Advertisement

HII Regions and Radio Recombination Lines

  • Mark A. Gordon
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)

Abstract

The hot clouds of ionized gas surrounding bright stars are known as emission nebulae, because their spectra exhibit emission lines. These are often classified further into bright diffuse nebulae, supernova remnants, and planetary nebulae. Diffuse nebulae are associated with the birth of stars whereas supernova remnants and planetary nebulae are associated with the death of stars. Diffuse nebulae have irregular shapes, often filaments, and lie in the plane of galaxies adjacent to the dark molecular clouds from which they formed. Supernova remnants are the remains of exploded stars, a catastrophic process associated with perhaps only about one percent of star deaths. Planetary nebulae are the extended atmospheres of dying, older stars and are found throughout the sphere in which a galaxy originally formed. All emit detectable radio emission.

Keywords

Electron Temperature Radio Telescope Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Galactic Center Galactic Plane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altenhoff, W., P.G. Mezger, H.Wendker,G.Westerhout. 1960. Veröff. Sternwarte, Bonn, No. 59, p. 48.Google Scholar
  2. Anantharamaiah, K.R., W.C. Erickson, and V. Radhakrishnan. 1986. Nature 315:647.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Baade, W.F. Goos, P.P. Koch, and R. Minkowski. 1933. Z. Astrophys. 6:355.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Balick, B., R.H. Gammon, and R.M. Hjellming. 1974. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 86:616.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, M.B., and E.R. Seaquist. 1977. Astron. Astrophys. 56:461.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, M.B., and E.R. Seaquist. 1978. Astrophys. J. 223:378.ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell, M.B., and E.R. Seaquist. 1980. Astrophys. J. 238:818.ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Berger, P.S., and M. Simon. 1972. Astrophys. J. 171:191.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Blake, D.H., R.M. Crutcher, and W.D. Watson. 1980. Nature 287:707.ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Brocklehurst, M. 1870. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 148:417.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Brocklehurst, M., and M.J. Seaton. 1972. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 157:179.ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, R.L. 1973. Astrophys. J. 194:692.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, R.L., and G.R. Knapp. 1974. Astrophys. J. 189:253.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, R.L., R.H. Gammon, G.R. Knapp, and B. Balick. 1974. Astrophys. J. 189:253.ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, R.L, and J. Gomez-Gonzales 1975. Astrophys. J. 200:598.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Cesarsky, C.J, and D.A. Cesarsky. 1971. Astrophys. J. 169:293.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Cesarsky, D.A, and C.J. Cesarsky. 1973. Astrophys. J. 184:83.ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Chaisson, E.J. 1975. Astrophys. J. 197:L65.ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaisson, E.J., and L.F. Rodriguez. 1977. Astrophys. J. 214:L111Google Scholar
  20. Churchwell, E.B, and CM. Walmsley. 1975. Astron. Astrophys. 38:451.ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Churchwell, E.B, L.F. Smith, J. Mathis, P.G. Mezger, and W. Huchtmeier. 1978. Astron. Astrophys. 70:719.ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Davidson, K., and M. Harwit. 1967. Astrophys. J. 148:443.ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Davies, R.D. 1971. Astrophys. J. 163:479.ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Downes, D, T.L. Wilson, J. Bieging, and J. Wink. 1980. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 40:379.ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Dreher, J.W., and W.J. Welch. 1981. Astrophys. J. 245:857.ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Dupree, A.K. 1968. Astrophys. J. 152:L125.ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Dupree, A.K. 1971. Astrophys. J. 173:293.ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Dupree, A.K. 1974. Astrophys. J. 187:25.ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Georgelin, Y.M., and Y.P. Georgelin. 1976. Astron. Astrophys. 49:57.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldberg, L. 1966. Astrophys. J. 144:1225.ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldberg, L., and D.A. Cesarsky. 1970. Astrophys. Lett. 6:93.Google Scholar
  32. Goldberg, L.,and A.K. Dupree. 1967. Nature 215:41.ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldwire, H.C., Jr. 1969. Astrophys. J., Suppl No. 152,17:445.Google Scholar
  34. Goldon, M.A. 1973. Astrophys. J. 184:77.ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Goldon, M.A, and T. Cato. 1972. Astrophys. J. 176:587.ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Gordon, M.A., and E. Churchwell. 1970. Astron. Astrophys. 9:307.ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Goldon, M.A., and D.C. Wallace. 1970. Astrophys. J. 167:235.ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Gottesman, S.T., and M.A. Gordon. 1970. Astrophys. J. 162 :L93.ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Greve, A. 1974. Solar Phys. 36:85.ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Greve, A. 1975. Solar. Phys. 40:329.ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Greve, A. 1977. Solar Phys. 52:423.ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Greve, A., and T. Pauls. 1980. Astron. Astrophys. 82:388.ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Griem, H. 1967. Astrophys. J. 148:547.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Hart, L, and A. Pedlar. 1976. Mon Not. R. Astron. Soc. 176:547.Google Scholar
  45. Hoang-Binh, D. 1970. Astrophys. Lett. 6:151.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoang-Binh, D. 1972. Mem. Soc. Roy. Sei. Liège 3:367.Google Scholar
  47. Hoang-Binh, D. 1982. Astron. Astrophys. 112:L3.ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Jackson, P.D., and F.J. Kerr. 1971. Astrophys. J. 168:29.ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Jackson, P.D., and F.J. Kerr. 1975. Astrophys. J. 196:723.ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Kardashev, N.S. 1959. Sov. Astron.—AJ 3:813.Google Scholar
  51. Konovalenko, A.A. 1984. Sov. Astron. Lett. 10:846.Google Scholar
  52. Konovalenko, A.A., and L.G. Sodin. 1980. Nature 283:360.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Konovalenko, A.A., and L.G. Sodin. 1981. Nature 294:135.ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Lacy, J.H, C.H. Townes, T.R. Geballe, and D.J. Hollenbach. 1980. Astrophys. J. 241:132.ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Lada, C.J. 1985. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 23:267.ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Lilley, A.E, D.H. Menzel, H. Penfield, and B. Zuckerman. 1966. Nature 209:468.ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Lockman, F.J. 1976. Astrophys. J. 209:429.ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Lockman, F.J. 1980. In P.A. Shaver (ed.), Radio Recombination Lines. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  59. Lockman, F.J., and R.L. Brown. 1975. Astrophys. J. 201:134.ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Lockman, F.J, and R.L. Brown. 1976. Astrophys. J. 207:436.ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Lockman. F.J., and R.L. Brown. 1982. Astrophys. J. 259:595.ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Maddalena, R.J.1985. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University. Google Scholar
  63. Malkamaki, L., G. Sandell, K. Mattila, and K.-H. Gebler. 1979. Astron. Astrophys. 71:198.ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Mebold, U., P.A. Shaver, M.B. Bell, and E.R. Seaquist. 1980. Astron. Astrophys. 82:272.ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Menzel, D.H. 1968. Nature 218:756.ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Menzel, D.H.1970. Astrophys. J. Suppl, No. 161,18:221.Google Scholar
  67. Mezger, P.G. 1968. In Y. Terzian (ed.), Interstellar Ionized Hydrogen. New York: Benjamin.Google Scholar
  68. Mezger, P.G. 1980. In P.A. Shaver (ed.), Radio Recombination Lines. Dordrecht: Reidel. Google Scholar
  69. Mezger, P.G., and A.P. Henderson. 1967. Astrophys. J. 147:471.ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Mezger, P.G., and B. Höglund. 1967. Astrophys. J. 147:490.ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Mezger, P.G., W. Altenhoff, J. Schraml, B.R. Burke, E.C. Reifenstein, and T.L. Wilson. 1967. Astrophys. J. 150:L157.ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. Mezger, P.G, L.F. Smith, and E.B. Churchwell. 1974. Astron. Astrophys. 47:34.Google Scholar
  73. Miller, J.S., and W.G. Mathews. 1972. Astrophys. J. 172:593.ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Mouschovias, T.C. 1976. Astrophys. J. 207:141.ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Odegard, N. 1985. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 57:571.ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Oster, L. 1961. Rev. Mod. Phys. 33:525.MathSciNetMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Oster, L. 1970. Astron. Astrophys. 9:318.ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Osterbrock, D.E., and E. Flather. 1959. Astrophys. J. 129:26.ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Palmer, P., B.M. Zukerman, H Penfield, AE Lilley, and PG Mezger. 1967. Nature 215:40.Google Scholar
  80. Palmer, P., and B.M. Zukerman. 1968. Astron. J. 73:S196.Google Scholar
  81. Panagia, N. 1979. Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 50:79.ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Pankonin, V., and CM. Walmsley. 1978. Astron. Astrophys. 64:333.ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Pankonin, V., CM. Walmsley, T.L. Wilson, and P. Thomasson. 1977. Astron. Astrophys. 57:341.ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Peimbert, M. 1979. In W.B. Burton (ed.), The Large-Scale Characteristics of the Galaxy. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  85. Reid, M.J., and P.T.P. Ho. 1985. Astrophys. J. 288:L17.ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. Rodriguez, L.F., J. Canto, and J.M. Moran. 1982. Astrophys. J. 255:103.ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Sanders, D.B., P.M. Solomon, and N.Z. Scoville. 1984. Astrophys. J. 276:182.ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Sarazin, C.L., and E.J. Wadiak. 1983. Astron. Astrophys. 123:L1Google Scholar
  89. Sejnowski, T.J., and R.M. Hjellming. 1969. Astrophys. J. 156:915.ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. Shaver, P.A. 1975. Pramana 5:1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Shaver, P.A. 1976a. Astron. Astrophys. 46:127.ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. Shaver, P.A. 1976b. Astron. Astrophys. 49:1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Shaver, P.A. 1978. Astron. Astrophys. 68:97.ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Shaver, P.A. 1980a. In P.A. Shaver (ed.), Radio Recombination Lines. Dordrecht: Reidel, p. 247f.Google Scholar
  95. Shaver, P.A. 1980b. Astron. Astrophys. 90:34.ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Shaver, P.A. 1980c. Astron. Astrophys. 91:279.ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Shaver, P.A., E. Churchwell, and A.H. Rots. 1977. Astron. Astrophys. 55:435.ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Shaver, P.A., E. Churchwell, and CM. Walmsley. 1978. Astron. Astrophys. 64:1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Shaver, P.A., R.X. McGee, L.M. Newton, A.C. Danks, and S.R. Pottasch. 1983. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 204:53.Google Scholar
  100. Shields, G.A. 1978. Astrophys. J. 219:565.ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Shore, B.W. 1969. Astrophys. J. 158:1205.ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. Shull, J.M. 1980. Astrophys. J. 238:860.ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. Silverglate, P.R. 1984a. Astrophys. J. 278:604.ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. Silverglate, P.R. 1984b. Astrophys. J. 279:694.ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. Simpson, J.P. 1973a. Astrophys. Space Sei. 20:187.ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. Simpson, J.P. 1973b. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 85:479.ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Smith, L.F., and P.G. Mezger. 1976. Astron. Astrophys. 53:165.ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Tenorio-Tagle, G. 1979. Astron. Astrophys. 71:59.ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. Terzian, Y. 1980. In P.A. Shaver (ed.), Radio Recombination Lines. Dordrecht: Reidel, p. 75f.Google Scholar
  110. Terzian, Y, P.G. Mezger, and J. Schraml. 1968. Astrophys. Lett. 1:153.Google Scholar
  111. Terzian, Y., and A. Parrish. 1970. Astrophys. Lett. 5:261.Google Scholar
  112. Thum, C. 1980. In P.A. Shaver (ed.), Radio Recombination Lines. Dordrecht: Reidel, Fig. 9, p. 50.Google Scholar
  113. Thum, C., P.G. Mezger, and V. Pankonin. 1980. Astron. Astrophys. 87:269.ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. Troland, T.H., and C. Heiles. 1977. Astrophys. J. 214:703.ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. Turner, B.E., and H.E. Matthews. 1984. Astrophys. J. 277:164.ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. Val’tts, I.E.1982. Soviet Astron.—AJ. 27:18.Google Scholar
  117. van Gorkom, J. H. 1980. In P.A. Shaver (ed.), Radio Recombination Lines. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  118. van Gorkom, J.H, U.J. Schwarz, and J.D. Bregman. 1985. In H. van Woerden, R.J. Allen, W.B. Burton, (eds.), The Milky Way Galaxy. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  119. van Gorkom, J.H., P.A. Shaver, and W.M. Goss. 1979. Astron. Astrophys. 76:1.Google Scholar
  120. Vrba, F.J., K.M. Strom, S.E. Strom, and G.L. Grasdalen. 1975. Astrophys. J. 197:77.ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. Wade, C.M.1958. Aust. J. Phys. 11:388.ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. Wadiak, E.J., C.L. Sarazin, and R.L. Brown. 1983. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 53:351.ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. Walmsley, C.M., and W.D. Watson. 1982. Astrophys. J. 260:317.ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Walmsley, C.M., E. Churchwell, and Y. Terzian. 1981. Astron. Astrophys. 96:278.ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. Watson, W.D., L.R. Western, and R.B. Christensen, 1980. Astrophys. J. 240:956.ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. Wilson, T.L. 1980. In P.A. Shaver (ed.), Radio Recombination Lines. Dordrecht: Reidel, p. 205.Google Scholar
  127. Wilson, T.L., and T. Pauls. 1984. Astron. Astrophys. 138:225.ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. Wink, J.E., W.J. Altenhoff, and P.G. Mezger. 1982. Astron. Astrophys. 108:227.ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. Zuckerman, B.M., and P. Palmer. 1968. Astrophys. J. 153:L145.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Gordon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations