Levitón, A., Waternaux, C, Needleman, II-, A Rabinowitz, M. (1989). Low-level lead exposure and early development in socioeconomically advantaged urban infants. In M. Smith. L. Grant. & A. Sons (Eds.). Lead Exposure and Child Development: An International Assessment (pp. 345–356 ). Dordreeht: Kluwer Academic PublishersGoogle Scholar
  18. Bellinger. D.. Levitón. A.. & Sloman. J. (1990). Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in utero to low levels of lead. Environmental Health Perspectives. 89. 5–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bellinger. D., Sloman, J., Levitón, A., Rabinowitz. M.. Needleman, H.. & Waternaux. C. (1991). Low-level lead exposure and children’s cognitive function in the preschool years. Pediatría, 87, 219–227.Google Scholar
  20. Bellinger, D.. & Needleman, H (1992). Neurodevelopmental effects of low-level lead exposure in children. In H. Needleman (Ed.). Human lead Exposure (pp. 191–208 ). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bellinger, D., Stiles, K„ and Needleman. H. (1992). Low-level lead exposure, intelligence, and academic achievement: A long-term follow-up study. Pediatrics. 90, 855–861.Google Scholar
  22. Bellinger. D., & Stiles. K. (1993). Epidemiologic approaches to assessing the developmental neurotoxicity of lead. NeuroToxicotogy, 14. 151–160.Google Scholar
  23. Bellinger. D., & Stiles. K. (1993). Epidemiologic approaches to assessing the developmental neurotoxicity of lead. NeuroToxicotogy, 14. 151–160.Google Scholar
  24. Bellinger. D., Hu. H., Titlebaum. L.. & Needleman. H. (1992). Attentional correlates of dentin and bone lead levels in adolescents Archives of Environmental Health, 49, 98–105.Google Scholar
  25. Ben-Ari. Y.. Aniksztejn, L.. & Bregestovski. P. (1992). Protein kinase C modulation of NMD A currents: An important link for LTP induction. Trends in Neuroscience, 15, 333–339.Google Scholar
  26. Bergomi, M., Borclla, P.. Fantuzzi. G.. Vivoli. G.. Sturloni. N.. Cavazzuti. G.. Tampieri. A., & Tartoni. P. (1989). Relationship between lead exposure indicators and neuropsychological performance in children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 31, 181–190.Google Scholar
  27. Birnbaum, L. (1993). Pharmacokinetic of PCBs. In U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Workshop Report on Developmental Neurotoxic Effects Associated with Exposure to PCBs (pp. 2–7 to 2–10). EPA/63O/R-920O4.Google Scholar
  28. Bondy, S. (1989). Intracellular calcium and neurotoxic events. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. II. 527–531.Google Scholar
  29. Burbacher, T.. Rodier, P., & Weiss. B. (1990). Methylmercury development! neurotoxicity: A comparison of effects in humans and animals. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 12, 191–202.Google Scholar
  30. Bushnell. P.. Shelton. S.. & Bowman. R. (1979). Elevation of blood lead concentration by confinement in the rhesus monkey. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 22. 819–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Byers, R., & Lord, E. (1943). Late effects of lead poisoning on mental development. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 66. 471–494.Google Scholar
  32. Centers for Disease Control. (1981). Toxic-shock syndrome—United States. 1970–1980. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 30, 25–28.Google Scholar
  33. Centers for Disease Control. (1991). Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  34. Cookman. G., King. W.. & Regan. C. (1987). Chronic low-level lead exposure impairs embryonic to adult conversion of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Journal of Neurochemistry, 49. 399–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cookman. G.. Hemmens. S., Keane, G., King, W., k Regan. C. (1988). Chronic low level-lead exposure precociously induces rat glial development in vitro and in vivo. Neuroscience Letters. 86. 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cooney. G., Bell. A., McBride, W.. & Carter, C. (1989a). Low-level exposures to lead: The Sydney Lead Study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 31. 640–619.Google Scholar
  37. Cooney, G„ Bell, A.. McBride. W.. & Carter, C. (1989b). Neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal low level exposure to lead. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 11, 95–104.Google Scholar
  38. Cory-Slechta, D (1990). Exposure duration modifies the effects of low level lead on fixed-interval performance. Neuro Toxicology, II. 427–442.Google Scholar
  39. Davies. J. (1990). Neurotoxic concerns of human pesticide exposures. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. IS. 327–331.Google Scholar
  40. Dietrich. K.. Krafft, K., Bornsetiein, R.. Hammond, P., Berger, O., Succop. P.. & Bier. M. (1987). Low-level fetal lead exposure effect on neurobehavioral development in early infancy. Pediatrics, 80, 721–730.Google Scholar
  41. Dietrich. K.. Succop. P.. Bornschein. R., Krafft. K.. Berger. O.. Hammond. P., & Buncher, R. (1990). Lead exposure and neurobehavioral development in later infancy. Environmental Health Perspectives. 89. 13–19.Google Scholar
  42. Dietrich. K.. Succop. P., Berger, O., Hammond, P., & Bornschein. R. (1991). Lead exposure and the cognitive development of urban preschool children: The Cincinnati Lead Study cohort at age 4 years. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 13, 203–211.Google Scholar
  43. Dietrich. K. Succop, P.. Berger, O. & Keith, R. (1992). Lead exposure and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive development of urban children: The Cincinnati Lead Study cohort at age 5 years. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 14, 51–56.Google Scholar
  44. Dietrich. K.. Berger. O.. & Succop. P (1993a). Lead exposure and the motor developmental status of urban six-year-old children in the Cincinnati Prospective Study. Pediatrics. 91. 301–307.Google Scholar
  45. Dietrich. K.. Bcrgcr. O.. Succop. P.. & Hammond. P. (1993b). The developmental consequences of low to moderate prenatal and postnatal lead exposure: Intellectual attainment in the Cincinnati Lead Study cohort following school entry. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, IS. 37–44.Google Scholar
  46. Dietrich, K., & Bellinger, D. (1994). Assessment of neurobehavioral development in studies of the effects of fetal exposures to environmental agents. In H. Needleman & D. Bellinger (Eds.), Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxicants: Developmental Consequences (pp. 57–85 ). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  47. Dolinsky. Z.. Burright. R, Donovick, P., Glickman, L., Babish, J., Summers, B., & Cvpess, R. (1981). Behavioral effects of lead and toxocara canis in mice. Science. 213. 1142–1144.Google Scholar
  48. Ernhart, C, Landa, B., & Schell, N. (1981). Subclinical levels of lead and developmental deficit: A multivariate follow-up reassessment. Pediatrics. 67, 911–919.Google Scholar
  49. Ernhart, C, Morrow-Tlucak, M.. Matter. M., & Wolf. A. (1987). Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: Early preschool development. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 9. 259–270.Google Scholar
  50. Ernhart, C., Morrow-Tlucak. M., Wolf. A., Super. D.. & Drotar. D. (1989). Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early postnatal periods: Intelligence prior to school entry. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 11. 161–170.Google Scholar
  51. Faust, D., & Brown, J. (1987). Moderately elevated blood lead levels: Effects on neuropsychologic functioning in children. Pediatrics, W. 623–629.Google Scholar
  52. Fergusson. D., Fergusson. J.. Horwood, L., & Kinzett, N. (1988). A longitudinal study of dentine lead levels, intelligence, school performance, and behavior: Part II: Dentine lead and cognitive ability. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 29. 793–809.Google Scholar
  53. Flegal, R.. & Smith. D. (1992). Lead level in preindustrial humans New England Journal of Medicine. 326. 1293–1294.Google Scholar
  54. Gibson. J.. Love, W„ Hardine, D.. Bancroft. P.. A: Turner, A. (1892). Note on lead poisoning as observed among children in Brisbane. In L. Huxtable (Ed.), Transactions of the Third Intercolonial Medical Congress of Australia (pp. 76–83). Sydney: Charles Potter.Google Scholar
  55. Goering, P., Mistry, P.. & Fowler, B. (1986). A low molecular weight lead- binding protein in brain attenuates lead inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase: Companion with a renal lead-binding protein. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 237, 220–225.Google Scholar
  56. Golden, M., & Birns, B. (1983). Social class and infant intelligence. In M. Lewis (Ed.). Origins of Intelligence: Infancy and Early Childhood, 2nd Ed. (pp. 347–398 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  57. Goldstein, G. (1990). lead poisoning and brain cell function. Environmental Health Perspectives. 89. 91–94.Google Scholar
  58. Goldstein, G. (1992). Developmental neurobiology of lead toxicity. In H. Needleman (Ed.), Human Lead Exposure (pp. 125–135 ). Boca Raton. FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  59. Goldstein. G.. Asbury. A., & Diamond, I. (1974). Pathogenesis of lead encephalopathy: Uptake of lead and reaction of brain capillaries. Archives of Neurology. 31. 382–389.Google Scholar
  60. Grandjean, P. (1988). Ancient skeletons as silent witnesses of lead exposures in the past. CRC Critical Review in Toxicology. 19. 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hansen, O., Trillingsgaard. A.. Beese. I.. Lyngbye. T.. & Grandjean. P. (1989). A neuropsychological study of children with elevated dentine lead level: Assessment of the effect of lead in different socio-economic groups. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 11. 205–213.Google Scholar
  62. Harvey. P.. Hamlin, M., Kumar. R., & Delves. T. (1984). Blood lead, behavior, and intelligence test performance in pre-school children. Science of the Total Environment. 40. 45–60.Google Scholar
  63. Hatzakis, A., Kokkevi, A.. Maravelias. C., Katsouyanni. K.. Salaminios. F.. Kalandidi. A.. Koutselinis. A., Stefanis, C., & Trichopoulos, D. (1989). Psychometric intelligence deficits in lead-exposed children. In M. Smith. L. Grant. & A. Sors (Eds.), Lead Exposure and Child Development: An International Assessment (pp. 211–223 ). Dordrecht. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  64. Hill. A. (1953). Observation and experiment. New England Journal of Medicine. 248, 995–1001.Google Scholar
  65. Hunter, J., Urbanowicz, M-A., Yule, W.,and Lansdown, R. (1985). Automated testing of reaction time and its association with lead in child. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health,5727-34.Google Scholar
  66. Kennedy, M. (1989). Regulation of neuronal function by calcium. Trends in Neurosciences. 12. 417–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kilburn. K. (1989). Is the human nervous system most sensitive to environmental toxins? Archives of Environmental Health. 44. 343–344.Google Scholar
  68. Langmuir. A. (1982). Toxic-shock syndrome: An epidemiologist’s view. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 145. 588–591.Google Scholar
  69. Lansdown. R.. Yule, W.. Urbanowicz, M-A., & Hunter, J. (1986). The relationship between blood-lead concentrations, intelligence, attainment and behavior in a school population: The second London study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 57, 225–235.Google Scholar
  70. Leviton, A., Bellinger. D.. Allred. E.. Rabinowitz, M.. Needleman. IL. & Schoenbaum, S. (1993). Pre- and postnatal low level lead exposure and children’s dysfunction in school. Environmental Research. 60. 30–43.Google Scholar
  71. MacPhail, R. (1990). Environmental modulation of neurobehavioral toxicity. In R Russell, P. Flat tau, & A. Pope (Eds.). Behavioral Measures of Neurotoxicity (pp. 347–358 ). Washington. DC. National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  72. Mahaffey, K., Annest, J., Roberts. J., & Murphy. R. (1982). National estimates of blood lead levels: United States 1976–1980. New England Journal of Medicine. 307. 573–579.Google Scholar
  73. Marcus, A. (1985). Testing alternative nonlinear kinetic models in compartmental analysis. In J. Eisenfeld & C. Delisi (lids), Mathematics and Computer in Biomedical Applications (pp. 259–267 ). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  74. Marecek, J., Shapiro, I., Burke. A.. Katz. S.. & Hediger. M. (1983). Low-level lead exposure in childhood influences neuropsychological performance. Archives of Environmental Health. 38. 355–359.Google Scholar
  75. Markovac, J.. & Goldstein, G. (1988). Picomolar concentrations of lead stimulate brain protein kinase C. Nature, 334, 71–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McCauley, P., Bull. R., Tonti. A.. Lutkenhoff. S„ Meister. M.. Doerger. J., & Stober. J. (1982). The effect of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure on neonatal synaptogenesis in rat cerebral cortex. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 10. 639–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mclntire, M.. & Angle, C. (1972). Air lead. Relation to lead in blood of Black school children deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Science, 177, 520–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McMichael. A.. Baghurst. P.. Wigg. N.. Vimpani. G.. Robertson. E.. & Roberts. R. (1988). Port Pine Cohort Study: Environmental exposure to lead and children’s abilities at the age of four years. New England Journal of Medicine, 319. 468–475.Google Scholar
  79. Mills, P., Abbey. D.. Beeson. W.. & Peterson. F. (1991). Ambient air pollution and cancer in California Seventh-Day Adventists. Archives of Environmental Health, 46. 271–280.Google Scholar
  80. Mirsky. A., Anthony. B.. Duncan, C.. Ahearn, M., & Kellam, S. (1991). Analysis of the elements of attention: A neuropsychological approach. Neuropsychology Review. 2. 109–145.Google Scholar
  81. Mushak. P. (1993). New directions in the toxicokinetics of human lead exposure. Neurotoxicology, 14. 29–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Nation. J., Grover, C., Bratton, G.. & Salinas. J. (1990). Behavioral antagonism between lead and cadmium Neurotoxicologv and Teratology, 12. 99–104.Google Scholar
  83. National Research Council. (1993). Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants. Children, and Other Sensitive Populations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  84. Needleman. H., Gunnoe, C., Levitón. A.. Reed. R.. Peresie, II.. Maher, C., & Barrett. P. (1979). Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels..View England Journal of Medicine. 300. 689–695.Google Scholar
  85. Needleman, H.. & Gatsonis, C. (1990). Low-level lead exposure and the 10 of children. Journal of the American Medical Association. 263. 673–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Needleman. H., Schell, A., Bellinger. D.. Levitón. A.. & Allred. E. (1990). Long term effects of childhood exposure to lead at low dose: An eleven-year follow-up report. New England Journal of Medicine. 322, 83–88.Google Scholar
  87. Needleman. H.. & Bellinger. D. (1991). Childhood lead toxicity. Annual Review of Public Health, 12, 111–140.Google Scholar
  88. Nelson. B. (1991). Selecting exposure parameters in developmental neurotoxicity assessments. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 13, 569–573.Google Scholar
  89. Nordberg. G.. Mahaffey, K., & Fowler. B. (1991). Introduction and summary. International workshop on lead in bone: Implications for dosimetry and toxicology. Environmental Health Perspectives, 91, 3–7.Google Scholar
  90. O’Leary. D. (1987). Remodelling of early axonal projections through the selective elimination of neurons and long axon collaterals. In CIBA Foundation Symposium No. 126. Selective Neuronal Death (pp. 113–130 ). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  91. Oppenheim. R. (1991). Cell death during development of the nervous system. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 14. 453–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pounds. J.. & Rosen. J. (1988). Cellular Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+- mediated cell processes as critical targets for toxicant action: Conceptual and methodological pitfalls. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 94. 331–341.Google Scholar
  93. Pocock, S., Ashby. D., & Smith, M. (1987). Lead exposure and children’s intellectual performance. International Journal of Epidemiology. 16, 57–67.Google Scholar
  94. Raab. G.. Thomson. G.. Boyd. L.. Fulton. M.. & Laxen. D. (1990). Blood lead levels, reaction time, inspection time and ability in Edinburgh. Scotland, UK, children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 8. 101–118.Google Scholar
  95. Rabinowitz, M. and Needleman. H. (1982). Temporal trends in the lead concentrations of umbilical cord blood. Science. 216. 1429–1431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Regan. C. (1989). Lead-impaired neurodevelopment. Mechanisms and threshold values in the rodent. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 11. 533–537.Google Scholar
  97. Rice, D (1992a). Behavioral impairment produced by developmental lead exposure: Evidence from primate research. In H. Needleman (Ed.). Human Lead Exposure (pp. 137–152 ). Boca Raton, Fl.: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  98. Rice, D. (1992b). Lead exposure during different developmental periods produces different effects on FI performance in monkeys tested as juveniles and adults. NeuroToxicology, 13. 757–770.Google Scholar
  99. Rice. D. (1992c). Behavioral effects of lead in monkeys tested during infancy and adulthood. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 14, 235–245.Google Scholar
  100. Rogan, W„ Gladen, B., Hung, K.. Koong, S-L., Shih. L-Y., Taylor, J., Wu, Y-C.. Yang. D.. Ragan. B.. & Hsu. C-C. (1988). Congenital poisoning by polvchlorinated biphenyls and their contaminants in Taiwan. Science. 241, 334–336.Google Scholar
  101. Rosen. J. (1988) The toxicological importance of lead in bone: The evolution and potential uses of bone lead measurements by X-ray (fluorescence to evaluate treatment outcomes in moderately lead toxic children. In T. CI ark son, L. Friberg, G. Nordberg. & P. Sager (Eds.). Biological Monitoring of Toxic Metals (pp. 603–621 ). New York: Plenum Publishing.Google Scholar
  102. Rothenberg. S.. Lourdes. C.. Cansino-Ortiz, S.. Perroni-Hernandez, E., de la Torre. P.. Neri-Mendez. C. Ortega. P.. Hidalgo-Loperena. H.. & Svensgaard, I). (1989). Neurobehavioral déficits after low level lead exposure in neonates: The Mexico City Pilot Study. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. I I. 85–93.Google Scholar
  103. Rothman. K.. & Poole. C. (1988). A strengthening programme for weak associations. International Journal of Epidemiology, 319. 955–959.Google Scholar
  104. Russell. R., Flattau. P.. & Pope. A. (Eds.) (1990). Behavioral Measures of Neurotoxicity. Washington. DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  105. Schubert. D. (1991). The possible role of adhesion in synaptic modification. Trends in Neurosctences, 14, 127–130.Google Scholar
  106. Schwartz, J. (1994). Low level lead exposure and children’s IQ: A meta analysis and search for a threshold. Environmental Research, 65. 42–55.Google Scholar
  107. Shaheen, S. (1984). Neuromaturation and behavior development: The case of childhood lead poisoning. Developmental Psychology. 20. 542–550.Google Scholar
  108. Shapiro. I.. & Marecek. J. (1984). Dentine lead concentration as a predictor of neuropsychological functioning in inner-city children. Biological Trace Element Research. 6. 69–78.Google Scholar
  109. Silbergeld, E. (1991). Lead in bone: Implication«, for toxicology during pregnancy and lactation. Environmental Health Perspectives, 91. 63-70.Google Scholar
  110. Silbergeld. E. (1992a). Neurological perspective on lead toxicity. In II. Need- leman (Ed.). Human Lead Exposure (pp. 89–103 ). Boca Raton. FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  111. Silbergeld. E. (1992b). Mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity, or looking beyond the lamppost. FASF.B Journal. 6. 3201–3206.Google Scholar
  112. Silva. P.. Hughes. P.. Williams. S.. & Faed. W (1988). Blood lead, intelligence, reading attainment, and behavior in eleven year old children in Dunedin. New Zealand. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 29, 43–52.Google Scholar
  113. Smith, M., Delves, T., Lansdown. R. Clayton. B.. & Graham, P. (1983). The effects of lead exposure on urban children: The Institute of Child Health/Southampton study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 25 (Suppl. 47). 1–47.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, M L., Kates, M., & Vriezen, E. (1993). The development of frontal-lobe functions. In S. Segalowitz & I. Rapin (Eds.). Handbook of Neuropsychology, Vol. 7 Child Neuropsychology (pp. 309–330 ). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  115. Stark, M., Wolff, J., Sc. Korbmacher. A. (1992). Modulation of glial cell differentiation by exposure to lead and cadmium. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 14. 247–252.Google Scholar
  116. Stiles. K., & Bellinger. D. (1993). Neuropsychological correlates of low-level lead exposure in children: A prospective study. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 15, 27–35.Google Scholar
  117. Sullivan. L. (1991). Luncheon remarks. Presented at Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning- The First Comprehensive National Conference, Washington, DC. October 7, 1991.Google Scholar
  118. Sundstrom, R.. Muntzing, K., Kalimo, H., & Sourander, P. (1985). Changes in the integrity of the blood-brain barrier in suckling rats with low dose lead encephalopathy. Acta Neuropathology. 68, 1–9.Google Scholar
  119. Thacker S Hoffman D„ Smith J Steinberg K Zack M (1992)Effect of low-level body burdens of lead on the mental development of children: Limitations of meta-analysis in a review of longitudinal data. Archives of Environmental Health, 47. 336–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tiffany-Castiglioni E Sierra E Wu J-N. Rowles T (1989). Lead toxicity in neuroglia. NeuroToxtcology, 10. 417–444.Google Scholar
  121. Tilson H Jacobson J Rogan. W (1990)Polychlorinated biphenyl and the developing nervous system: Cross-species comparisons. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 12, 239–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1986a). Air Quality Criteria for lead. EPA-600/8-83/028aF-dF. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office. Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Google Scholar
  123. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b). Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Benefit Analysis. EPA-230-09-86-019. Washington. DC: Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  124. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1990). Air Quality Criteria for lead: Supplement to the 1986 Addendum. EPA-600/08-89/049f. Research Triangle Park. NC. 1990.Google Scholar
  125. Wasserman G GrazianoJFador-LitvakPPopovacDMorinaNMusabegovicAVreneziNCapuni-ParackaSLekicVPreteni-RedjepiEHadzialjevicSSlavkovichVKlineJShroutPSteinZ (1992)Independent effects of lead exposure and iron deficiency anemia on developmental outcome at age 2 year.. Journal of Pediatrics, 121, 695703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Weiss B (1985). Intersections of psychiatry and toxicology. International Journal of Mental Health, 14, 7–25.Google Scholar
  127. Weiss B (1988). Quantitative perspectives on behavioral toxicology. Toxicology Letters, 43, 285–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wetmur J Lehnert G Desnick R (1991). The delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase polymorphism: Higher Wood lead levels in lead workers and environmentally exposed children with the 1-2 and 2-2 isozymes.Environmental Research. 56. 109–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wigg N Vimpani G McMichael A Baghurst P Robertson E„ Roberts R (1988). Poit Pirie Cohort Study: Childhood Wood lead and neuropsychological development at age 2 years. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 42. 213–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Winneke G Kramer U Brockhaus A Ewers U Kujanek G Lechner H Janke W (1983)Neuropsychological studies in children with elevated tooth-lead concentrations II. Extended Study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 51. 231–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Winneke G Kramer U (1984). Neuropsychological effects of lead in children: Interaction with social background variables. Neuropsychobiology. 11, 195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Winneke G Beginn U Ewert T Havestadt C Kraemer U Krause C Thron H Wagner H (1985)Comparing the effects of perinatal and later childhood lead exposure on neuropsychological outcome. Environmental Research, 38, 155–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Winneke G Brockhaus A Collet W Kramer U (1989). Modulation of lead-induced performance deficit in children by varying signal rate in a serial choice reaction task. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 11. 587–592.Google Scholar
  134. Winneke G Brockhaus A Ewers U Kramer U Neuf M (1990). Results from the European Multicenter study on lead neurotoxicity in children: Implications for risk assessment. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 12, 553–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. World Health Organization. (in press). IPCS Environmental Health Criteria for Inorganic Lead.Google Scholar
  136. Yule W Lansdown R Millar I Urbanowicz M-A (1981). The relationship between blood lead concentrations, intelligence, and attainment in a school population: A pilot study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 23, 567–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Bellinger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations