Why and how light can be used as a microtool

  • Karl Otto Greulich
Part of the Methods in Bioengineering book series (MB)


Lasers can be hot. Perhaps you experienced this yourself. In industrial processes as well as in medical surgery this fact is exploited routinely. But what temperatures are generated exactly? Hundreds of degrees? Thousands of degrees? Perhaps even ten thousand degrees? The surprise is: it can be even much more than that. Even with comparatively small-table top lasers, extreme temperatures and a new physical state of matter, plasma can be generated.


Corner Frequency Gradient Force Optical Tweezer Optical Trap Optical Trapping 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Selected literature

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Selected literature

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Note added in proof: A further calibration method has been published in 1998

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl Otto Greulich
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie e.V.JenaGermany

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