Unclassified Viruses and Caliciviridae: Other Viruses Associated with Gastroenteritis

  • Charles Richard Madeley

Abstract

Disease: Diarrhea and vomiting, gastroenteropathy, “astroenteritis,” “winter vomiting,” etc.

Etiologic Agents: Astro virus, calicivirus, Norwalk virus, small round virus(es) (SRVs), small round structured virus(es) (SRSVs), coronavirus(es).

Sources: Humans, directly (fecal, oral, droplet?) or indirectly (for example, by ingesting shellfish); at present animal sources seem unlikely, but cannot be excluded.

Clinical Manifestations: Diarrhea and vomiting, with or without mild fever, of short duration. May be endemic, epidemic, or originate from food-poisoning.

Pathology: Little known, but by analogy with other viruses, it is likely to include acute villous destruction and repair from undamaged crypts.

Laboratory Diagnosis: Demonstration of virus or viral antigen in feces by negative contrast electron microscopy or antibody-based tests (for Norwalk virus). No routine antibody tests are available, but when sought, antibody has been widely present.

Epidemiology: Endemic and/or epidemic throughout the world; more common in poorer and overcrowded areas. Some or perhaps all viruses transmitted in contaminated food (mostly raw shellfish) or water. Astroviruses occur most commonly in children younger than 5 years. Other viruses occur at any age.

Treatment: No specific treatment. Symptomatic, including oral rehydration, supplemented by parenteral fluids if necessary.

Prevention and Control: None other than care in the consumption of raw shellfish and maintenance of clean water supplies. No vaccines available.

Keywords

Hydration Leukemia Hexagonal Diarrhea Polypeptide 

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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

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  • Charles Richard Madeley

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