Regulatory Aspects of Estrogens and Progestins in Human Food: Past, Present, and Future

  • John K. Leighton
  • Margaret A. Miller
Part of the Hormones in Health and Disease book series (HHD)


Controversy abounds regarding the use of anabolic growth-promoting agents, like estrogens, in food-producing animals and the human health risks associated with exposure to residues of these compounds in edible products from treated animals. The recent publicity on the increased risk of breast cancer in women undergoing postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy and the reproductive abnormalities in alligators in Florida’s Lake Apopka caused by environmental contaminants has heightened consumers’ concerns over exposure to environmental estrogens that are present in the food supply as natural components or as environmental contaminants (Guillette et al, 1994; Hulka et al, 1994). Steroidal sex hormones and synthetic derivatives are used in the United States to enhance production in food-producing animals. More recently, steroidal and other hormonal agents have been used as reproductive aids for the synchronization of the ovarian cycle in certain food-producing species, thus assisting in herd management.


Acceptable Daily Intake Endogenous Steroid Drug Residue Quantitative Risk Assessment Edible Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • John K. Leighton
    • 1
  • Margaret A. Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.United States Food and Drug AdministrationCenter for Veterinary MedicineRockvilleUSA

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