The simplest configuration for a flow with heat transfer is a uniform external flow over a flat surface, part or all of which is at a temperature different from that of the oncoming fluid (Fig. 1.1). In slightly more complicated cases the surface may be curved and the external-flow velocity u e may be a function of the longitudinal coordinate x, but in a large number of practical heat-transfer problems the variation of u e with y in the external flow is negligibly small compared with the variation of velocity in a region very close to the surface. Within this region, called the boundary layer, the x-component velocity u rises from zero at the surface to an asymptotic value equal to u e ; in practice one defines the thickness of this layer as the value of y at which u has reached, say, 0.995u e . The temperature also varies rapidly with y near the surface, changing from the surface value T w (subscript w means “wall”) to the external-flow value T e , which, like u e , can often be taken independent of y.


Combustion Glycerin Convection Enthalpy Benzene 


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    Cebeci, T. and Bradshaw, P.: Momentum Transfer in Boundary Layers. Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 1977.MATHGoogle Scholar
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    Keenan, J. H.:Thermodynamics. John Wiley, New York, 1941.Google Scholar
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    Lumley, J. L.: In Topics in Applied Physics, 12, Turbulence (P. Bradshaw, ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977.Google Scholar
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    Eckert, E. R. G. and Drake, R. M.:Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.MATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tuncer Cebeci
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Bradshaw
    • 3
  1. 1.Douglas Aircraft CompanyLong BeachUSA
  2. 2.Department of Aerospace EngineeringCalifornia State University, Long BeachLong BeachUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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