Herpesviridae: Herpes Simplex Virus

  • Erik Lycke
  • Stig Jeansson


Disease: Herpes simplex virus infections. Etiologic Agents: Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Source: Human to human spread of infection.

Clinical Manifestations: Oropharyngeal infections, eczema herpeticum, keratoconjunctivitis, genital infections, neonatal infections, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, nosocomial infections, and infections in the immunocompromised patient.

Pathology: Primary and recurrent infections, the latter originating from activation of infection in latently infected sensory neurons. Commonly, a restricted mucocutaneous vesiculation and ulceration; occasionally, a necrotizing systemic disease. Type 1 virus is commonly associated with oropharyngeal infections, type 2 is commonly associated with genital infections.

Laboratory Diagnosis: Virus isolation or demonstration of viral antigens in secretions or infected tissue specimens. Serology by observations of specific IgG, IgM, and/or IgA antibody response. Typing of virus by type-specific, usually monoclonal antibodies; demonstration of virus-type-related antibodies by means of type-specific viral antigen preparations.

Epidemiology: Worldwide, most commonly subclinical infection, transmission essentially by virus-containing secretions from oropharyngeal or genitourinary tracts. Circulation of virus is maintained by spread of virus from activated latent infections.

Treatment: Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir (Zovirax).

Prevention and Control: Active immunization with experimental vaccines and passive immunization with hyperimmune immunoglobulin preparations are under evaluation.


Herpes Simplex Virus Herpes Simplex Virus Type Thymidine Kinase Antiviral Drug Genital Herpes 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Alestig, K., L. Burman, A. Forkman, K. Lovgren, M. Forsgren, T. Bergstrom, E. Dahlqvist, and A. Fryden. 1984. Acyclovir versus vidarabine in herpes simplex encephalitis. Randomized multicentre study in consecutive Swedish patients. Lancet 2: 707 – 711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, I., C. R. Ashley, K. J. Smith, J. Harbour, A. P. Roome, and J. M. Darville. 1985. Comparison of ELISA with virus isolation for the diagnosis of genital herpes. J. Clin. Pathol. 38: 554 – 557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, J. D. 1983. Uses and abuses of diagnostic electron microscopy, p. 147–158. InP. Bachman (ed.), Current topics in microbiology and immunology. New developments in diagnostic virology, vol. 104. Springer-Verlag KG, Berlin.Google Scholar
  4. Andrewes, C. H, and E. A. Carmichael. 1930. A note on the presence of antibodies to herpes virus in post-encephalitis and other human sera. Lancet 1: 857 – 858.Google Scholar
  5. Ashley, R., J. Benedetti, and L. Corey. 1985. Humoral immune response to HSV-1 and HSV-2 proteins in patients with primary genital herpes. J. Med. Virol. 17: 153 – 166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baucke, R. B., and P. G. Spear. 1979. Membrane proteins specified by herpes simplex viruses V. Identification of an Fc-binding glycoprotein. J. Virol. 32: 779 – 789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumann, R. J., J. W. Walsh, R. L. Gilmore, C. Lee, P. Wong, H. D. Wilson, and W. R. Markesbery. 1985. Brain biopsy in cases of neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis. Neurosurgery 16: 619 – 624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman, P. W., T. Gregory, D. Crase, and L. A. Lasky. 1985. Protection from genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by vaccination with cloned type 1 glycoprotein D. Science 227: 1490 – 1492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bishal, F. R., and N. A. Labzoffsky. 1974. Stability of different viruses in a newly developed transport medium. Can. J. Microbiol. 20: 75 – 80.Google Scholar
  10. Brock, D. J., and S. van Heyningen. 1983. A simple method for ranking the affinities of monoclonal antibodies. J. Immunol. Methods 62: 147 – 153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, Z. A., L. A. Vontver, J. Benedetti, C. W. Critchlow, D. E. Hackok, C. J. Sells, S. Berry, and L. Corey. 1985. Genital herpes in pregnancy: risk factors associated with recurrences and asymptomatic viral shedding. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 153: 24 – 30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryson, Y., M. Dillon, M. Lovett, D. Bernstein, E. Garratty, and J. Sayre. 1985. Treatment of first episode genital HSV with oral acyclovir: long term follow-up of recurrences. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 47: 70 – 79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Buchman, T. G., B. Roizman, G. Adams, and B. HewittStover. 1978. Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of herpes simplex virus DNA: a novel epidemiological tool applied to a nosocomial outbreak. J. Infect. Dis. 138: 488 – 498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Burns, W. H., R. Saral, G. W. Santos, O. L. Laskin, P. S. Lietman, C. McLaren, and D. W. Barry. 1982. Isolation and characterization of resistant herpes simplex virus after acyclovir therapy. Lancet 1: 421 – 423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bzik, D. J., B. A. Fox, N. A. DeLuka, and S. Person. 1984. Nucleotide sequence specifying the glycoprotein gene, gB of herpes simplex virus type 1. Virology 133: 301 – 314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Camacho, A., and P. G. Spear. 1978. Transformation of hamster embryofibroblasts by a specific fragment of the herpes simplex virus genome. Cell 15: 993 – 1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Campbell, A. M. 1984. The production and characterization of human and rodent hybridomas, p. 99-101. InR. H. Burdon and P. H. van Knippenberg (ed). Monoclonal antibody technology. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  18. Centifanto, Y. M., D. M. Drylic, S. L. Deardourff, and H. E. Kaufman. 1972. Herpesvirus type 2 in male genito-urinary tract. Science 178: 318 – 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chuang, T. Y., W. P. D. Su, H. O. Perry, D. M. Ilstrup, and L. T. Kurland. 1983. Incidence and trend of herpes progenitalis. Clin. Proc. 58: 436 – 441.Google Scholar
  20. Clayton, A.-L., U. Beckford, C. Roberts, S. Sutherland, A. Druse, J. Best, and S. Chantler. 1985. Factors influencing the sensitivity of herpes simplex virus detection in a simultaneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies. J. Med. Virol. 17: 275 – 282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Coleman, R. M., A. J. Nahmias, S. C. William, D. J. Phillips, C. M. Black, and C. B. Reimer. 1985. IgG subclass antibodies to herpes simplex virus. J. Infect. Dis. 151: 929 – 936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coleman, R. M., L. Pereira, P. D. Bailey, D. Dondero, C. Wickliffe, and A. J. Nahmias. 1983. Determination of herpes simplex virus type-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 287 – 291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Corey, L. 1986. Laboratory diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections. Principles guiding the development of rapid diagnostic tests. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 4(Suppl. 3): 1118 – 1198.Google Scholar
  24. Cremer, N. E., C. K. Cossen, C. V. Hansen, and G. R. Shell. 1982. Evaluation and reporting of enzyme immunoassay determinations of antibody to herpes simplex virus in sera and cerebrospinal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 815 – 823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis, W. B., J. A. Taylor, and J. E. Oakes. 1979. Ocular infection with herpes simplex virus type 1: prevention of acute herpetic encephalitis by systemic administration of virus-specific antibody. J. Infect. Dis. 140: 534 – 539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Duermeyer, W. Z., and J. van der Veen. 1978. Specific detection of IgM antibodies by ELISA, applied in hepatitis A. Lancet 2: 684 – 685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fayram, S. L., S. Aarnaes, and L. M. de la Maza. 1983. Comparison of Culturset to a conventional tissue cul- ture-fluorescent-antibody technique for isolation and identification of herpes simplex virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 215 – 216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Feorino, P. M., S. L. Shore, and C. B. Reimer. 1977. Detection by indirect immunofluorescence of Fc receptors in cells acutely infected with herpes simplex virus. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 53: 222 – 233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Field, H. J., and G. Darby. 1980. Pathogenicity in mice of strains of herpes simplex virus which are resistant to acyclovir in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 17: 209 – 216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Finter, N. B. 1969. Dye uptake methods for assessing viral cytopathogenicity and their application to interferon assays. J. Gen. Virol. 5: 419 – 427.Google Scholar
  31. Frame, B., J. B. Mahony, N. Balachandran, W. E. Rawls, and M. A. Chernensky. 1984. Identification and typing of herpes simplex virus by enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 162 – 166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Friedman, M. G., and N. Kimmel. 1982. Herpes simplex virus specific serum immunoglobulin A: detection in patients with primary or recurrent herpes infections and in healthy adults. Infect. Immun. 37: 374 – 377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Frietz, M. E., and A. J. Nahmias. 1972. Reversal polarity in transmembrane potentials of cells infected with herpesviruses. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 139: 1159 – 1161.Google Scholar
  34. Fung, J. C., J. Shanley, and R. C. Tilton. 1985. Comparison of the detection of herpes simplex virus in direct clinical specimens with herpes simplex virus-specific DNA probes and monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 748 – 753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Furman, P. A., M. H. St. Clair, and T. Spector. 1984. Acyclovir triphosphate is a suicide inactivator of the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 9575 – 9579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fyfe, J. A., P. M. Keller, P. A. Furman, R. L. Miller, and G. B. Elion. 1978. Thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus phosphorylates the new antiviral compound 9-(2-hydroethoxymethyl) guanine. J. Biol. Chem. 253: 8721 – 8727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Georgiades, J. A., J. Montgomery, T. K. Hughes, D. Jensen, and S. Baron. 1982. Determinants of protection by human immune globulin against herpes neonatorum. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 170: 291 – 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gilljam, G., V. A. Sundqvist, A. Linde, P. Pihlstedt, A. E. Eklund, and B. Wahren. 1985. Sensitive analytic ELISAs for subclass herpes virus IgG. J. Virol. Methods 10: 203 – 214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gleaves, C. A., D. J. Wilson, A. D. Wold, and T. F. Smith. 1985. Detection and serotyping of herpes simplex virus in MRC-5 cells by use of centrifugation and monoclonal antibodies 16 h postinoculation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 29 – 32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Grillner, L., and M. Landquist. 1983. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection and typing of herpes simplex virus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2: 39 – 42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gruter, W. 1920. Experimentelle und Klinische Unter- suchungen uber den sogenannten Herpes corneae. Ber. Versam. Deutsch. Ophtalm. Ges. 42: 162 – 166.Google Scholar
  42. Hampar, B., M. Zweig, D. Showalter, V. Bladen, and C. W. Riggs. 1985. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of antibodies against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human sera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 496 – 500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harger, J. H., G. J. Pazin, J. A. Armstrong, M. C. Breinig, and M. Ho. 1983. Characteristics and management of pregnancy in woman with genital herpes simplex virus infection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 145: 784 – 791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hayden, F. G., A. S. Sorensen, and J. A. Bateman. 1983. Comparison of the lmmulok Culturset kit and virus isolation for detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 222 – 224.Google Scholar
  45. Hayward, G. S., R. J. Jacob, S. C. Wadsworth, and B. Roizman. 1975. Anatomy of herpes simplex virus DNA; evidence for four populations of molecules that differ in the relative orientations of their long and short segments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 4243 – 4247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jarrat, M. 1983. Herpes simplex infection. Arch. Dermatol. 119: 99 – 103.Google Scholar
  47. Jeansson, S., M. Forsgren, and B. Svennerholm. 1983. Evaluation of solubilized herpes simplex virus membrane antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 1160 – 1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Johansson, P. J. H., T. Hallberg, V.-A. Oxelius, A. Grubb, and J. Blomberg. 1984. Human immunoglobulin class and subclass specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes’ simplex virus type 1. J. Virol. 50: 796 – 804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Johansson, P. J. H., E. B. Myhre, and J. Blomberg. 1985. Specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: comparison of immunoglobulin G from different animal species. J. Virol. 56: 489 – 494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Johnson, I. B., R. W. Leavitt, and D. F. Richards. 1984. Evaluation of the Virocult transport tube for isolation of herpes simplex virus from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 120 – 122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnson, R. T. 1982. Viral infections of the nervous system. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Jure tic, M. 1966. Natural history of herpetic infection. Helv. Paediatr. Acta 21: 356 – 368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kampe, P., A. Knoblich, M. Dietrich, and D. Falke. 1985. Differences in humoral immunogenicity between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. J. Gen. Virol. 66: 2215 – 2223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kjeldsberg, E. 1980. Application of electron microscopy in viral diagnosis. Pathol. Res. Pract. 167: 3 – 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Klein, R. J., and A. E. Friedmann-Kien. 1977. Latent herpes simplex virus infections in sensory ganglia of mice after topical treatment with adenine arabinoside and adenine arabinoside monophosphate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 12: 577 – 581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Knoblich, A., P. Kampe, V. Harle-Grupp, and D. Falke. 1983. Kinetics and genetics of herpes simplex virus-induced antibody formation in mice. Infect. Immun. 39: 15 – 23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kristensson, K., E. Lycke, and J. Sjostrand. 1972. Spread of herpes simplex virus in peripheral nerves. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 17: 44 – 53.Google Scholar
  58. Kristensson, K., I. Nennesmo, L. Persson, and E. Lycke. 1982. Neuron to neuron transmission of herpes simplex virus. Transport of virus from skin to brain stem nuclei. J. Neurol. Sci. 54: 149 – 156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kulski, J. K., and M. Norval. 1985. Nucleic acid probes in diagnosis of viral diseases of man. Brief review. Arch. Virol, 83: 3 – 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lakeman, A. D., A. J. Nahmias, and R. J. Whitley. 1986. Analysis of DNA from recurrent genital herpes simplex virus isolates by restrictive endonuclease digestion. Sex. Transm. Dis. 13: 61 – 66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Langer, P. R., A. A. Waldrop, and D. C. Ward. 1981. Enzymatic synthesis of biotin-labelled polynucleotides: novel nucleic acid affinity probes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 6633 – 6637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Leary, J. J., D. J. Brigati, and D. C. Ward. 1983. Rapid and sensitive colorimetric method for visualizing biotin-labelled DNA probes hybridized to DNA or RNA immobilized on nitrocellulose: bioblots. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 4045 – 4049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lee, F. K., R. M. Coleman, L. Pererira, P. D. Bailey, M. Tatsuno, and A. J. Nahmias. 1985. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific antibody with glycoprotein G. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 641 – 644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lehrman, S. N., J. N. Douglas, L. Corey, and D. W. Barry. 1986. Recurrent genital herpes and suppressive oral acyclovir therapy. Relation between clinical outcome and in-vitro drug sensitivity. Ann. Intern. Med. 104: 786 – 790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lycke, E. 1985. Virus-induced changes in neural cells, p. 509–529. InA. Lajhta (ed.), Handbook of neurochemistry. vol. 10. Plenum Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  66. Lycke, E., K. Kristensson, B. Svennerholm, A. Vahlne, and R. Ziegler. 1984. Uptake and transport of herpes simplex virus in neurites of rat dorsal root ganglia cells in culture. J. Gen. Virol. 65: 55 – 64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lowenstein, A. 1919. Aetiologische Untersuchungen uber den fieberhaften Herpes. Munch. Med. Wochenschr. 66: 769 – 770.Google Scholar
  68. McLaren, C., M. N. Ellis, and G. A. Hunter. 1983. A colorimetric assay for the measurement of the sensitivity of herpes simplex virus to antiviral agents. Antiviral Res. 3: 223 – 234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. McLaren, C., C. D. Sibrack, and D. W. Barry. 1982. Spectrum of sensitivity to acyclovir of herpes simplex virus clinical isolates. Am. J. Med. 73: 376 – 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Merriman, H., S. Woods, C. Winter, A. Fahnlander, and L. Corey. 1984. Secretory IgA antibody in cervicovaginal secretions from women with genital infection due to herpes simplex infection. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 505 – 510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mertz, G. J., O. Schmidt, J. L. Jourden, M. E. Guinan, M. L. Remington, A. Fahnlander, and L. Corey. 1985. Frequency of acquisition of first-episode genital infection with herpes simplex virus from symptomatic and asymptomatic source contacts. Sex. Transm. Dis. 12: 33 – 39.Google Scholar
  72. Mindel, A. 1984. Long term oral acyclovir in disseminated mucocutaneous herpes simplex: a case report. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 60: 125 – 126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mindel, A., and S. Sutherland. 1983. Genital herpes—the disease and its treatment including intravenous acyclovir. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 12(Suppl. B): 51 – 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Morris, G. E., R. M. Coleman, B. B. Benetato, and A. J. Nahmias. 1985. Persistence of serum IgA antibodies to herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. J. Med. Virol. 6: 343 – 349.Google Scholar
  75. Nahmias, A. J., and W. R. Dowdle. 1968. Antigenic and biologic differences in herpesvirus hominis. Prog. Med. Virol. 10: 110 – 159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Nahmias, A. J., and B. Roizman. 1973a. Infection with herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2. N. Engl. J. Med. 289:667– 674.Google Scholar
  77. Nahmias, A. J., and B. Roizman. 1973b. Infection with herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2. N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 719 – 725.Google Scholar
  78. Nahmias, A. J., and B. Roizman. 1973c. Infection with herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2. N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 781 – 789.Google Scholar
  79. Nahmias, A. J., and A. M. Visintine. 1976. Herpes simplex, p. 156–190. InJ. Remington and J. Klein (ed.), Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  80. Nahmias, A. J., A. M. Visintine, C. B. Reimer, I. Del Buano, S. L. Shore, and S. E. Starr. 1977. Herpes simplex virus infection of the fetus and newborn, p. 63–77. InS. Krugman and A. Gershon (ed.), Symposium on infection of the fetus and newborn infant. Progress in clinical and biological research. Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Nahmias, A., C. Wickliffe, J. Pipkin, A. Leibowitz, and R. Hutten. 1971. Transport media for herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2. Appl. Microbiol. 22: 451 – 454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Nahmias, A. J., R. J. Whitley, A. N. Visintine, Y. Takei, C. A. Alford, Jr., and the Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. 1982. Herpes simplex encephalitis. Laboratory evaluations and their diagnostic significance. J. Infect. Dis. 145: 829 – 836.Google Scholar
  83. Nash, A. A., J. Phelan, and P. Wildy. 1981. Cell mediated immunity in herpes simplex infected mice: H2 mapping of the delayed type hypersensitivity response and the antiviral T cell response. J. Immunol. 126: 1260 – 1268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Nerurkar, L. S., M. Namba, G. Brashears, A. J. Jacob, Y. J. Lee, and J. L. Sever. 1984a. Rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens by use of a capture biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 109 – 114.Google Scholar
  85. Nerurkar, L. S., M. Namba, and J. L. Sever. 1984b. Comparison of standard tissue culture, tissue culture plus staining, and direct staining for detection of genital herpes simplex virus infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 631 – 633.Google Scholar
  86. Nick, S., P. Kampe, A. Knoblick, B. Metzger, and D. Falke. 1986. Suppression and enhancement of humoral antibody formation by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. J. Gen. Virol. 67: 1015 – 1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Nilheden, E., S. Jeansson, and A. Vahlne. 1983. Typing of herpes simplex virus by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17: 677 – 680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Nilsen, A. 1985. Genital herpes. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 47: 51 – 57.Google Scholar
  89. Para, M. F., L. Goldstein, and P. G. Spear. 1982. Similarities and differences in the Fc-binding glycoprotein (gE) of herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 and tentative mapping of the viral gene for this glycoprotein. J. Virol. 41: 137 – 144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Parris, D. H., and J. E. Harrington. 1982. Herpes simplex virus variants resistant to high concentrations of acyclovir exists in clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22: 71 – 77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pedersen, B., S. Moller-Andersen, A. Klauber, E. Ottoway, J. U. Pranse, C. Zhong, and B. Norrild. 1982. Secretory IgA specific herpes simplex virus in lacrimal fluid from patients with herpes keratitis—a possible diagnostic parameter. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 66: 648 – 653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pereira, L. 1982. Monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, p. 119–138. InJ. G. R. Hurrell (ed.), Monoclonal hybridoma antibodies: techniques and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.Google Scholar
  93. Pereira, L., D. V. Dondero, D. Gallo, V. Devlin, and J. D. Woodie. 1982. Serological analysis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 with monoclonal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 35: 363 – 367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Prentice, H. G. 1983. Use of acyclovir for prophylaxis of herpes infections in severely immunocompromised patients. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 12(Suppl. B): 153 – 159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Puga, A., E. M. Cantin, and A. L. Notkins. 1982. Homology between murine and human cellular DNA sequences and the terminal repetition of S component of herpes simplex virus type 1 in DNA. Cell 31: 81 – 89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rawls, W. E. 1979. Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and herpesvirus simiae, p. 336–346. InE. H. Lennette and N. J. Schmidt (ed.), Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial and chlamydial infections. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  97. Rawls, W. E. 1985. Herpes simplex virus, p. 537–540. InB. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, J. L. Melnick, R. M. Chanock, B. Roizman, and R. E. Shope (ed.), Virology. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  98. Read, G. S., and N. Frenkel. 1983. Herpes simplex virus mutants defective in the virion associated shut-off of host polypeptide synthesis and exhibiting abnormal synthesis of alpha (immediate early) viral polypeptides. J. Virol. 46: 498 – 512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Redfield, D. C., D. D. Richman, S. Albanil, M. N. Oxmanil, and G. M. Wahl. 1983. Detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens by DNA hybridization. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 1: 117 – 128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Reeves, W. C., L. Corey, H. G. Adams, L. A. Vontver, and K. K. Holmes. 1981. Risk of recurrence after first episode of genital herpes. N. Engl. J. Med. 305: 315 – 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Reyes, G. R., R. La Femina, S. D. Hayward, and G. S. Hayward. 1979. Morphological transformation by DNA fragments of human herpesviruses: evidence for two distinct transforming regions in herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and lack of correlation with biochemical transfer of thymidine kinase gene. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 44: 629 – 641.Google Scholar
  102. Ribaric, V. 1976. The incidence of herpetic keratitis among population. Ophthalmologica 173: 19 – 22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Richman, D., N. Schmidt, S. Plotkin, R. Yolken, M. Cherensky, K. Mcintosh, and M. Mattheis. 1984. Summary of a workshop on new and useful methods in rapid viral diagnosis. J. Infect. Dis. 150: 941 – 951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rock, D. L., and N. W. Frazero. 1983. Detection of HSV-1 genome in central nervous system of latently infected mice. Nature (London) 302: 523 – 525.Google Scholar
  105. Roizman, B. 1982. The family Herpesviridae: general de scription, taxonomy and classification, p. 1–23. InB. Roizman (ed.), The herpesviruses, vol. 1. Plenum Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  106. Roizman, B., B. Norrild, C. Chah, and L. Pereira. 1984. Identification and preliminary mapping with monoclonal antibodies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein lacking a known type 1 counter part. Virology 133: 242 – 247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rubin, S. J., and S. Rogers. 1984. Comparison of Culturset and primary rabbit kidney cell culture for the detection of herpes simplex virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 920 – 922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Saito, Y., R. W. Price, D. A. Rottenberg, J. J. Fox, T.-L. Su, and K. A. Watanabe. 1982. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of herpes simplex virus encephalitis with a radiolabeled antiviral drug. Science 217: 1151 – 1153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Saral, R., R. F. Ambinder, W. H. Burns, C. A. Angelopulos, D. E. Griffin, P. J. Burke, and P. S. Lietman. 1983. Acyclovir prophylaxis against herpes simplex virus infection in patients with leukemia. Ann. Intern. Med. 99: 773 – 779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schmidt, N. J. 1982. Further evidence for common antigens in herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses. J. Med. Virol. 9: 27 – 36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schmidt, N. J., and D. Gallo. 1984. Class-specific antibody responses to early and late antigens of varicella and herpes simplex viruses. J. Med. Virol. 13: 1 – 12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Schmidt, O. W., K. H. Fife, and L. Corey. 1984. Reinfection is an uncommon occurrence in patients with symptomatic recurrent genital herpes. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 645 – 646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Schmitz, H., U. von Deimling, and B. Flehmig. 1980. Detection of IgM antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV) using an enzyme-labelled antigen (ELA). J. Gen. Virol. 50: 59 – 68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schnipper, L. E., and C. S. Crumpacker. 1980. Resistance of herpes simplex virus to acycloguanosine: role of virus thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase loci. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 2270 – 2273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Shani, L., R. Szanton, R. David, Y. Yassur, and I. Sarov. 1985. Studies on HSV specific IgA antibodies in lacrimal fluid from patients with herpes keratitis by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Exp. Res. 4: 103 – 111.Google Scholar
  116. Sjogren-Jans son, E. and S. Jeansson. 1985. Large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies in dialysis tubing. J. Immunol. Methods 84: 359 – 364.Google Scholar
  117. Skoldenberg, B., K. Alestig, L. Burman, A. Forkman, K. Lovgren, R. Norrby, G. Stjernstedt, M. Forsgren, T. Bergstrom, E. Dahlqvist, A. Fry den, K. Norlin, E. Olding-Stenkvist, and I. Uhnoo. 1984. Acyclovir versus vi- darabine in herpes simplex encephalitis. Randomised multicenter study in consecutive Swedish patients. Lancet 2: 707 – 711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Smith, I. W., B. Barr, K. Slatford, and D. H. H. Robertson. 1985. Restriction enzyme analysis of herpes simplex virus isolates from known contacts of patients with genital herpes. Lancet 1: 979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Smith, I. W., J. F. Pedutherer, and D. H. H. Robertson. 1973. Characterization of genital strains of herpesvirus hominis. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 49: 385 – 390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Snowden, B. W., P. R. Kinchington, K. L. Powell, and I. W. Halliburton. 1985. Antigen and biochemical analysis of gB of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 and of cross-reacting glycoproteins induced by bovine mammilitis virus and equine herpesvirus type 1. J. Gen. Virol. 66: 231 – 247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Spear, P. G. 1985. Glycoproteins specified by herpes simplex viruses, p. 315–356. InB. Roizman (ed.), The herpesviruses, vol. 3. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  122. Spruance, S. L., J. C. Overall, E. R. Kern, G. G. Kreuger, V. Pliam, and W. Miller. 1977. The natural history of recurrent herpes labialis. Implications of antiviral therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 69 – 75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Strand, A., A. Vahlne, B. Svennerholm, J. Wallin, and E. Lycke. 1986. Asymptomatic viruses shedding in men with genital herpes infection. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 18: 195 – 197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Strand, S. E., H. E. Takiff, M. Seidlin, S. Bachrach, L. Lininger, J. J. DiGiovanni, K. A. Westerha, H. A. Smith, S. N. Lehrman, T. Creagh-Kirk, and D. W. Ailing. 1984. Suppressing of frequently recurring genital herpes. A placebo controlled double-blind trial of oral acyclovir. N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 1545 – 1550.Google Scholar
  125. Sullivan-Boyai, J., H. Hull, C. Wilson, and L. Corey. 1983. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in King County, Washington. J.A.M.A. 250: 3059 – 3062.Google Scholar
  126. Sutherland, S., B. Morgan, A. Mindel, and W. L. Chan. 1986. Typing and subtyping of herpes simplex virus isolates by monoclonal fluorescence. J. Med. Virol. 18: 235 – 245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Svennerholm, B., S. Olofsson, S. Jeansson, A. Vahlne, and E. Lycke. 1984. Herpes simplex virus type-selective en- zyme-linked immunosorbent assay with Helix pomatialectin purified antigens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 235 – 239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Svennerholm, B., A. Vahlne, G. B. Lowhagen, A. Widell, and E. Lycke. 1985. Sensitivity of HSV strains isolated before and after treatment with acyclovir. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 47: 149 – 154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Svennerholm, B., A. Vahlne, and E. Lycke. 1979. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus infection in tissue culture by trisodium phosphonoformate. Proc. Soc. Exp. Med. Biol. 161: 115 – 118.Google Scholar
  130. Svennerholm, B., A. Vahlne, and E. Lycke. 1981. Persistent reactivable latent herpes simplex virus infection in trigeminal ganglia of mice treated with antiviral drugs. Arch. Virol. 69: 43 – 48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Swierkosz, E. M., M. Q. Arens, R. R. Schmidt, and T. Armstrong. 1985. Evaluation of two immunofluorescence assays with monoclonal antibodies for typing of herpes simplex virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 643 – 644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Thin, R. N., W. Aha, J. D. Parker, C. S. Nicol, and G. Canti. 1975. Value of Papanicolaou-stained smears in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis, candidiasis and cervical herpes simplex virus infection in women. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 51: 116 – 118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Thompson, R. J. 1984. Are monoclonal antibodies the end of radioimmunoassay? Trends Biochem. Sci. 7: 419 – 420.Google Scholar
  134. Vahlne, A., B. Svennerholm, and E. Lycke. 1979. Evidence for herpes simplex virus type-selective receptors on cellular plasma membranes. J. Gen. Virol. 44: 217 – 225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Vandvik, B., F. Vartdal, and E. Norrby. 1982. Herpes simplex encephalitis: intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal virus-specified IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies. J. Neurol. 228: 25 – 38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. van Dyke, R. B., and J. D. Connor. 1985. Uptake of 1–125- iododeoxycytidine by cells infected with herpes simplex virus: a rapid screening test for resistance to acyclovir. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 1206 – 1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. van Loon, A. M., F. M. V. Heessen, M. van der Logt, and J. van der Veen. 1981. Direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses peroxidase labelled antigen for determination of immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 416 – 422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. van Loon, A. M., M. van der Logt, F. M. V. Heessen, and J. van der Veen. 1985. Use of labelled antigen for the detection of immunoglobulin M and A antibody to herpes simplex virus in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. J. Med. Virol. 15:183–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Vestergaard, B. F. 1980. Herpes simplex virus antigens and antibodies: a survey of studies based on quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 2: 899 – 913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Wahren, B., J. Harmenberg, V.-A. Sundqvist, B. Leven, and B. Skoldenberg. 1983. A novel method for determining the sensitivity of herpes simplex virus to antiviral compounds. J. Virol. Methods. 6: 141 – 149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Warford, A. L., W. G. Eveland, C. A. Strong, R. A. Levy, and K. A. Rekrut. 1984. Enhanced virus isolation rate by use of the transporter for a regional laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 561 – 562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Watkins, J. F. 1965. Adsorption of sensitized sheep erythrocytes to HeLa cells infected with herpes simplex virus. Nature 202: 1364 – 1365.Google Scholar
  143. Westmoreland, D., and J. F. Watkins. 1974. The IgG receptor induced by herpes simplex virus: studies using radio- iodinated IgG. J. Gen. Virol. 24: 167 – 178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Whitley, R. J. 1985. Epidemiology of herpes simplex viruses, p. 1–44. InB. Roizman (ed.), The herpesviruses, vol. 3. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  145. Whitley, R. J., C. A. Alford, M. S. Hirsch, R. T. Schooley, J. P. Luby, F. Y. Aok, D. Hanley, A. J. Nahmias, and S. J. Soong. 1986. Vidarabine versus acyclovir therapy in herpes simplex encephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 144 – 149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Whitley, R. J., S. J. Soong, M. S. Hirsch, A. W. Karchmer, R. Dolin, G. Galasso, J. K. Dunnick, C. A. Alford, and the NIAD Colloborative Antiviral Study Group. 1981. Herpes simplex encephalitis: vidarabine therapy and diagnostic problems. N. Engl. J. Med. 304: 313 – 318.Google Scholar
  147. Wildy, P. 1973. Herpes history and classification, p. 1–25. InA. S. Kaplan (ed.), The herpesvirus. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  148. Yeager, A. S. 1984. Genital herpes simplex infections: effect of asymptomatic shedding and latency on management of infections in pregnant women and neonates. J. Invest. Dermatol. 83: 53 – 56.Google Scholar
  149. Yolken, R. H. 1982. Enzyme immunoassays for the detection of infectious antigens in body fluids: current limitations and future prospects. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4: 35 – 68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Zheng, Z. M., D. R. Mayo, and G. D. Hsuing. 1983. Comparison of biological, biochemical, immunological and immunochemical techniques for typing of herpes simplex virus isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17: 396 – 399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ziegler, T., O. H. Meurman, P. P. Arstila, and P. E. Halonen. 1983. Solid-phase enzyme-immunoassay for the detection of herpes simplex virus antigens in clinical specimens. J. Virol. Methods 7: 1 – 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Zinsser, H., and F. F. Tang. 1929. Further experiments on agent of herpes. J. Immunol. 17: 343 – 355.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik Lycke
  • Stig Jeansson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations