Orthomyxoviridae: The Influenza Viruses

  • Alan Kendal
  • Maurice W. Harmon

Abstract

Disease: Influenza, “flu,” “grippe.”

Etiologic Agents: Influenza type A (subtypes H1N1, H2N2, H3N2), type B, and type C.

Source: Human to human transmission. Occasionally transmitted from swine. Animal reservoirs may harbor viruses which, through genetic reassortant, become infectious for humans.

Clinical Manifestations: Rapid onset of malaise, fever, and myalgia, usually with nonproductive cough or sore throat. May often be subclinical.

Pathology: Cell necrosis and sloughing of ciliated columnar epithelium of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Complications include primary viral pneumonia and secondary bacterial pneumonia. Occasionally other complications such as myositis, myocarditis, and encephalitis occur.

Laboratory Diagnosis: Virus isolation from upper or lower respiratory tract. Antibody titer rise when acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum are tested by hemagglutination- inhibition, neutralization, enzyme immunoassay, or complement fixation.

Epidemiology: Worldwide. Seasonal in temperate climates; November to April in Northern Hemisphere and May to October in Southern Hemisphere. May be endemic in tropical areas.

Treatment: Oral amantadine or rimantadine if administered within 48 h of onset for influenza A only. Experimentally, aerosolized ribavirin for types A and B. Aspirin (salicylates) should be avoided in children younger than 19 years to reduce risk of Reye–s syndrome.

Prevention and Control: Inactivated vaccine (many countries) or live attenuated vaccine (USSR), amantadine and rimantadine. In institutions, vaccine efficacy is influenced by vaccination rate.

Keywords

Pneumonia Aspirin Polypeptide Interferon Trypsin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Air, G. M. 1981. Sequence relationships among the haemagglutinin genes of 12 subtypes of influenza A virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 7639–7643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apostolov, K., T. H. Flewett, and A. P. Kendal. 1970. Morphology of influenza A, B, C and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) virions and their replication, p. 3–26. InR. D. Barry and B. W. J. Mahy (eds.), The biology of large RNA viruses, Academic Press Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  3. Arden, N. H., P. A. Patriarca, and A. P. Kendal. 1986. Experiences in the use and efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine in nursing homes, p. 155–168. InA. P. Kendal, P. A. Patriarca (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Aymard-Henry, M., M. T. Coleman, W. R. Dowdle, W. G. Laver, G. C. Schild, and R. G. Webster. 1973. Influenza-virus neuraminidase and neuraminidase-inhibition test procedures. Bull. W.H.O. 48: 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barker, W. H. 1986. Excess pneumonia and influenza associated hospitalization during influenza A epidemics in the US, 1970–1978, p. 75–87. InA. P. Kendal, P. A. Patriarca (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Barry, R. D., D. R. Ives, and J. G. Cruickshank. 1962. Participation of deoxyribonucleic acid in the multiplication of influenza virus. Nature 194: 1139–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baxter, B. D., R. B. Couch, S. B. Greenberg, and J. A. Kasel. 1977. Maintenance of viability and comparison of identification methods for influenza and other respiratory viruses of humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 19–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berg, R. A., R. H. Yolken, S. I. Rennard, R. Dolin, B. R. Murphy, and S. E. Straus. 1980. New enzyme immunoassays for measurement of influenza A/Victoria/3/75 virus in nasal washes. Lancet 11: 851–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beveridge, W. B. 1977. Influenza: the last great plague. Heineman, London.Google Scholar
  10. Both, G. W., M. J. Sleigh, N. J. Cox, and A. P. Kendal. 1983. Antigenic drift in influenza virus H3 haemag-glutinin from 1968 to 1980: multiple evolutionary pathways and sequential amino acid changes at key antigenic sites. J. Virol. 48: 52–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Budnick, L. D., M. E. Moll, H. F. Hall, J. M. Mann, and A. P. Kendal. 1984. A pseudo-outbreak of influenza A associated with use of laboratory stock strain. Am. J. Public Health 74: 607–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buonagurio, D. A., S. Nakada, U. Desselberger, M. Krystal, and P. Palese. 1985. Noncumulative sequence changes in the haemagglutinin genes of influenza C virus isolates. Virology 146: 221–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burlington, B. D., M. L. Clements, G. Meiklejohn, M. Phelan, and B. R. Murphy. 1983. Haemagglutinin-specific antibody responses in immunoglobulin G, A, and M iso-types as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after primary or secondary infection of humans with influenza A virus. Infect. Immun. 41: 540–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Clements, M. L., R. F. Betts, E. L. Tierney, and B. R. Murphy. 1986. Comparison of inactivated and live influenza A virus vaccines, p. 255–269. InA. P. Kendal, P. A. Patriarca (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Clements, M. L., and B. R. Murphy. 1986. Development and persistence of local and systemic antibody responses in adults given live attenuated or inactivated influenza A virus vaccine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 66–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coleman, P. M., J. N. Varghese, and W. G. Laver. 1983. Structure of the catalytic and antigenic sites in influenza virus neuraminidase. Nature 303: 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Couch, R. B., J. M. Quarles, T. R. Cate, and J. M. Zahradnik. 1986. Clinical trials with live cold-reassortant influenza virus vaccines, p. 223–241. InA. P. Kendal, P. A. Patriarca (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Cox, N. J., S. Nakajima, R. Black, and A. P. Kendal. 1986. Oligonucleotide mapping of viral ribonucleic acid as an aid in identifying laboratory contaminants of influenza virus. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 4: 231–239.Google Scholar
  19. Daisy, J. A., F. S. Lief, and H. M. Friedman. 1979. Rapid diagnosis of influenza A infection by direct immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirates in adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9: 688–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Davenport, F. M., A. V. Hennessy, and T. Francis, Jr. 1953. Epidemiologic and immunologic significance of age distribution of antibody to antigenic variants of influenza virus. J. Exp. Med. 98: 641–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Doane, F. W., N. Anderson, A. Zbitnew, and A. J. Rhodes. 1969. Application of electron microscopy to the diagnosis of virus infections. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 100: 1043–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Drzeniek, R. 1972. Viral and bacterial neuraminidases, p. 35–74. InCurrent topics in microbiology and immunology, Vol. 59, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Dolin, R., R. C. Reichman, H. P. Madore, R. Maynard, P. N. Linton, and J. Webber-Jones. 1982. A controlled trial of amantadine and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 307: 580–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Espy, M. J., T. F. Smith, M. W. Harmon, and A. P. Kendal. 1986. Rapid detection of influenza virus by shell vial assay with monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 677–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Francis, T., J. E. Salk, and J. J. Quilligan. 1947. Experience with vaccination against influenza in the spring of 1947. Am. J. Public Health 37: 1013–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frank, A. L., R. B. Couch, C. H. Griffis, and B. D. Baxter. 1979. Comparison of different tissue cultures for isolation and quantitation of influenza and parainfluenza viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 32–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fulton, R. E., and P. J. Middleton. 1974. Comparison of immunofluorescence and isolation techniques in the diagnosis of respiratory viral infections of children. Infect. Immun. 10: 92–101.Google Scholar
  28. Gardner, P. S., and J. McQuillan. 1974. Rapid viral diagnosis. Application of immunofluorescence. Butterworth & Co., Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  29. Gilbert, B. E., S. Z. Wilson, and V. Knight. 1986. Ribavirin aerosol treatment of influenza virus infections, p. 343–356. InA. P. Kendal, and P. A. Patriarca (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Glezen, W. P., A. Paredes, and L. H. Taber. 1980. Influenza in children. Relationship to other respiratory agents. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 243: 1345–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glezen, W. P., H. R. Six, A. L. Frank, L. H. Taber, D. M. Perrotta, and M. Decker. 1986. Impact of epidemics upon communities and families, p. 63–73. InA. P. Kendal and P. A. Patriarca (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Gottschalk, A. 1957. Neuraminidase: the specific enzyme of influenza virus and Vibrio cholerae. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 23: 645–646.Google Scholar
  33. Grist, N. R., J. Kerr, and A. Isaacs. 1961. Rapid serological diagnosis of an outbreak of influenza. Br. Med. J. 2: 431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Guo, Y., and V. Desselberger. 1984. Genome analysis of influenza C viruses isolated in 1981/82 from pigs in China. J. Gen. Virol. 65: 1857–1872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Halonen, P., O. Meurman, T. Lovgren, I. Hemmila, and E. Soini. 1983. Detection of viral antigens by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 104: 133–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Halpin, T. J., F. J. Holtzhaver, R. J. Campbell, L. J. Hall, A. Correa-Villasenor, R. Lanese, J. Rice, and E. S. Hurwitz. 1982. Reye’s syndrome and medication use. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 248: 687–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hammond, G. W., S. J. Smith, and G. R. Noble. 1980. Sensitivity and specificity of enzyme immunoassay for serodiagnosis of influenza A virus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 141: 644–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harmon, M. W., and K. M. Pawlik. 1982. Enzyme immunoassay for direct detection of influenza type A and adenovirus antigens in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Harmon, M. W., D. J. Phillips, C. B. Reimer, and A. P. Kendal. 1986. Isotype-specific enzyme immunoassay for influenza antibody with monoclonal antibodies to human immunoglobulins. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 913–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Harmon, M. W., L. L. Russo, and S. Z. Wilson. 1983. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay with B-D-Galactosi- dase-Fab conjugate for detection of type A influenza virus antigen in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17: 305–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Harris, C. C., R. H. Yolken, H. Krokan, and I. C. Hsu. 1979. Ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay: application to detection of cholera toxin and rotavirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 5336–5339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hay, A. J., A. J. Wolstenholme, J. J. Skehel, and M. H. Smith. 1985. The molecular basis of the specific anti-influenza action of amantadine. EMBO J. 4: 3021–3024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hemmila, I. S., V. M. Dakubu, H. Siitari Mukkala, and T. Lovgren. 1984. Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays. Anal. Biochem. 137: 335–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Herrler, G., R. Rott, H. D. Klenk, H. P. Muller, A. K. Shukla, and R. Schaver. 1985. The receptor-destroying enzyme of influenza C virus is neuraminate-O-acetylestesase. EMBO J. 4: 1503–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hinshaw, V. S., W. J. Bean, J. Geraci, P. Fiorelli, G. Early, and R. G. Webster. 1986. Characterization of two influenza A viruses from a pilot whale. J. Virol. 58: 655–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hinshaw, V. S., and R. G. Webster. 1982. The natural history of influenza A viruses, p. 79–104. InA. S. Beare (ed.), Basic and applied influenza research, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  47. Hirst, G. K. 1950. The relationship of the receptors of a new strain of virus to those of the mumps-NDV-influenza group. J. Exp. Med. 91: 177–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Homma, M. 1986. Epidemiologic characteristics of type C influenza, p. 125–138. InA. P. Kendal and P. A. Patriarca (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Hoyle, L. 1968. The influenza viruses, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Huang, R. T. C., R. Rott, and H. D. Klenk. 1981. Influenza viruses cause hemolysis and fusion of cells. Virology 110: 243–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hurwitz, E. S., D. B. Nelson, C. Davis, D. Morens, and L. B. Schonberger. 1982. National surveillance for Reye syndrome: a five-year review. Pediatrics 70: 895–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: 1982. Fourth report on classification and nomenclature of viruses. R. E. F. Matthews (eds.), Intervirology 17:–199.Google Scholar
  53. Isaacs, A., A. W. Gledhill, and C. H. Andrews. 1952. Influenza A viruses. Laboratory studies with special reference to European outbreak of 1950–1951. Bull. WHO 6: 287–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson, P. R., S. Feldman, J. M. Thompson, J. D. Mahoney, and P. F. Wright. 1986. Immunity to influenza A virus infection in young children: a comparison of natural infection, live cold-adapted vaccine, and inactivated vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 154: 121–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Joncas, J. H., L. Berthiaume, R. Williams, P. Beaudry, and V. Pavilanis. 1969. Diagnosis of viral respiratory infections by electron microscopy. Lancet 1: 956–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kendal, A. P., N. H. Arden, and P. A. Patriarca. 1985. Influenza viruses, new strategy against an old enemy, p. 377–408. In L. M. de la Maza and E. M. Peterson (eds.), Medical virology IV, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  57. Kendal, A. P., and T. R. Cate. 1983. Increased sensitivity and reduced specificity of haemagglutination inhibition tests with ether-treated influenza B/Singapore/222/79. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 930–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kendal, A. P., and N. J. Cox. 1985. Forecasting the epidemic potential of influenza virus variants based on their molecular properties. Vaccine 3 (suppl): 263–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kendal, A. P., and W. R. Dowdle. 1986. Influenza virus, p. 515–520. InN. R. Rose, H. Friedman, and J. L. Fahey (eds.), Manual of clinical laboratory immunology (3rd ed.). American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  60. Kendal, A. P., J. M. Joseph, and G. Kobayashi. 1979. Laboratory-based surveillance of influenza virus in the United States during the winter of 1977–1978. 1. Periods of prevalence of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A strains, their relative rates of isolation in different age groups, and detection of antigenic variants. Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 449–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kendal, A. P., G. R. Noble, J. J. Skehel, and W. R. Dowdle. 1978. Antigenic similarity of influenza A (H1N1) viruses from epidemics in 1977–1978 to “Scandinavian” strains isolated in epidemics of 1950–1951. Virology 89: 632–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kendal, A. P., and P. A. Patriarca (eds.). 1986. Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Kendal, A. P., J. J. Skehel, and M. S. Pereira. 1982. Concepts and procedures for laboratory-based influenza surveillance. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  64. Kendal, A. P. 1987. Epidemiologic implications of changes in the influenza virus genome. Am. J. Med. 82 (suppl. 6A): 4–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kendal, A. P. 1982. Newer techniques in antigenic analysis with influenza viruses, p. 51–78. InA. S. Beare (ed.), Basic and applied influenza research. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  66. Kendal, A. P. 1975. A comparison of “influenza C” with prototype myxoviruses: receptor-destroying activity (neuraminidase) and structural polypeptides. Virology 65: 87–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Khan, M. W., D. J. Bucher, A. K. Kous, G. Kalish, H. Smith, and E. D. Kilbourne. 1982. Detection of antibodies to influenza virus M protein by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 813–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kilbourne, E. D. 1987. Influenza, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Klenk, H. D., R. Rott, M. Orlich, and J. Blodorn. 1975. Activation of influenza A viruses by trypsin treatment. Virology 68: 426–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Krizanova, D., and V. Rathova. 1969. Serum inhibitors of myxoviruses, p. 125.In Current topics in microbiology and immunology, Vol. 47, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Lamb, R. A. 1983. The influenza virus RNA segments and their encoded proteins, p. 21–69. InP. Palese and D. W. Kingsbury (eds.), Genetics of influenza viruses, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Lang, G., A. Gagnon, and J. R. Geraci. 1981. Isolation of an influenza A virus from seals. Arch. Virol. 68: 189–195.Google Scholar
  73. Laver, W. G., and E. D. Kilbourne. 1966. Identification in a recombinant influenza virus of structural proteins derived from both parents. Virology 30: 493–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lazarowitz, S. G., and P. W. Choppin. 1975. Enhancement of infectivity of influenza A and B viruses by proteolytic cleavage of the haemagglutinin polypeptide. Virology 68: 440–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu, C. 1956. Rapid diagnosis of human influenza infection from nasal smears by means of fluorescein-labeled antibody. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92: 883–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lui, K. J., and A. P. Kendal. 1987. Impact of influenza epidemics on mortality in the USA from October 1972 to May 1985. Am. J. Public Health 77: 712–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Madore, H. P., R. C. Reichman, and R. Dolin. 1983. Serum antibody responses in naturally occurring influenza A virus infection determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, haemagglutination-inhibition, and complement fixation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 1345–1350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Marine, W. M., J. E. McGowan, and J. E. Thomas. 1976. Influenza detection: a prospective comparison of surveillance methods and analysis of isolates. Am. J. Epidemiol. 104: 248–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Martin, M. L., E. L. Palmer, and A. P. Kendal. 1977. Lack of characteristic hexagonal surface structure on a newly isolated influenza C virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 84–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. McQuillan, J., R. C. Madeley, and A. P. Kendal. 1985. Monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B virus infections by immunofluorescence. Lancet 11: 911–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Meier-Ewert, H., R. W. Compans, D. H. L. Bishop, and G. Herrler. 1978. Molecular analysis of influenza C virus, p. 127–133. InB. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry (eds.), Negative strand viruses and the host cell. Academic Press, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  82. Meier-Ewert, H., A. Nagele, G. Herrler, S. Basak, and R. W. Compans. 1981. Analysis of influenza C virus structural proteins and identification of a virion RNA polymerase, p. 173–180. InD. H. L. Bishop and R. W. Compans (eds.), Replication of negative strand viruses, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Minnich, L. L., and G. C. Ray. 1987. Early testing of cell cultures for detection of hemadsorbing viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 421–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Monto, A. S., J. S. Koopman, and I. M. Longini, Jr. 1985. Tecumseh study of illness XIII. Influenza infection and disease, 1976–1981. Am. J. Epidemiol. 121: 811–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Monto, A. S., H. F. Maassab, and E. R. Bryan. 1981. Relative efficacy of embryonated eggs and cell culture for isolation of contemporary influenza viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 233–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Monto, A. S., and H. F. Maassab. 1981. Ether treatment of type B influenza virus antigen for the haemagglutination inhibition test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 54–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Murphy, B. R., D. L. Nelson, P. F. Wright, E. L. Tierney, M. A. Phelan, and R. M. Chanock. 1982. Secretory and systemic immunological response in children infected with live attenuated influenza A virus vaccines. Infect. Immun. 36: 1102–1108.Google Scholar
  88. Murphy, B. R., E. L. Tierney, B. A. Barbour, R. H. Yolken, D. W. Ailing, H. P. Holley, R. E. Mayner, and R. M. Chanock. 1980. Use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect serum antibody responses of volunteers who received attenuated influenza A virus vaccines. Infect. Immun. 29: 342–347.Google Scholar
  89. Murphy, B. R., M. A. Phelan, D. L. Nelson, R. Yarchoan, D. Tierney, W. Ailing, and R. M. Chanock. 1981. Haemagglutinin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to influenza A and B viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 554–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Nakajima, S., K. Nakajima, and A. P. Kendal. 1983. Identification of the binding sites to monoclonal antibodies on A/USSR/90/77 (H1N1) haemagglutinin and their involvement in antigenic drift in H1N1 influenza viruses. Virology 131: 116–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nakajima, S., N. J. Cox, and A. P. Kendal. 1981. Antigenic and genomic analyses of influenza A (H1N1) viruses from different regions of the world, February 1978 to March 1980. Infect. Immun. 32: 287–294.Google Scholar
  92. Nakajima, K., S. Nakajima, K. F. Shortridge, and A. P. Kendal. 1982. Further genetic evidence for maintenance of early Hong Kong-like influenza A (H3N2) strains in swine until 1976. Virology 116: 562–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Okazaki, K., R. Yanagawa, and H. Kida. 1983. Contact infection of mink with 5 subtypes of avian influenza virus. Arch. Virol. 77: 265–269.Google Scholar
  94. Palese, P., and D. W. Kingsburg. (eds.). 1983. Genetics of influenza viruses. Springer-Verlag, New York. Patriarca, P. A., J. A. Weber, and R. A. Parker. 1985.Google Scholar
  95. Efficacy of influenza vaccine in nursing homes. Reduction in illness and complications during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 253:1136–1139.Google Scholar
  96. Patriarca, P. A., J. A. Weber, and R. A. Parker. 1986. Risk factors for outbreaks of influenza in nursing homes. A case-control study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 124: 114–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Patriarca, P. A., N. A. Kater, A. P. Kendal, D. J. Bregman, J. D. Smith, and R. K. Sikes. 1984. Safety of prolonged administration of rimantadine hydrochloride in the prophylaxis of influenza A virus infections in nursing homes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26: 101–103.Google Scholar
  98. Pereira, H. G., B. Tumova, and V. G. Law. 1965. Avian influenza A viruses. Bull. W.H.O. 32: 855–860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rafelson, M. E., M. Schneir, and V. W. Wilson, Jr. 1963. Studies on the neuraminidase of influenza virus. II. Additional properties of the enzymes from the Asian and PR8 strains. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 103: 424–430.Google Scholar
  100. Ray, G. C., and L. L. Minnich. 1987. Efficiency of immunofluorescence for rapid detection of common respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 355–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Raymond, F. L., A. J. Caton, N. J. Cox, A. P. Kendal, and G. G. Brownlee. 1986. The antigenicity and evolution of influenza HI haemagglutinin from 1950–1957 and 1977–1983: two pathways from one gene. Virology 148: 275–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reichelderfer, P. S., K. A. Kappus, and A. P. Kendal. 1987. Economical laboratory support system for influenza virus surveillance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 947–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Reimer, C. B., D. J. Phillips, C. H. Aloisio, D. D. Moore, G. G. Galland, T. W. Wells, C. M. Black, and J. S. McDougal. 1984. Evaluation of thirty-one mouse monoclonal antibodies to human IgG epitopes. Hybridoma 3: 263–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Richardson, C. D., A. Scheid, and P. W. Choppin. 1980. Specific inhibition of paramyxovirus and myxovirus replication by oligopeptides with amino acid sequences similar to those at the N-terminal of the F, or HA2 viral polypeptides. Virology 105: 205–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Richman, D. D., D. H. Cleveland, D. C. Redfield, M. N. Oxman, and G. M. Wahl. 1984. Rapid viral diagnosis. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 298–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Robertson, J. S., C. W. Naeve, R. G. Webster, J. S. Bootman, R. Newman, and G. Schild. 1985. Alterations in the haemagglutinin associated with adaptation of influenza B virus to growth in eggs. Virology 143: 166–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rogers, G. N., J. C. Paulson, R. S. Daniels, J. J. Skehel, I. A. Wilson, and D. C. Wiley. 1983. Single amino acid substitutions in the influenza haemagglutinin change the specificity of receptor binding. Nature 304: 76–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rott, R., and H. D. Klenk. 1986. Pathogenicity of influenza virus in model systems, p. 53–62. InA. P. Kendal and P. A. Patriarca, (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Rott, R., and C. Scholtissek. 1970. Specific inhibition of influenza replication by a-amanitin. Nature 228:56.Google Scholar
  110. Sarkkinen, H. K., P. E. Halonen, and A. A. Salmi. 1981. Detection of influenza A virus by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-immunoassay from nasopharyngeal specimens. J. Med. Virol. 7: 213–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schmidt, N. J., M. Ota, D. Gallo, and V. L. Fox. 1982. Monoclonal antibodies for rapid, strain-specific identification of influenza virus isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 763–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Scholtissek, C., W. Rohde, V. vopn Hoyningen, and R. Rott. 1978. On the origin of the human influenza virus subtypes H2N2. Virology 87: 13–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Scholtissek, C. 1983. Enetic relatedness of influenza viruses, p. 99–126. InP. Palese and D. W. Kingsbury (eds.), Genetics of influenza viruses, Springer-Verlag, New York. Shalit, I., P. A. McKee, H. Beauchamp, and J. L. Waner. 1985. Comparison of polyclonal antiserum versus monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A virus infections by immunofluorescence in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 877–879.Google Scholar
  114. Shaw, M. W., P. W. Choppin, and R. A. Lamb. 1983. A previously unrecognized influenza B virus glycoprotein from a bicistronic mRNA that also encodes the viral neuraminidase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 4879–4883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shortridge, K. F., R. G. Webster, C. K. Butterfield, and C. H. Campbell. 1977. Persistence of Hong Kong influenza virus variants in pigs. Science 196: 1454–1455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Skehel, J. J., P. M. Bayley, E. M. Brown, S. R. Martin, M. D. Waterfield, J. M. White, I. A. Wilson, and D. C. Wiley. 1982. Changes in the conformation of influenza virus haemagglutinin at the pH optimum of virus-mediated membrane fusion. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 968–972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Soini, E. 1984. Pulsed light, time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay, p. 197–208. InC. A. Bizollon (ed.), Monoclonal antibodies and new trends in immunoassays, Elsevier Science Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Stuart-Harris, C. H., G. C. Schild, and J. S. Oxford. 1985. Influenza. The viruses and the diseases. Edward Arnold, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  119. Stuart-Harris, C. N., G. C. Schild, and J. S. Oxford. 1985. The chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy of influenza, p. 222–243. In Influenza. The viruses and the disease. Edward Arnold, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  120. Tobita, K., A. Sugiura, C. Enomoto, and M. Furuyama. 1975. Plaque assay and primary isolation of influenza A viruses in an established line of canine kidney cells (MDCK) in the presence of trypsin. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 162: 9–14.Google Scholar
  121. Turner, R., J. L. Lathey, L. P. Van Voris, and R. B. Belshe. 1982. Serological diagnosis of influenza B virus infection: comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the haemagglutination inhibition test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 824–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. United States Public Health Service. 1961. International conference on Asian influenza. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 83:part 2.Google Scholar
  123. Van Voris, L. P., R. F. Betts, F. G. Hayden, W. H. Christmas, and R. G. Douglas, Jr. 1981. Successful treatment of naturally occurring influenza A/USSR/90/77 H1N1. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 245: 1128–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Walls, H. H., M. W. Harmon, J. J. Slagle, C. Stocksdale, and A. P. Kendal. 1986a. Characterization and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies developed for typing influenza A and influenza B viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 240–245.Google Scholar
  125. Walls, H. H., K. H. Johannson, M. W. Harmon, P. E. Halonen, and A. P. Kendal. 1986b. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies for rapid diagnosis of influenza infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 907–912.Google Scholar
  126. Webster, R. G., W. G. Laver, and G. M. Air. 1983. Antigenic variation among type A influenza viruses, p. 127–168. InP. Palese and D. W. Kingsbury (eds.), Genetics of influenza viruses, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Wiley, D. C., I. A. Wilson, and J. J. Skehel. 1981. Structural identification of the antibody-binding sites of Hong Kong influenza haemagglutinin and their involvement in antigenic variation. Nature 289: 373–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. World Health Organization. 1980. A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses: a WHO memorandum. Bull. WHO 58: 585–591.Google Scholar
  129. World Health Organization. 1969. International Conference on Hong Kong influenza. Bull. WHO 41: 335–748.Google Scholar
  130. Yolken, R. H., and P. J. Stopa. 1979. Enzyme-linked fluorescence assay: ultrasensitive solid-phase assay for detection of human rotavirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 317–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Yolken, R. H., V. M. Torsch, R. Berg, B. R. Murphy, and Y. C. Lee. 1980. Fluorometric assay for measurement of viral neuraminidase. Application to the rapid detection of influenza virus in nasal wash specimens. J. Infect. Dis. 142: 516–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Younkin, S. W., R. F. Betts, F. R. Roth, and R. G. Douglas, Jr. 1983. Reduction in fever and symptoms in young adults with influenza A/Brazil/78 H1N1 infection after treatment with aspirin or amantadine. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 23: 577–582.Google Scholar
  133. Zhdanov, V. M. 1986. Live influenza vaccines in USSR: development of studies and practical application, p. 193–205. InA. P. Kendal and P. A. Patriarca (eds.), Options for the control of influenza, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  134. Zhirnov, O. P., A. V. Ovcharenko, and A. G. Bukrinskaya. 1985. Suppression of influenza virus replication in infected mice by protease inhibitors. J. Gen. Virol. 65: 191–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Kendal
  • Maurice W. Harmon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations