Advertisement

Abstract

Disease: Causes vomiting, diarrhea, and gastroenteritis in animals and man.

Biology of Rotaviruses: Generally a disease of newborn animals, the major symptom is acute diarrhea which may be accompanied by fever and vomiting. A wide variety of mammals and at least some birds are susceptible hosts, with transmission occurring by the fecal-oral route.

Properties of Virions: Virus particles are isometric, 65–75 mm in diameter, with a double- layered protein capsid. The genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The two surface proteins VP7 and VP3 are neutralization antigens, with VP7 determin-ing the virus serotype. The important antigenic sites on VP7 have been located.

Cell Specificity and Cultivation: The virus is adapted to infect the highly differentiated epithelial cells of the small intestine. Growth in cell culture requires the use of susceptible cell lines and the addition of trypsin to activate virions.

Immunity: Protection against rotaviral diarrhea depends on the presence of antibodies in the lumen of the gut. While early subclinical infections can confer protection from disease later, the degree of cross protection against other serotypes is unclear. The role of VP7 and VP3 proteins is currently being investigated.

Diagnosis: The dynamics of virus excretion and antibody responses have been well stud-ied, and the knowledge used to devise numerous diagnostic tests. Many of these are discussed in detail, including methods for detecting virus particles, antigens, or dsRNA, as well as measurement of secretory or serum antibodies. Current problems in subgrouping and cell culture adaptation are also presented and discussed

Keywords

Immune Electron Microscopy Cell Culture Adaptation Gnotobiotic Calf Vine Strain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Adams, W. R., and L. M. Kraft. 1967. Electron microscopic study of the intestinal epithelium of mice infected with the agent of epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM virus). Am. J. Pathol. 51: 39 – 44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agliano, A. M., A. Rossi, and A. Sanna. 1985. Isolation from fecal specimens of new strains of human rotavirus primarily cytopathic for stationary cell cultures without trypsin. Arch. Virol. 84: 119 – 127Google Scholar
  3. Albert, M. J., and R. F. Bishop. 1984. Cultivation of human rotaviruses in cell culture. J. Med. Virol. 13: 377 – 383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida, J. D. 1980. Practical aspects of diagnostic electron microscopy. Yale J. Biol. Med. 53: 5 – 18Google Scholar
  5. Babiuk, L. A., K. Mohammed, L. Spence, M. Fauvel, and R. Petro. 1977. Rotavirus isolation and cultivation in the presence of trypsin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 610 – 617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Banatvala, J. E., B. Totterdell, I. L. Chrystie, and G. N. Woode. 1975. In-vitro detection of human rotaviruses. Lancet 2: 821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartz, C. R., R. H. Conklin, C. B. Tunstall, and J. H. Steele. 1980. Prevention of murine rotavirus infection with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin. J. Infect. Dis. 142: 439 – 441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bastardo, J. W., J. L. McKimm-Breschkin, S. Sonza, L. D. Mercer, and I. H. Holmes. 1981. Preparation and characterization of antisera to electrophoretically purified SA11 virus polypeptides. Infect. Immun. 34: 641 – 647Google Scholar
  9. Bates, J., M. R. Goddard, and M. Butler. 1984. The detection of rotaviruses in products of wastewater treatment. J. Hyg. 93: 639 – 643Google Scholar
  10. Beards, G. M. 1982. Polymorphism of genomic RNAs within rotavirus serotypes and subgroups. Arch. Virol. 74: 65 – 70Google Scholar
  11. Beards, G. M., and T. H. Flewett. 1984. Serological characterization of human rotaviruses propagated in cell cultures. Arch. Virol. 80: 231 – 237Google Scholar
  12. Beards, G. M., J. N. Pilfold, M. E. Thouless, and T. H. Flewett. 1980. Rotavirus serotypes by serum neutralization. J. Med. Virol. 5: 231 – 237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Beards, G. M., A. D. Campbell, N. R. Cottrell, J. S. M. Peiris, N. Rees, R. C. Sanders, J. A. Shirley, H. C. Wood, and T. H. Flewett. 1984. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for rotavirus detection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 248 – 254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Besselaar, T. G., A. Rosenblatt, and A. H. Kidd. 1986. Atypical rotavirus from South African neonates. Arch. Virol. 87:327–330. Bishop, R. F. 1986. Epidemiology of diarrhoeal disease caused by rotavirus, p. 158–170. InJ. Holmgren, A. Lindberg, and R. Mollby (ed.), Development of vaccines and drugs against diarrhoea. Nobel Conference 11. Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden. Bishop, R. F., G. P. Davidson, I. H. Holmes, and B. J. Ruck. 1973. Virus particles in epithelial cells of duodenal mucosa from children with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Lancet 2: 1281 – 1283Google Scholar
  15. Bishop, R. F., G. P. Davidson, I. H. Holmes, and B. J. Ruck. 1974. Detection of a new virus by electron microscopy of faecal extracts from children with acute gastroenteritis. Lancet 1: 149 – 151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bishop, R. F., G. L. Barnes, E. Cipriani, and J. S. Lund. 1983. Clinical immunity after neonatal rotavirus infection. A prospective longitudinal study in young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 72 - 76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bishop, R. F., E. Cipriani, J. S. Lund, G. L. Barnes, and C. S. Hosking. 1984. Estimation of rotavirus immunoglobulin G antibodies in human serum samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay: expression of results as units derived from a standard curve. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 447 – 452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Black, R. E., M. H. Merson, I. Huq, A. R. Alim, and M. Yunus. 1981. Incidence and severity of rotavirus and Escherichia colidiarrhoea in rural Bangladesh. Implications for vaccine development. Lancet 1: 141 – 143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Blacklow, N. R., and G. Cukor. 1985. Viral gastroenteritis agents, p. 805–812. InE. H. Lennette (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 4th ed., American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  20. Bohl, E. H., K. W. Theil, and L. J. Saif. 1984. Isolation and serotyping of porcine rotaviruses and antigenic comparison with other rotaviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 105 – 111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Both, G. W., A. R. Bellamy, J. E. Street, and L. J. Siegman. 1982. A general strategy for cloning double- stranded RNA: nucleotide sequence of the simian-11 rotavirus gene 8. Nucleic Acids Res. 10: 7075 – 7088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Both, G. W., J. S. Mattick, and A. R. Bellamy. 1983a. Serotype-specific glycoprotein of simian 11 rotavirus: coding assignment and gene sequence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 3091 – 3095Google Scholar
  23. Both, G. W., L. J. Siegman, A. R. Bellamy, and P. H. Atkinson. 1983b. Coding assignment and nucleotide sequence of simian rotavirus SA11 gene segment 10: location of glycosylation sites suggests that the signal peptide is not cleaved. J. Virol. 48: 335 – 339Google Scholar
  24. Both, G. W., L. J. Siegman, A. R. Bellamy, N. Ikegami, A. J. Shatkin, and Y. Furuichi. 1984. Comparative sequence analysis of rotavirus genomic segment 6: the gene specifying viral subgroups 1 and 2. J. Virol. 51: 97 – 101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bradburne, A. F., J. D. Almeida, P. S. Gardner, R. B. Moosai, A. A. Nash, and R. R. A. Coombs. 1979. A solid phase system for the detection and quantification of rotavirus in faeces. J. Gen. Virol. 44: 615 – 623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brandt, C. D., H. W. Kim, W. J. Rodriguez, L. Thomas, R. H. Yolken, J. O. Arrobio, A. Z. Kapikian, R. H. Parrott, and R. M. Chanock. 1981. Comparison of direct electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, and rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of gastroenteritis viruses in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 976 – 981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bridger, J. C., and J. F. Brown. 1981. Development of immunity to porcine rotavirus in piglets protected from disease by bovine colostrum. Infect. Immun. 31: 906 – 910Google Scholar
  28. Bridger, J. C., and G. N. Woode. 1975. Neonatal calf diarrhoea: identification of a reovirus-like (rotavirus) agent in faeces by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy. Br. Vet. J. 131: 528 – 535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bridger, J. C., and G. N. Woode. 1976. Characterization of two particle types of calf rotavirus. J. Gen. Virol. 31: 245 – 250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bryden, A. S., H. A. Davies, M. E. Thouless, and T. H. Flewett. 1977. Diagnosis of rotavirus infection by cell culture. J. Med. Microbiol. 10: 121 – 125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Buitenwerf, J., M. Muilwijk-van Alphen, and G. J. P. Schaap. 1983. Characterization of rotaviral RNA isolated from children with gastroenteritis in two hospitals in Rotterdam. J. Med. Virol. 12: 71 – 78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cameron, D. J. S., R. F. Bishop, A. A. Veenstra, G. L. Barnes, I. H. Holmes, and B. J. Ruck. 1978. Pattern ofGoogle Scholar
  33. shedding of two non-cultivable viruses in stools of newborn babies. J. Med. Virol. 2:7–13Google Scholar
  34. Carlson, J. A. K., P. J. Middleton, M. T. Szymanski, J. Huber, and M. Petric. 1978. Fatal rotavirus gastroenteritis—analysis of 21 cases. Am. J. Dis. Child. 132: 477 – 479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Caton, A. J., G. G. Brownlee, J. W. Yewdell, and W. Gerhard. 1982. The antigenic structure of the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (HI subtype). Cell 31: 417 – 427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Caul, E. O., C, R. Ashley, and S. I. Egglestone. 1978. An improved method for the routine identification of faecal viruses using ammonium sulphate precipitation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 4: 1 – 4Google Scholar
  37. Chasey, D., J. C. Bridger, and M. A. McCrae. 1986. A new type of atypical rotavirus in pigs. Arch. Virol. 89: 235 – 243Google Scholar
  38. Chen, G.-M., T. Hung, J. C. Bridger, and M. A. McCrae. 1985. Chinese adult rotavirus is a group B rotavirus. Lancet 2: 1123 – 1124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chernesky, M., S. Castriciano, J. Mahony, and D. De- Long. 1985. Examination of the Rotazyme II enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 462 – 464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Chiba, S., S. Nakata, T. Urasawa, S. Urasawa, T. Yokoyama, Y. Morita, K. Taniguchi, and T. Nakao. 1986. Protective effect of naturally acquired homotypic and heterotypic rotavirus antibodies. Lancet 2: 417 – 421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Clark, S. M., J. R. Roth, M. L. Clark, B. B. Barnett, and R. S. Spendlove. 1981. Trypsin enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: mechanism of enhancement. J. Virol. 39: 816 – 822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Clem, T. R., and R. H. Yolken. 1978. Practical colorimeter for direct measurement of microplates in enzyme immunoassay systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 7: 55 – 58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Clementi, M., P. Pauri, P. Bagnarelli, G. Carloni, and L. Calegari. 1981. Diagnosis of human rotavirus infections: comparison of an electrophoretic method, a modified complement fixation test and electron microscopy for rotavirus detection. Arch. Virol. 67: 341 – 344Google Scholar
  44. Cohen, J. 1977. Ribonucleic acid polymerase activity associated with purified calf rotavirus. J. Gen. Virol. 36: 395 – 402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Coulson, B. S., and I. H. Holmes. 1984. An improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of rotaviruses in faeces of neonates. J. Virol. Methods 8: 165 – 179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Coulson, B. S., K. J. Fowler, R. F. Bishop, and R. G. H. Cotton. 1985. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to human rotavirus and indications of genetic drift among strains from neonates. J. Virol. 54: 14 – 20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Coulson, B. S., J. M. Tursi, W. J. McAdam, and R. F. Bishop. 1986. Derivation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to human rotaviruses and evidence that an immunodominant neutralization site is shared between serotypes 1 and 3. Virology 154: 302 – 312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Coulson, B. S., L. E. Unicomb, G. A. Pitson, and R. F. Bishop. 1987. Simple and specific enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies for serotyping human rotaviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 509 – 515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cranage, M. P., A. D. Campbell, J. L. Venters, S. Mawson, R. R. A. Coombs, and T. H. Flewett. 1985. Detection and quantitation of rotavirus using monoclonal antibody coupled red blood cells. J. Virol. Methods 11: 273 – 287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Croxson, M. C., and A. R. Bellamy. 1981. Extraction of rotaviruses from faeces by treatment with lithium dodecyl sulfate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 255 – 260Google Scholar
  51. Cukor, G., and N. R. Blacklow. 1984. Human viral gastroenteritis. Microbiol. Rev. 48: 157 – 179Google Scholar
  52. Cukor, G., M. K. Berry, and N. R. Blacklow. 1978. Simplified radioimmunoassay for detection of human rotavirus in stools. J. Infect. Dis. 138: 906 – 910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Cukor, G., N. R. Blacklow, F. E. Capozza, Z. F. K. Panjvani, and F. Bednarek. 1979. Persistence of antibodies to rotavirus in human milk. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9: 93 – 96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cukor, G., D. M. Perron, R. Hudson, and N. R. Blacklow. 1984. Detection of rotavirus in human stools by using monoclonal antibody. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 888 – 892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Davidson, G. P., R. F. Bishop, R. R. W. Townley, I. H. Holmes, and B. J. Ruck. 1975a. Importance of a new virus in acute sporadic enteritis in children. Lancet 1: 242 – 245Google Scholar
  56. Davidson, G. P., I. Goller, R. F. Bishop, R. R. W. Townley, I. H. Holmes, and B. J. Ruck. 1975b. Immunofluorescence in duodenal mucosa of children with acute enteritis due to a new virus. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 263 – 266Google Scholar
  57. Davidson, G. P., R. J. Hogg, and C. P. Kirubakaran. 1983. Serum and intestinal immune response to rotavirus enteritis in children. Infect. Immun. 40: 447 – 452Google Scholar
  58. De Zoysa, I., and R. G. Feachem. 1985. Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: rotavirus and cholera immunization. Bull. WHO 63: 569 – 583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dimitrov, D. H., M. K. Estes, S. M. Rangelova, L. M. Shindarov, J. L. Melnick, and D. Y. Graham. 1983. Detection of antigenically distinct rotaviruses from infants. Infect. Immun. 41: 523 – 526Google Scholar
  60. Pimitrov, D. H., D. Y. Graham, and M. K. Estes. 1985. Detection of rotaviruses by nucleic acid hybridization with cloned DNA of simian rotavirus SA11 genes. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 292 – 300Google Scholar
  61. Dolan, K. T., E. M. Twist, P. Horton-Slight, C. Forrer, L. M. Bell, Jr., S. A. Plotkin, and H. F. Clark. 1985. Epidemiology of rotavirus electropherotypes determined by a simplified diagnostic technique with RNA analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 753 – 758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dyall-Smith, M. L., and I. H. Holmes. 1981. Gene-coding assignments of rotavirus double-stranded RNA segments 10 and 11. J. Virol. 38: 1099 – 1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dyall-Smith, M. L., and I. H. Holmes. 1984. Sequence homology between human and animal rotavirus serotype- specific glycoproteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 3973 – 3982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Dyall-Smith, M. L., T. C. Elleman, P. A. Hoyne, I. H. Holmes, and A. A. Azad. 1983. Cloning and sequence of UK bovine rotavirus gene segment 7: marked sequence homology with simian rotavirus gene segment 8. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 3351 – 3362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Dyall-Smith, M. L., I. Lazdins, G. W. Tregear, and I. H. Holmes. 1986. Location of the major antigenic sites involved in rotavirus serotype-specific neutralization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 3465 – 3468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Echeverria, P., N. R. Blacklow, L. B. Sanford, and G. G. Cukor. 1981. Travellers diarrhoea among American Peace Corps volunteers in rural Thailand. J. Infect. Dis. 143: 767 – 771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Echeverria, P., N. R. Blacklow, G. G. Cukor, S. Vibulbandhitkit, S. Changchawalit, and P. Boonthai. 1983. Rotavirus as a cause of severe gastroenteritis in adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 663 – 667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Eiden, J., S. Vonderfecht, and R. H. Yolken. 1985. Evidence that a novel rotavirus-like agent of rats can cause gastroenteritis in man. Lancet 2: 8 – 11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. El-Mekki, A., W. Al-Nakib, S. K. Sethi, D. A. El-Khalik, and M. Al-Wuhaib. 1984. Pseudoreplica electron microscopy for the detection of rotavirus: comparison with high-speed centrifugation electron microscopy and ELISA. J. Virol. Methods 9: 79 – 85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Espejo, R. T., and F. Puerto. 1984. Shifts in the electropho- retic pattern of the RNA genome of rotaviruses under different electrophoretic conditions. J. Virol. Methods 8: 293 – 299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Espejo, R. T., E. Calderon, and N. Gonzalez. 1977. Distinct reovirus-like agents associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 502 – 506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Espejo, R. T., O. Munoz, F. Serafin, and P. Romero. 1980. Shift in the prevalent human rotavirus detected by ribonucleic acid segment differences. Infect. Immun. 27: 351 – 354Google Scholar
  73. Espejo, R. T., S. Lopez, and C. Arias. 1981. Structural polypeptides of simian rotavirus SA11 and the effect of trypsin. J. Virol. 37: 156 – 160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Estes, M. K., D. Y. Graham, and B. B. Mason. 1981. Proteolytic enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: molecular mechanisms. J. Virol. 39: 879 – 888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Estes, M. K., E. L. Palmer, and J. F. Obijeski. 1983. Rotaviruses: a review. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 105: 123 – 184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Estes, M. K., D. Y. Graham, and D. H. Dimitrov. 1984a. The molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Prog. Med. Virol. 29: 1 – 22Google Scholar
  77. Estes, M. K., B. B. Mason, S. Crawford, and J. Cohen. 1984b. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the simian rotavirus gene 6 that codes for the major inner capsid protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 1875 – 1887Google Scholar
  78. Fernelius, A. L., A. E. Ritchie, L. G. Classick, J. O. Norman, and C. A. Mebus. 1972. Cell culture adaptation and propagation of a reovirus-like agent of calf diarrhea from a field outbreak in Nebraska. Arch. Ges. Virus- forsch. 37: 114 – 130Google Scholar
  79. Flewett, T. H. 1982. Clinical features of rotavirus infections, p. 125–145. InD. A. J. Tyrrell and A. Z. Kapikian (ed.), Virus infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Flewett, T. H., and G. N. Woode. 1978. The rotaviruses. Arch. Virol. 57: 1 – 23Google Scholar
  81. Flewett, T. H., A. S. Bryden, and H. Davies. 1973. Virus particles in gastroenteritis. Lancet 2: 1497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Flewett, T. H., A. S. Bryden, H. Davies, G. N. Woode, J. C. Bridger, and J. M. Derrick. 1974. Relation between viruses from acute gastroenteritis of children and newborn calves. Lancet 2: 61 – 63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Flewett, T. H., M. E. Thouless, J. N. Pilford, A. S. Bryden, and J. A. N. Candeias. 1978. More serotypes of human rotavirus. Lancet 2: 632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Flores, J., I. Perez, L. White, M. Perez, A. R. Kalica, R. Marquina, R. G. Wyatt, A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1982. Genetic relatedness among human rotaviruses as determined by RNA hybridization. Infect. Immun. 37: 648 – 655Google Scholar
  85. Flores, J., E. Boeggeman, R. H. Purcell, M. Sereno, I. Perez, L. White, R. G. Wyatt, R. M. Chanock, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1983. A dot hybridization assay for detection of rotavirus. Lancet 1: 555 – 558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Forster, J., and S. Pastor. 1983. Epidemiology of human rotaviruses as determined by electrophoresis of genome RNA. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2: 141 – 147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Foster, L. G., M. W. Peterson, and R. S. Spendlove. 1975. Fluorescent virus precipitin test. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 150: 155 – 160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Foster, S. O., E. L. Palmer, G. W. Gary, Jr., M. L. Martin, K. L. Herrmann, P. Beasley, and J. Sampson. 1980. Gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in an isolated Pacific Island group: an epidemic of 3439 cases. J. Infect. Dis. 141: 32 – 39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Garbarg-Chenon, A., F. Bricout, and J. C. Nicolas. 1984. Study of genetic reassortment between two human rotaviruses. Virology 139: 358 – 365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Garbarg-Chenon, A., J. C. Nicolas, M. Bouvier, G. Desjouis, G. Molinier, D. Repiquet, M. H. Baptista- Lourenco, J. P. Gomant, F. Bricout, and J. M. Huraux. 1986. Epidemiologic and genomic study of rotavirus strains infecting young children and calves in the same rural environment. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2: 108 – 111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gaul, S. K., T. F. Simpson, G. N. Woode, and R. W. Fulton. 1982. Antigenic relationships among some animal rotaviruses: virus neutralization in vitro and cross protection in piglets. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 495 – 503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Gerna, G., M. Torsellini, N. Passarani, M. Battaglia, E. Percivalle, A. Sarasini, D. Torre, and P. Ferrante. 1984. Subgrouping of human rotavirus strains by complement fixation, indirect double-antibody sandwich enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay and solid phase immune electron microscopy. Arch. Virol. 81: 193 – 203Google Scholar
  93. Gerna, G., N. Passarani, A. Sarasini, and M. Battaglia. 1985. Characterization of serotypes of human rotavirus strains by solid-phase immune electron microscopy. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 1143 – 1151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ghose, L. H., R. D. Schnagl, and I. H. Holmes. 1978. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitation of rotavirus antibodies with complement fixation in an epidemiological survey. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 268 – 276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Gouvea, V. S., A. A. Alencar, O. M. Barth, L. de Castro, A. M. Fialho, H. P. Araujo, S. Majerowicz, and H. G. Pereira. 1986. Diarrhoea in mice infected with a human rotavirus. J. Gen. Virol. 67: 577 – 581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Grauballe, P. C., J. Genner, A. Meyling, and A. Hornsleth. 1977. Rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infections: comparison of electron microscopy and immunoelectro-os- mophoresis for the detection of rotavirus in human infantile gastroenteritis. J. Gen. Virol. 35: 203 – 218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Grauballe, P. C., K. Hjelt, P. A. Krasilnikoff, and P. O. Schitz. 1981a. ELISA for rotavirus-specific secretory IgA in human sera. Lancet 2: 588 – 589Google Scholar
  98. Grauballe, P. G., B. F. Vestergaard, A. Meyling, and J. Genner. 1981b. Optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of human and bovine rotavirus in stools: comparison with electron microscopy, immunoelectro-osmophoresis and fluorescent antibody techniques. J. Med. Virol. 7: 29 – 40Google Scholar
  99. Greenberg, H. B., A. R. Kalica, R. G. Wyatt, R. W. Jones, A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1981. Rescue of noncultivatable human rotavirus by gene reassortment during mixed infection with ts mutants of a cultivable bovine rotavirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 420 – 424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Greenberg, H. B., R. G. Wyatt, A. Z. Kapikian, A. R. Kalica, J. Flores, and R. Jones. 1982. Rescue and sero- typic characterization of noncultivable human rotavirus by gene reassortment. Infect. Immun. 37: 104 – 109Google Scholar
  101. Greenberg, H. B., J. Flores, A. R. Kalica, R. G. Wyatt, and R. Jones. 1983a. Gene coding assignments for growth restriction, neutralization and subgroup specificities of the W and DS-1 strains of human rotavirus. J. Gen. Virol. 64: 313 – 320Google Scholar
  102. Greenberg, H., V. McAuliffe, J. Valdesuso, R. Wyatt, J. Flores, A. Kalica, Y. Hoshino, and N. Singh. 1983b. Serological analysis of the subgroup protein of rotavirus, using monoclonal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 39: 91 – 99Google Scholar
  103. Greenberg, H. B., J. Valdesuso, K. van Wyke, K. Midthun, M. Walsh, V. McAuliffe, R. G. Wyatt, A. R. Kalica, J. Flores, and Y. Hoshino. 1983c. Production and preliminary characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed at two surface proteins of rhesus rotavirus. J. Virol. 47: 267 – 275Google Scholar
  104. Grimwood, K. 1986. Serum and mucosal responses to ro- tavirus infections in infants and young children. M.D. thesis, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  105. Gurwith, M., W. Wenman, D. Hinde, S. Feltham, and H. Greenberg. 1981. A prospective study of rotavirus infection in infants and young children. J. Infect. Dis. 144: 218 – 224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Halvorsrud, J., and I. Orstavik. 1980. An epidemic of ro- tavirus-associated gastroenteritis in a nursing home for the elderly. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 12: 161 – 164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hammond, G. W., G. S. Ahluwalia, B. Klisko, and P. R. Hazelton. 1984. Human rotavirus detection by coun- terimmunoelectrophoresis versus enzyme immunoassay and electron microscopy after direct centrifugation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 439 – 441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hamre, D., C. G. Loosli, and P. Gerber. 1958. Antigenic variants of influenza A virus (PR8 strain). III. Serological relationships of a line of variants derived in sequence in mice given homologous vaccine. J. Exp. Med. 107: 829 – 844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hasegawa, A., S. Matsuno, S. Inouye, R. Kono, Y. Tsurukubo, A. Mukoyama, and Y. Saito. 1982. Isolation of human rotaviruses in primary cultures of monkey kidney cells. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 387 – 390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hasegawa, A., S. Inouye, S. Matsuno, K. Yamaoka, R. Eko, W. Suharyono. 1984. Isolation of human rotaviruses with a distinct RNA electrophoretic pattern from Indonesia. Microbiol. Immunol. 28: 719 – 722Google Scholar
  111. Hebert, J. P., R. Caillet, B. Hacquard, and B. Fortier. 1981. Use of Staphylococcus aureusprotein “A” to detect rotavirus in stools. Pathol. Biol. (Paris) 29: 101 – 104Google Scholar
  112. Herring, A. J., N. F. Inglis, C. K. Ojeh, D. R. Snodgrass, and J. D. Menzies. 1982. Rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection by the direct detection of viral nucleic acid in silver stained poly aery lamide gels. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 473 – 477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Herrmann, J. E., N. R. Blacklow, D. M. Perron, G. Cukor, P. J. Krause, J. S. Hyams, H. J. Barrett, and P. L. Ogra. 1985. Enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies for the detection of rotavirus in stool specimens. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 830 – 832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hohmann, A., J. T. La Brooy, G. P. Davidson, and D. J. C. Shearman. 1983. Measurement of specific antibodies in human intestinal aspirate: effect of the protease inhibitor phenyl-methyl sulfonyl fluoride. J. Immunol. Methods 64: 199 – 204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Holmes, I. H. 1979. Viral gastroenteritis. Prog. Med. Virol. 25: 1 – 36Google Scholar
  116. Holmes, I. H. 1983. Rotaviruses, p. 359-423. InW. K. Joklik (ed.), The Reoviridae. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  117. Holmes, I. H. 1985. Epidemiology of rotavirus infections based on analysis of genome RNA, p. 195–200. InS. Tzipori (ed.), Infectious diarrhoea in the young. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  118. Holmes, I. H., B. J. Ruck, R. F. Bishop, and G. P. Davidson. 1975. Infantile enteritis viruses: morphogenesis and morphology. J. Virol. 16: 937 – 943Google Scholar
  119. Holmes, I. H., S. M. Rodger, R. D. Schnagl, B. J. Ruck, I. D. Gust, R. F. Bishop, and G. L. Barnes. 1976. Is lactase the receptor and uncoating enzyme for infantile enteritis (rota) viruses? Lancet 1: 1387 – 1389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Hoshino, Y., R. G. Wyatt, H. B. Greenberg, J. Flores, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1984. Serotypic similarity and diversity of human and animal rotaviruses as studied by plaque reduction neutralization. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 694 – 702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Hoshino, Y., M. M. Sereno, K. Midthun, J. Flores, A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1985. Independent segregation of two antigenic specificities (VP3 and VP7) involved in neutralization of rotavirus infectivity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 8701 – 8704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Hughes, J. H., A. V. Tuomari, D. R. Mann, and V. V. Hamparian. 1984. Latex immunoassay for rapid detection of rotavirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 441 – 447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Hundley, F., B. Biryahwaho, M. Gow, and U. Des- selberger. 1985. Genome rearrangements of bovine rotavirus after serial passage at high multiplicity of infection. Virology 143: 88 – 103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Hung, T., G. Chen, C. Wang, Z. Chou, T. Chao, W. Ye, H. Yao, and K. Meng. 1983. Rotavirus-like agent in adult non-bacterial diarrhoea in China. Lancet 2: 1078 – 1079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Hung, T., G. Chen, C. Wang, H. Yao, Z. Fang, T. Chao, Z. Chou, W. Ye, X. Chang, S. Den, X. Liong, and W. Chang. 1984. Waterborne outbreak of rotavirus diarrhoea in adults in China caused by a novel rotavirus. Lancet 1: 1139 – 1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Imai, M., M. A. Richardson, N. Ikegami, A. J. Shatkin, and Y. Furuichi. 1983. Molecular cloning of double-stranded RNA virus genomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 373 – 377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Inouye, S., S. Matsuno, and H. Yamaguchi. 1984. Efficient coating of the solid phase with rotavirus antigens for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of immunoglobulin A antibody in feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 259 – 263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Johnson, D. A., J. W. Gautsch, J. R. Sportsman, and J. H. Elder. 1984. Improved technique utilizing nonfat dry milk for analysis of proteins and nucleic acids transferred to nitrocellulose. Gene Anal. Tech. 1: 3 – 8Google Scholar
  129. Kalica, A. R., R. H. Purcell, M. M. Sereno, R. G. Wyatt, H. W. Kim, R. M. Chanock, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1977. A microtiter solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of the human reovirus-like agent in stools. J. Immunol. 118: 1275 – 1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kalica, A. R., M. M. Sereno, R. G. Wyatt, C. A. Mebus, R. M. Chanock, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1978. Comparison of human and animal rotavirus strains by gel electrophoresis of viral RNA. Virology 87: 247 – 255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kalica, A. R., H. B. Greenberg, R. T. Espejo, J. Flores, R. G. Wyatt, A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1981a. Distinctive ribonucleic acid patterns of human rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2. Infect. Immun. 33: 958 – 961Google Scholar
  132. Kalica, A. R., H. B. Greenberg, R. G. Wyatt, J. Flores, M. M. Sereno, A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1981b. Genes of human (strain Wa) and bovine (strain UK) rotaviruses that code for neutralization and subgroup antigens. Virology 112: 385 – 390Google Scholar
  133. Kantharidis, P., M. L. Dyall-Smith, and I. H. Holmes. 1983. Completion of the gene coding assignments of SA11 rotavirus: gene products of segments 7, 8 and 9. J. Virol. 48: 330 – 334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kapikian, A. Z., and R. M. Chanock. 1985. Rotaviruses, p. 863-906. InB. N. Fields, D. N. Knipe, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, B. Roizman, and R. E. Shope (ed.), Virology. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  135. Kapikian, A. Z., H. W. Kim, R. G. Wyatt, W. J. Rodriguez, S. Ross, W. L. Cline, R. H. Parrott, and R. M. Chanock. 1974. Reoviruslike agent in stools: association with infantile diarrhea and development of serologic tests. Science 185: 1049 – 1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kapikian, A. Z., R. G. Wyatt, H. B. Greenberg, A. R. Kalica, H. W. Kim, C. D. Brandt, W. J. Rodriguez, R. H. Parrott, and R. M. Chanock. 1980. Approaches to immunization of infants and young children against gastroenteritis due to rotaviruses. Rev. Infect. Dis. 2: 459 – 469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kapikian, A. Z., W. L. Cline, H. B. Greenberg, R. G. Wyatt, A. R. Kalica, C. E. Banks, H. D. James, Jr., J. Flores, and R. M. Chanock. 1981. Antigenic characterization of human and animal rotaviruses by immune ad herence hemagglutination assay (I AH A): evidence for distinctness of I AH A and neutralization antigens. Infect. Immun. 33: 415 – 425Google Scholar
  138. Killen, H. M., and N. J. Dimmock. 1982. Identification of a neutralization-specific antigen of a calf rotavirus. J. Gen. Virol. 62: 297 – 311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Kim, H. W., C. D. Brandt, A. Z. Kapikian, R. G. Wyatt, J. O. Arrobio, W. J. Rodriguez, R. M. Chanock, and R. H. Parrott. 1977. Human reovirus-like agent infection. Occurrence in adult contacts of pediatric patients with gastroenteritis. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 238: 404 – 407Google Scholar
  140. Knisley, C. V., A. J. Bednarz-Prashad, and L. K. Pickering. 1986. Detection of rotavirus in stool specimens with monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based assay systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 897 – 900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Knowlton, D. R., and R. L. Ward. 1985. Effect of mutation in immunodominant neutralization epitopes on the antigenicity of rotavirus SA11. J. Gen. Virol. 66: 2375 – 2381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Konno, T., H. Suzuki, A. Imai, and N. Ishida. 1977. Reovirus-like agent in acute epidemic gastroenteritis in Japanese infants: faecal shedding and serologic response. J. Infect. Dis. 135: 259 – 266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kraft, L. M. 1958. Observations on the control and natural history of epidemic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM). Yale J. Biol. Med. 31: 121 – 137Google Scholar
  144. Krause, P. J., J. S. Hyams, P. J. Middleton, V. C. Herson, and J. Flores. 1983. Unreliability of Rotazyme ELISA test in neonates. J. Pediatr. 103: 259 – 262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kurstak, E. 1985. Progress in enzyme immunoassays: production of reagents, experimental design, and interpretation. Bull. WHO 63: 793 – 811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kutsuzawa, T., T. Konno, H. Suzuki, A. Z. Kapikian, T. Ebina, and N. Ishida. 1982. Isolation of human rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2 in cell culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 727 – 730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Laemmli, U. K. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227: 680 – 685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Lazdins, I., S. Sonza, M. L. Dyall-Smith, B. S. Coulson, and I. H. Holmes. 1985. Demonstration of an immunodominant neutralization site by analysis of antigenic variants of SA11 rotavirus. J. Virol. 56: 317 - 319Google Scholar
  149. Lecce, J. G., M. W. King, and W. E. Dorsey. 1978. Rearing regimen producing piglet diarrhea (rotavirus) and its relevance to acute infantile diarrhea. Science 199: 776 – 778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Light, J. S., and H. L. Hodes. 1949. Isolation from cases of infantile diarrhea of a filtrable agent causing diarrhea in calves. J. Exp. Med. 90: 113 – 135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Lin, M., M. Imai, A. R. Bellamy, N. Ikegami, Y. Furuichi, D. Summers, D. L. Nuss, and R. Deibel. 1985. Diagnosis of rotavirus infection with cloned cDNA copies of viral genome segments. J. Virol. 55: 509 – 512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Linhares, A. C., F. P. Pinheiro, R. B. Freitas, Y. B. Gabbay, J. A. Shirley, and G. M. Beards. 1981. An outbreak of rotavirus diarrhea among a nonimmune, isolated South American Indian community. Am. J. Epidemiol. 113: 703 – 710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Little, L. M., and J. A. Shadduck. 1982. Pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 38: 755 – 763Google Scholar
  154. Liu, S., C. Birch, A. Coulepis, and I. Gust. 1984. Radioim- munofocus assay for detection and quantitation of human rotavirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 347 – 350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lopez, S., C. F. Arias, J. R. Bell, J. H. Strauss, and R. T. Espejo. 1985. Primary structure of the cleavage site associated with trypsin enhancement of rotavirus SA11 infectivity. Virology 144: 11 – 19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Lourenco, M. H., J. C. Nicolas, J. Cohen, R. Scherrer, and F. Bricout. 1981. Study of human rotavirus genome by electrophoresis: attempt of classification among strains isolated in France. Ann. Virol. (Paris) 132E: 161 - 173Google Scholar
  157. Lycke, E., J. Blomberg, G. Bag, A. Eriksson, and L. Madsen. 1978. Epidemic acute diarrhoea in adults associated with infantile gastroenteritis virus. Lancet 2: 1056 – 1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Madeley, C. R. 1977. Guide to the collection and transport of virological specimens. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  159. Malherbe, H. H., and M. Strickland-Cholmley. 1967. Simian virus SA11 and the related O agent. Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 22: 235 – 245Google Scholar
  160. Mason, B. B., D. Y. Graham, and M. K. Estes. 1983. Biochemical mapping of the simian rotavirus SA11 genome. J. Virol. 46: 413 – 423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Mata, L., A. Simhon, J. J. Urrutia, R. A. Kronmal, R. Fernandez, and B. Garcia. 1983. Epidemiology of rotaviruses in a cohort of 45 Guatemalan Mayan Indian children observed from birth to the age of three years. J. Infect. Dis. 148: 452 – 461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Mathan, M., J. D. Almeida, and J. Cole. 1977. An antigenic subunit present in rotavirus infected faeces. J. Gen. Virol. 34: 325 – 329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Matsuno, S., and S. Nagayoshi. 1978. Quantitative estimation of infantile gastroenteritis virus antigens in stools by immune adherence hemagglutination test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 7: 310 – 311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Matsuno, S., S. Inouye, and R. Kono. 1977. Plaque assay of neonatal calf diarrhea virus and the neutralizing antibody in human sera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5: 1 – 4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Matsuno, S., A. Hasegawa, A. Mukoyama, and S. Inouye. 1985. A candidate for a new serotype of human rotavirus. J. Virol. 54: 623 – 624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. McLean, B., and I. H. Holmes. 1980. Transfer of antiro- taviral antibodies from mothers to their infants. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12: 320 – 325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. McLean, B. S., and I. H. Holmes. 1981. Effects of antibodies, trypsin and trypsin inhibitors on susceptibility of neonates to rotavirus infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 22 – 29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. McNulty, M. S. 1978. Rotaviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 40: 1 – 18Google Scholar
  169. McNulty, M. S., G. M. Allan, D. Todd, J. B. McFerran, E. R. McKillop, D. S. Collins, and R. M. McCracken. 1980. Isolation of rotaviruses from turkeys and chickens: demonstration of distinct serotypes and RNA elec- tropherotypes. Avian Pathol. 9: 363 – 375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. McNulty, M. S., D. Todd, G. M. Allan, J. B. McFerran, and J. A. Greene. 1984. Epidemiology of rotavirus infection in broiler chickens: recognition of four serogroups. Arch. Virol. 81: 113 – 121Google Scholar
  171. Mebus, C. A., and L. E. Newman. 1977. Scanning electron, light, and immunofluorescent microscopy of intestine of gnotobiotic calf infected with reovirus-like agent. Am. J. Vet. Res. 38: 553 – 558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mebus, C. A., N. R. Underdahl, M. B. Rhodes, and M. J. Twiehaus. 1969. Calf diarrhea (scours): reproduced with a virus from a field outbreak. Univ. Neb. Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Bull. 233: 1 – 16Google Scholar
  173. Mebus, C. A., M. Kono, N. R. Underdahl, and M. J. Twiehaus. 1971a. Cell culture propagation of neonatal calf diarrhea (scours) virus. Can. Vet. J. 12: 69 – 72Google Scholar
  174. Mebus, C. A., E. L. Stair, N. R. Underdahl, and M. J. Twiehaus. 1971b. Pathology of neonatal calf diarrhea induced by a reo-like virus. Vet. Pathol. 8: 490 – 505Google Scholar
  175. Middleton, P. J., M. T. Szymanski, G. D. Abbott, R. Bortolussi, and J. R. Hamilton. 1974. Orbivirus: acute gastroenteritis of infancy. Lancet 1: 1241 – 1244Google Scholar
  176. Middleton, P. J., M. Petric, C. M. Hewitt, M. T. Szymanski, and J. S. Tam. 1976. Counter-immunoelectro- osmophoresis for the detection of infantile gastroenteri tis virus (orbi-group) antigen and antibody. J. Clin. Pathol. 29: 191 – 197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Middleton, P. J., M. D. Holdaway, M. Petric, M. T. Szymanski, and J. S. Tam. 1977. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of rotavirus. Infect. Immun. 16: 439 – 444Google Scholar
  178. Midthun, K., H. B. Greenberg, Y. Hoshino, A. Z. Kapikian, R. G. Wyatt, and R. M. Chanock. 1985. Reassor- tant rotaviruses as potential live rotavirus vaccine candidates. J. Virol. 53: 949 – 954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Miotti, P. G., J. Eiden, and R. H. Yolken. 1985. Comparative efficiency of commercial immunoassays for the diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis during the course of infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 693 – 698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Moosai, R. B., M. J. Carter, and C. R. Madeley. 1984. Rapid detection of enteric adenovirus and rotavirus: a simple method using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Pathol. 37: 1404 – 1408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Moosai, R. B., R. Alcock, T. M. Bell, F. R. Laidler, J. S. M. Pieris, A. P. Wyn-Jones, and C. R. Madeley. 1985. Detection of rotavirus by a latex-agglutination test, Rotalex: comparison with electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Pathol. 38: 694 – 700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Morinet, F., F. Ferchal, R. Colimon, and Y. Perol. 1984. Comparison of six methods for detecting human rotavirus in stools. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 3: 136 – 140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Murphy, A. M., M. B. Albrey, and E. B. Crewe. 1977. Rotavirus infections of neonates. Lancet 2: 1149 - 1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Nakagomi, O., A. Nakagomi, T. Suto, H. Suzuki, T. Kutsuzawa, F. Tazawa, T. Konno, and N. Ishida. 1982. Detection of human rotavirus by reversed passive hemagglutination (RPHA) using antibody against a cultivable human rotavirus as compared with electron microscopy (EM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microbiol. Immunol. 26: 747 – 751Google Scholar
  185. Nakagomi, O., T. Nakagomi, H. Oyamada, and T. Suto. 1985. Relative frequency of human rotavirus subgroups I and II in Japanese children with acute gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 17: 29 – 34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Newman, J. F. F., F. Brown, J. C. Bridger, and G. N. Woode. 1975. Characterization of a rotavirus. Nature 258: 631 – 633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Nicolaieff, A., G. Obert, and M. H. V. van Regenmortel. 1980. Detection of rotavirus by serological trapping on antibody-coated electron microscope grids. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12: 101 – 104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Nicolas, J. C., M. H. Lourenco, S. Marchal, J. Cohen, R. Scherrer, and F. Bricout. 1983. Description of a very simplified method for rotavirus ds RNA extraction. Ann. Virol. (Paris) 134: 135 – 139Google Scholar
  189. Nicolas, J. C., P. Pothier, J. Cohen, M. H. Lourenco, R. Thompson, P. Guimbaud, A. Chenon, M. Dauvergne, and F. Bricout. 1984. Survey of human rotavirus propagation as studied by electrophoresis of genomic RNA. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 688 – 693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Novo, E., and J. Esparza. 1981. Composition and topography of structural polypeptides of bovine rotavirus. J. Gen. Virol. 56: 325 – 335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Obert, G., R. Gloeckler, J. Burckard, and M. H. van Regenmortel. 1981. Comparison of immunosorbent electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassay and counterim- munoelectrophoresis for detection of human rotavirus in stools. J. Virol. Methods 3: 99 – 107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Offit, P. A., and H. F. Clark. 1985a. Protection against rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis in a murine model by passively acquired gastrointestinal but not circulating antibodies. J. Virol. 54: 58 – 64Google Scholar
  193. Offit, P. A., and H. F. Clark. 1985b. Maternal antibody- mediated protection against gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in newborn mice is dependent on both serotype and titer of antibody. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 1152 – 1158Google Scholar
  194. Offit, P. A., H. F. Clark, A. H. Taylor, R. G. Hess, P. A. Bachmann, and S. A. Plotkin. 1984. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 266 – 270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Offit, P. A., G. Blavat, H. B. Greenberg, and H. F. Clark. 1986a. Molecular basis of rotavirus virulence: role of gene segment 4. J. Virol. 57: 46 – 49Google Scholar
  196. Offit, P. A., R. D. Shaw, and H. B. Greenberg. 1986b. Passive protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea by monoclonal antibodies to VP3 and VP7. J. Virol. 58: 700 – 703Google Scholar
  197. Okada, Y., M. A. Richardson, N. Ikegami, A. Nomoto, and Y. Furuichi. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of human rotavirus genome segment 10, an RNA encoding a glycosylated virus protein. J. Virol. 51: 856 – 859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Orstavik, I., and K. W. Haug. 1976. Virus-specific IgM antibodies in acute gastroenteritis due to a reovirus-like agent (rotavirus). Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 8: 237 – 240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Orstavik, I., K. W. Haug, and A. S0vde. 1976. Rotavirus- associated gastroenteritis in two adults probably caused by virus reinfection. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 8: 277 – 278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Othman, R. Y., M. Y. Jaliha, N. B. Rasool, and S. K. Lam. 1986. Asian group for rapid viral diagnosis—evaluation of two commercial kits for the detection of rotavirus in faecal samples. Virus Information Exch. Newsl. 3: 5 – 6Google Scholar
  201. Pedley, S., and M. A. McCrae. 1984. A rapid screening assay for detecting individual RNA species in field isolates of rotaviruses. J. Virol. Methods 9: 173 – 181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Pedley, S., J. C. Bridger, J. F. Brown, and M. A. McCrae. 1983. Molecular characterization of rotaviruses with distinct group antigens. J. Gen. Virol. 64: 2093 – 2101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Pedley, S., F. Hundley, I. Chrystie, M. A., McCrae, and U. Desselberger. 1984. The genomes of rotaviruses isolated from chronically infected immunodeficient children. J. Gen. Virol. 65: 1141 – 1150Google Scholar
  204. Pereira, H. G., R. S. Azeredo, F. Sutmoller, J. P. G. Leite, V. de Farias, O. M. Barth, and M. N. P. Vidal. 1983a. Comparison of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 78: 483 – 490Google Scholar
  205. Pereira, H. G., J. P. G. Leite, R. S. Azeredo, V. de Farias, and F. Sutmoller. 1983b. An atypical rotavirus detected in a child with gastroenteritis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 78: 245 – 250Google Scholar
  206. Portnoy, B. L., R. Conklin, M. Menn, J. Olarte, and H. L. Du Pont. 1977. Reliable identification of reovirus-like agent in diarrheal stools. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 89: 560 – 563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Richardson, A., A. Iwamoto, N. Ikegami, A. Nomoto, and Y. Furuichi. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the serotype specific antigen of human (Wa) rotavirus: comparison with the homologous genes from simian SA11 and UK bovine rotaviruses. J. Virol. 51: 860 – 862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Rodger, S. M., and I. H. Holmes. 1979. Comparison of the genomes of simian, bovine, and human rotaviruses by gel electrophoresis and detection of genomic variation among bovine isolates. J. Virol. 30: 839 – 846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Rodger, S. M., R. D. Schhagl, and I. H. Holmes. 1975. Biochemical and biophysical characteristics of diarrhea viruses of human and calf origin. J. Virol. 16: 1229 – 1235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Rodger, S. M., R. F. Bishop, C. Birch, B. McLean, and I. H. Holmes. 1981. Molecular epidemiology of human rotaviruses in Melbourne, Australia, from 1973 to 1979, as determined by electrophoresis of genome ribonucleic acid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 272 – 278Google Scholar
  211. Rodger, S. M., R. F. Bishop, and I. H. Holmes. 1982. Detection of a rotavirus-like agent associated with diarrhoea in an infant. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 724 – 726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Rodriguez, W. J., H. W. Kim, J. O. Arrobio, C. D. Brandt, R. M. Chanock, A. Z. Kapikian, R. G. Wyatt, and R. H. Parrott. 1977. Clinical features of acute gastroenteritis associated with human reovirus-like agent in infants and young children. J. Pediatr. 91: 188 – 193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Rodriguez, W. J., H. W. Kim, C. D. Brandt, M. K. Gardner, and R. H. Parrott. 1983. Use of electrophoresis of RNA from human rotavirus to establish the identity of strains involved in outbreaks in a tertiary care nursery. J. Infect. Dis. 148: 34 – 40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rogers, F. G., S. Chapman, and H. Whitby. 1981. A comparison of lyphogel, ammonium sulphate and ultra-cen- trifugation in the concentration of stool-viruses for electron microscopy. J. Clin. Pathol. 34: 227Google Scholar
  215. Rook, G. A. W., and C. H. Cameron. 1981. An inexpensive, portable, battery-operated photometer for the reading of ELISA tests in microtitration plates. J. Immunol. Methods 40: 109 – 114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Roseto, A., J. Escaig, E. Delain, J. Cohen, and R. Scherrer. 1979. Structure of rotaviruses as studied by the freeze-drying technique. Virology 98: 471 – 475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Sabara, M., D. Deregt, L. A. Babiuk, and V. Misra. 1982. Genetic heterogeneity within individual bovine rotavirus isolates. J. Virol. 44: 813 – 8. 22Google Scholar
  218. Salmi, T. T., P. Arstila, and A. Koivikko. 1978. Central nervous system involvement in patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 10: 29 – 31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Sambourg, M., A. Goudeau, C. Courant, G. Pinon, and F. Denis. 1985. Direct appraisal of latex agglutination testing, a convenient alternative to enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rotavirus in childhood gastroenteritis, by comparison of two enzyme immunoassays and two latex tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 622 – 625Google Scholar
  220. Sanekata, T., and H. Okada. 1983. Human rotavirus detection by agglutination of antibody-coated erythrocytes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17: 1141 – 1147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Santosham, M., R. H. Yolken, E. Quiroz, L. Dillman, G. Oro, W. G. Reeves, and R. B. Sack. 1983. Detection of rotavirus in respiratory secretions of children with pneumonia. J. Pediatr. 103: 583 – 585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Sarkkinen, H. K. 1981. Human rotavirus antigen detection by enzyme-immunoassay with antisera against Nebraska calf diarrhoea virus. J. Clin. Pathol. 34: 680 – 685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Sarkkinen, H. K., P. E. Halonen, and P. P. Arstila. 1979. Comparison of four-layer radioimmunoassay and electron microscopy for detection of human rotavirus. J. Med. Virol. 4: 255 – 260Google Scholar
  224. Sarkkinen, H. K., H. Tuokko, and P. E. Halonen. 1980. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay for detection of human rotaviruses and adenoviruses in stool specimens. J. Virol. Methods 1: 331 – 341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Sato, K., Y. Inaba, T. Shinozaki, R. Fujii, and M. Matsumoto. 1981. Isolation of human rotavirus in cell cultures. Arch. Virol. 69: 155 – 160Google Scholar
  226. Saulsbury, F. T., J. A. Winkelstein, and R. H. Yolken. 1980. Chronic rotavirus infection in immunodeficiency. J. Pedatr. 97: 61 – 65Google Scholar
  227. Scherrer, R., and S. Bernard. 1977. Application of enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the detection of calf rotavirus and rotavirus antibodies. Ann. Microbiol. (Paris) 128A: 499 – 510Google Scholar
  228. Schroeder, B. A., J. E. Street, J. Kalmakoff, and A. RGoogle Scholar
  229. Bellamy. 1982. Sequence relationships between the genome segments of human and animal rotavirus strains. J. Virol. 43: 379 – 385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Shaw, R., D. L. Stoner-Ma, M. K. Estes, and H. B. Greenberg. 1985. Specific enzyme-linked immunoassay for rotavirus serotypes 1 and 3. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 286 – 291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sheridan, J. F., L. Aurelian, G. Barbour, M. Santosham, R. B. Sack, and R. W. Ryder. 1981. Traveller’s diarrhea associated with rotavirus infection: analysis of virus- specific immunoglobulin classes. Infect. Immun. 31: 419 – 429Google Scholar
  232. Shinozaki, T., H. Ushijima, T. Tajima, B. Kim, K. Araki, and R. Fujii. 1985. Evaluation of four tests for detecting human rotavirus in feces. Eur. J. Pediatr. 143: 238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Simhon, A., L. Mata, M. Vives, L. Rivera, S. Vargas, G. Ramirez, L. Lizano, G. Catarinella, and J. Azofeifa. 1985. Low endemicity and low pathogenicity of rotaviruses among rural children in Costa Rica. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 1134 – 1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Smith, K. O. 1967. Identification of viruses by electron microscopy, p. 545–567. InH. Busch (ed.), Methods in cancer research, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  235. Smith, M. L., I. Lazdins, and I. H. Holmes. 1980. Coding assignments of dsRNA segments of SA11 rotavirus established by in vitro translation. J. Virol. 33: 976 – 982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Snodgrass, D. R., and P. W. Wells. 1976. Rotavirus infection in lambs: studies on passive protection. Arch. Virol. 52: 201 – 206Google Scholar
  237. Snodgrass, D. R., and P. W. Wells. 1978. The immuno- prophylaxis of rotavirus infections in lambs. Vet. Rec. 102: 146 – 148Google Scholar
  238. Snodgrass, D. R., C. R. Madeley, P. W. Wells, and K. W. Angus. 1977. Human rotavirus in lambs: infection and passive protection. Infect. Immun. 16: 268 – 270Google Scholar
  239. Snodgrass, D. R., A. J. Herring, I. Campbell, J. M. Inglis, and F. D. Hargreaves. 1984a. Comparison of atypical rotaviruses from calves, piglets, lambs and man. J. Gen. Virol. 65: 909 – 914Google Scholar
  240. Snodgrass, D. R., C. K. Ojeh, I. Campbell, and A. J. Herring. 1984b. Bovine rotavirus serotypes and their significance for immunization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 342 – 346Google Scholar
  241. Sonza, S., and I. H. Holmes. 1980. Coproantibody response to rotavirus infection. Med. J. Aust. 2: 496 – 499Google Scholar
  242. Sonza, S., A. M. Breschkin, and I. H. Holmes. 1983. Derivation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against rotavirus. J. Virol. 45: 1143 – 1146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Spence, L., M. Fauvel, R. Petro, and S. Bloch. 1977. Comparison of counterimmunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy for laboratory diagnosis of human reovirus- like agent-associated infantile gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5: 248 – 249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Spencer, E. G., L. F. Avendano, and B. I. Garcia. 1983. Analysis of human rotavirus mixed electropherotypes. Infect. Immun. 39: 569 – 574Google Scholar
  245. Street, J. E., M. C. Croxson, W. F. Chadderton, and A. R. Bellamy. 1982. Sequence diversity of human rotavirus strains investigated by Northern blot hybridization analysis. J. Virol. 43: 369 – 378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Stuker, G., L. S. Oshiro, and N. J. Schmidt. 1980. Antigenic comparisons of two new rotaviruses from rhesus monkeys. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11: 202 – 203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Suzuki, H., T. Konno, Y. Numazaki, S. Kitaoka, T. Sato, A. Imai, F. Tazawa, T. Nakagomi, O. Nakagomi, and N. Ishida. 1984. Three different serotypes of human rotavirus determined using an interference test with coxsackievirus Bl. J. Med. Virol. 13: 41 – 44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Svensson, L., M. Grandien, and C.-A. Pettersson. 1983. Comparison of solid-phase immune electron microscopy by use of protein A with direct electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of rotavirus in stool. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 1244 – 1249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Taniguchi, K., T. Urasawa, S., Urasawa, and T. Yasuhara. 1984. Production of subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies against human rotaviruses and their application to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for subgroup determination. J. Med. Microbiol. 14: 115 – 125Google Scholar
  250. Taniguchi, K., S. Urasawa, and T. Urasawa. 1985. Preparation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with different reactivity patterns to human rotaviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 66: 1045 – 1053Google Scholar
  251. Theil, K. W., E. H. Bohl, and A. G. Agnes. 1977. Cell culture propagation of porcine rotavirus (reovirus-like agent). Am. J. Vet. Res. 38: 1765 – 1768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Theil, K. W., C. M. McClosky, L. J. Saif, D. R. Redman, E. H. Bohl, D. D. Hancock, E. M. Kohler, and P. D. Moorhead. 1981. A rapid, simple method for preparing rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid for analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14: 273 – 280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Thouless, M. E., A. S. Bryden, T. H. Flewett, G. N. Woode, J. C. Bridger, D. R. Snodgrass, and J. A. Herring. 1977. Serological relationships between rotaviruses from different species as studied by complement fixation and neutralization. Arch. Virol. 53: 287 – 294Google Scholar
  254. Thouless, M. E., G. M. Beards, and T. H. Flewett. 1982. Serotyping and subgrouping of rotavirus strains by the ELISA test. Arch. Virol. 73: 219 – 230Google Scholar
  255. Tsuchie, H., K. Shimase, I. Tamura, O. Kurimura, E. Kaneto, T. Katsumoto, M. Ito, and T. Kurimura. 1983. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, electron microscopy, and reversed passive hemagglutination for detection of human rotavirus in stool specimens. Biken J. 26: 87 – 92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Tufvesson, B., and T. Johnsson. 1976. Immunoelectroos- mophoresis for detection of reolike virus: methodology and comparison with electron microscopy. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. B 84: 225 – 228Google Scholar
  257. Urasawa, T., S. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi. 1981. Sequential passages of human rotavirus in MA-104 cells. Microbiol. Immunol. 25: 1025 – 1035Google Scholar
  258. Urasawa, S., T. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi. 1982. Three human rotavirus serotypes demonstrated by plaque neutralization of isolated strains. Infect. Immun. 38: 781 – 784Google Scholar
  259. Vesikari, T., H. K. Sarkkinen, and M. Maki. 1981. Quantitative aspects of rotavirus excretion in childhood diarrhoea. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 70: 717 – 721Google Scholar
  260. Vesikari, T., E. Isolauri, E. D’Hondt, A. Delem, F. E. Andre, and G. Zissis. 1984. Protection of infants against rotavirus diarrhoea by RIT 4237 attenuated bovine rotavirus strain vaccine. Lancet 1: 977 – 981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. von Bonsdorff, C. H., T. Hovi, P. Makela, L. Hovi, and M. Tevalvoto-Aarn. 1976. Rotavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in adults. Lancet 2: 423Google Scholar
  262. Wang, S., R. Cai, J. Chen, R. Li, and R. Jiang. 1985. Etiologic studies of the 1983 and 1984 outbreaks of epidemic diarrhea in Guangxi. Intervirology 24: 140 – 146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Ward, C. W., T. C. Elleman, A. A. Azad, and M. L. Dyall-Smith. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of gene segment 9 encoding a nonstructural protein of UK bovine rotavirus. Virology 134: 249 – 253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Ward, C. W., A. A. Azad, and M. L. Dyall-Smith. 1985. Structural homologies between RNA gene segments 10 and 11 from UK bovine, simian SA11, and human Wa rotaviruses. Virology 144: 328 – 336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Ward, R. L., D. R. Knowlton, and M. J. Pierce. 1984.c Efficiency of human rotavirus propagation in cell culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 748–753Google Scholar
  266. Wenman, W. M., D. Hinde, S. Feltham, and M. Gurwith. 1979. Rotavirus infections in adults: results of a prospective family study. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 303 – 306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. White, L., I. Perez, M. Perez, G. Urbina, H. B. Greenberg, A. Z. Kapikian, and J. Flores. 1984. Relative frequency of rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2 in Venezuelan children with gastroenteritis as assayed by monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 516 – 520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. WHO Programme for Diarrhoeal Diseases Control. 1984. Nomenclature of human rotaviruses: designation of subgroups and serotypes. Bull. WHO 62: 501 – 503Google Scholar
  269. WHO Scientific Working Group. 1980. Rotavirus and other viral diarrhoeas. Bull. WHO 58: 183 – 198Google Scholar
  270. Wilsnack, R. E., J. H. Blackwell, and J. C. Parker. 1969. Identification of an agent of epizootic diarrhea of infant mice by immunofluorescent and complement fixation tests. Am. J. Vet. Res. 30: 1195 – 1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Woode, G. N. 1982. Rotaviruses in animals, p. 295-313. InD. A. J. Tyrrell and A. Z. Kapikian (ed.), Virus infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  272. Woode, G. N., J. Jones, and J. Bridger. 1975. Levels of colostral antibodies against neonatal calf diarrhoea virus. Vet. Rec. 97: 148 – 149Google Scholar
  273. Woode, G. N., J. C. Bridger, J. M. Jones, T. H. Flewett, A. S. Bryden, H. A. Davies, and G. B. B. White. 1976. Morphological and antigenic relationships between viruses (rotaviruses) from acute gastroenteritis of children, calves, piglets, mice and foals. Infect. Immun. 14: 804 – 810Google Scholar
  274. Woode, G. N., N. E. Kelso, T. F. Simpson, S. K. Gaul, L. E. Evans, and L. Babiuk. 1983. Antigenic relationships among some bovine rotaviruses: serum neutralization and cross-protection in gnotobiotic calves. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 358 – 364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Wyatt, R. G., C. A. Mebus, R. H. Yolken, A. R. Kalica, H. D. James, Jr., A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1979. Rotaviral immunity in gnotobiotic calves: heterologous resistance to human virus induced by bovine virus. Science 203: 548 – 550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Wyatt, R. G., W. D. James, E. H. Bohl, K. W. Theil, L. J. Saif, A. R. Kalica, H. B. Greenberg, A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1980. Human rotavirus type 2: cultivation in vitro. Science 207: 189 – 191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Wyatt, R. G., H. B. Greenberg, W. D. James, A. L. Pittman, A. R. Kalica, J. Flores, R. M. Chanock, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1982. Definition of human rotavirus serotypes by plaque reduction assay. Infect. Immun. 37: 110 – 115Google Scholar
  278. Wyatt, R. G., H. D. James, Jr., A. L. Pittman, Y. Hoshino, H. B. Greenberg, A. R. Kalica, J. Flores, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1983a. Direct isolation in cell culture of human rotaviruses and their characterization into four serotypes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 310 – 317Google Scholar
  279. Wyatt, R. G., A. Z. Kapikian, and C. A. Mebus. 1983b. Induction of cross-reactive serum neutralizing antibody to human rotavirus in calves after in utero administration of bovine rotavirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 505 – 508Google Scholar
  280. Yolken, R. H. 1982. Enzyme immunoassays for detecting human rotavirus, p. 51–74. InD. A. J. Tyrrell and A. Z. Kapikian (ed.), Virus infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  281. Yolken, R. H., and F. J. Leister. 1981. Evaluation of enzyme immunoasssays for the detection of human rotavirus. J. Infect. Dis. 144: 379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Yolken, R. H., and P. J. Stopa. 1979. Analysis of nonspecific reactions in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing for human rotavirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 703 – 707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Yolken, R. H., H. W. Kim, T. Clem, R. G. Wyatt, A. R. Kalica, R. M. Chanock, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1977. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human reovirus-like agent of infantile gastroenteritis. Lancet 2: 263 – 266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Yolken, R. H., L. Mata, B. Garcia, J. J. Urrutia, R. G. Wyatt, R. M. Chanock, and A. Z. Kapikian. 1978a. Secretory antibody directed against rotavirus in human milk - measurement by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). J. Pediatr. 93: 916 – 921Google Scholar
  285. Yolken, R. H., R. G. Wyatt, H. W. Kim, A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1978b. Immunological response to infection with human reovirus-like agent: measurement of anti-human reovirus-like agent immunoglobulin GGoogle Scholar
  286. and M levels by the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infect. Immun. 19: 540–546Google Scholar
  287. Yolken, R. H., R. G. Wyatt, G. Zissis, C. D. Brandt, W. J. Rodriguez, H. W. Kim, R. H. Parrott, J. J. Urrutia, L. Mata, H. B. Greenberg, A. Z. Kapikian, and R. M. Chanock. 1978c. Epidemiology of human rotavirus types 1 and 2 as studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. N. Engl. J. Med. 299: 1156 – 1161Google Scholar
  288. Yow, M. D., J. L. Melnick, R. J. Blattner, W. B. Stephenson, N. M. Robinson, and M. A. Burkhardt. 1970. The association of viruses and bacteria with infantile diarrhea. Am. J. Epidemiol. 92: 33 – 39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Zissis, G., and J. P. Lambert. 1978. Different serotypes of human rotavirus. Lancet 1: 38 - 39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Zissis, G., J. P. Lambert, and D. de Kegel. 1978. Routine diagnosis of human rotaviruses in stools. J. Clin. Pathol. 31: 175 – 178PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian H. Holmes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations