Effect of Genetic Susceptibility on Tumor Induction

  • Norman R. Drinkwater

Abstract

Phenomenal progress has been made during the last decade in the molecular identification of human “cancer genes”, such as those resulting in the heritable development of retinoblastoma (1), Wilm’s tumor (2), and familial adenomatous polyposis (3). These rare genetic diseases are inherited with very high penetrance, making cancer development in carriers of the mutant genes a virtual certainty. Because of this high penetrance and the rarity of the cancers (or extreme nature of the phenotype), it has been possible to identify these genes through formal genetic studies in affected families. In contrast, human genetic studies have been less effective in identifying “risk-modifier” genes that may influence the susceptibility of individuals to the development of more common malignancies. Even if such genes resulted in 5- to 50-fold increases in cancer risk, their recognition would be hampered by a relatively low penetrance and the large variation in environmental factors that influence cancer development in humans. In spite of these difficulties, King and coworkers (4, 5) have recently demonstrated the existence of a locus that increases the risk for breast cancer in humans by tenfold and have mapped the gene to human chromosome 17q21.

Keywords

Lymphoma Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Oncol Sarcoma Prolactin 

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman R. Drinkwater

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