Echinococcosis (Hydatid Disease)

  • Peter M. Schantz


The hydatid diseases are caused by the cystic larval (metacestode) stages of cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. These parasites have life cycles involving two hosts. The adult tapeworms are found in the intestines of carnivores, the larval forms in the viscera of a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts. Transmission is often accomplished by the predator-prey relationship existing between the definitive and intermediate hosts. Humans and intermediate hosts become infected by ingesting eggs passed in the feces of definitive hosts. Four species are recognized: E. granulosus (Batsch, 1786); E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1862; E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1862), and E. vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972. The definitive and intermediate hosts as well as the characteristics of the disease produced in humans vary for each species (Table 1). Echinococcus granulosus, the cause of cystic hydatid disease, occurs worldwide and is of considerable public health and economic importance in some countries; E. multilocularis and E. vogeli cause the alveolar and polycystic forms of hydatid disease, respectively.


Intermediate Host Hydatid Disease Definitive Host Cystic Hydatid Disease Alveolar Hydatid Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Allen, A. R., and C. D. Fullmer. 1972. Primary diagnosis of pulmonary echinococcosis by the cytologic technique. Acta Cytol. 16:212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amir-Jahed, A. K., R. Fardin, A. Farzad, and K. Bakshandeh. 1975. Clinical echinococcosis. Ann. Surg. 182:541–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balikian, J. P., and F. F. Mudarris. 1974. Hydatid disease of the lungs, a roentgenologic study of 50 cases. Am. J. Roentgenol. 122:692.Google Scholar
  4. Coltorti, E. A., and V. M. Varela-Diaz. 1978. Detection of antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus arc 5 antigens by double diffusion test. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72:226–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. D’Alessandro, A., R. L. Rausch, C. Cuello, and N. Aristizabal. 1979. First observation of Echinococcus vogeli in man, with a review of human cases of polycystic hydatid disease in Colombia and neighboring countries. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28:303–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. D’Alessandro, A., R. L. Rausch, G. A. Morales, S. Collet, and D. Angel. 1981. Echinococcus infection in Colombian animals. Am. J. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 30:1263–1276.Google Scholar
  7. Davis, A., Z. S. Pawlowski, and H. Dixon. 1986. Multicentre clinical trials of benzimidazolecarbamates in human echinococcosis. Bull. W.H.O. 64:383–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Didier, D., S. Weiler, P. Rohmer, A. Lasseque, J. P. Deschamps, D. Vuitton, J. P. Miquet, and F. Weill. 1985. Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Correlative US and CT study. Radiology 154:179–186.Google Scholar
  9. Eckert, J., M. A. Gemmell, and E. J. L. Soulsby (ed.). 1981. FAO/UNEP/WHO Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis, p. 147. VPH/81.28. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  10. Gamble, W. G., M. Segal, P. M. Schantz, and R. L. Rausch. 1979. Alveolar hydatid disease in Minnesota: first human case acquired in contiguous United States. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 241:904–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garti, I., and V. Deutsch. 1971. The angiographic diagnosis of echinococcosis of the liver and spleen. Clin. Radiol. 22:466–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gemmell, M. A., and J. R. Lawson. 1986. Epidemiology and control of echinococcosis/hydatidosis, p. 189–216. In R. C. A. Thompson (ed.), The biology of echinococcus and hydatid disease. Allen & Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  13. Gottstein, B. 1985. Purification and characterization of a specific antigen from Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasite Immunol. 70:385–389.Google Scholar
  14. Gottstein, B., J. Eckert, and H. Fey. 1983. Serological differentiation between Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis infections in man. Z. Parasitenkd. 69:347–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gottstein, B., P. M. Schantz, T. Todorov, A. G. Salmot, and P. Jacquier, 1986. An international study on the serological differential diagnosis of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. Bull. W.H.O. 64:101–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Grabbe, E., P. Kern, and M. Heller. 1981. Human echinococcosis: diagnostic value of computed tomography. Tropenmed. Parasitol. 32:35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Guarnera, E. A., and V. M. Varela-Diaz. 1984. Immuno- diagnosis of abdominal hydatid disease. Difficulties in the radiological and scintillographic localization of cysts. Med. J. Aust. 140:493–495.Google Scholar
  18. Gutgemann, A., C. Kaufer, C. H. Prange, E. Raschke, E. Bucheler, and H. J. Biersack. 1976. Diagnostik und Chirurgie der Leberechinococcen. Langenbecks Arch. Chir. 340:285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Irnberger, V. T. 1980. Radiographische, sonographische, und computertomographische erscheinungsbilder des leberechinokokkus. Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 22:718–724.Google Scholar
  20. Ishak, K. G. 1972. Acid-fast staining of hooklets of Taenia echinococcus. Lancet 1:556.Google Scholar
  21. Kagan, I. G., and L. Norman. 1979. Evaluation of Echinococcus antigens for the diagnosis of hydatid disease. Rev. Iber. Parasitol. 39:153–164.Google Scholar
  22. Kasai, Y., I. Koshino, and N. Kawanishi. 1980. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Ann. Surg. 191:145–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kourias, B., E. Gyftaki, P. Peveretos, and D. Binopoulos. 1970. The value of pre- and post-operative scanning in liver echinococcosis. Br. J. Surg. 57:178–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumaratilake, L. M., and R. C. A. Thompson. 1982. A review of the taxonomy and speciation of the genus Echinococcus, Rudolphi 1801. Z. Parasitenkd. 68:121–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumaratilake, L. M., and R. C. A. Thompson. 1984. Morphological characterization of Australian strains of Echinococcus granulosus. Int. J. Parasitol. 14:467–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lanier, A. P., D. E. Trujillo, P. M. Schantz, J. F. Wilson, and B. Gottstein. 1987. Sensitivity, specificity and clinical correlations of purified Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus antigens for serodiagnosis of alveolar hydatid disease. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (in press).Google Scholar
  27. Lawson, J. R., and M. A. Gemmell. 1983. Hydatidosis and cysticercosis: the dynamics of transmission. Adv. Parasitol. 22:261–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Little, J. M. 1976. Hydatid disease at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 1964 to 1974. Med. J. Aust. 1:903–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Morris, D. L., P. W. Dykes, S. Marriner, J. Bogan, F. Burrows, H. Skeene-Smith, and M. J. Clarkson. 1985. Albendazole—objective evidence of response in human hydatid disease. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 253:2053–2057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mosimann, F. 1980. Is alveolar hydatid disease of the liver incurable? Ann. Surg. 192:118–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ozgen, T., A. Erbengi, V. Bertan, S. Saglam, O. Gurcay, and T. Pirnar. 1979. The use of computerized tomog¬raphy in the diagnosis of cerebral hydatid cysts. J. Neurosurg. 50:339–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Picardo, N. G. A., and J. A. Guisantes. 1981. Comparison of three immunological tests for seroepidemiological purposes in human echinococcosis. Parasite Immunol. 3:191–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rausch, R. L., and J. J. Bernstein. 1972. Echinococcus vogeli spp. n. (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from the bush dog, Speothos venaticus (Lund). Tropenmed. Parasitol. 23:25–34.Google Scholar
  34. Rausch, R. L., V. R. Rausch, and A. D’Alessandro. 1978. Discrimination of the larval stages of Echinococcus aligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) and E. vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 (Cestoda:Taeniidae). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27:1195–1202.Google Scholar
  35. Rausch, R. L., and J. R. Wilson. 1973. Rearing of the adult Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart. 1863, from sterile larvae from man. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 22:357–358.Google Scholar
  36. Rausch, R. L., J. F. Wilson, P. M. Schantz, and B. J. McMahon. 1987. Spontaneous death of Echinococcus multilocularis: cases diagnosed by EmZ ELISA, and clinical significance. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 36:576–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rickard, M. D. 1984. Serological diagnosis and post-operative surveillance of human hydatid disease. Pathology 16:207–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rickard, M. D., and M. W. Lightowlers. 1986. Immuno- diagnosis of hydatid disease, p. 217–249. In R. C. A. Thompson, (ed.), The biology of echinococcus and hydatid disease. Allen & Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  39. Rudofsky, G., W. Wolfert, and R. M. Rau. 1975. Angiographische darstellung der Leberarterien beim Echinococcus alveolaris. Med. Klin. 70:1641–1644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sayek, I., R. Yalin, and Y. Sanoc. 1980. Surgical treatment of hydatid disease of the liver. Arch. Surg. 115:847–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Schantz, P. M. 1982. Echinococcosis, p. 231–277. In J. Steele and P. Arambulo (ed.), Handbook of zoonoses, vol. III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.Google Scholar
  42. Schantz, P. M., and B. Gottstein. 1986. Echinococcus (hydatidosis), p. 69–107. In K. F. Walls and P. M. Schantz (ed.), Immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases, vol. I. Academic Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla.Google Scholar
  43. Scherer, U., U. Bull, R. Rothe, J. Eisenburg, F. W. Schildberg, P. Meister, and J. Lissner. 1978. Com-puterized tomography and nuclear imaging of the liver: a comparative study in 83 cases. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 3:71–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schulze, V. K., K.-H. Hubener, K. Klott, H. Jenss, and R. Bahr. 1980. Computertomographische und sonographische diagnostik der echinokokkose. Fortschr. Rontgen str. 132:514–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Silber, S. J., and R. A. Moyad. 1972. Renal echincoccosis. J. Urol. 108:669–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Slais, J. 1973. Functional morphology of cestode larva. Adv. Parasitol. 11:395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thompson, R. C. A., L. M. Kumaratilake, and J. Eckert. 1984. Observations on Echinococcus granulosus of cattle origin in Switzerland. Int. J. Parasitol. 14:283–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thompson, W. M., D. P. Chisholm, and R. Tank. 1972. Plain film roentgenographic findings in alveolar hydatid disease—Echinococcus multilocularis. Am. J. Roentgenol. 116:345–351.Google Scholar
  49. Varela-Diaz, V. M., and E. A. Coltorti. 1984. Immunodiagnostic confirmation of hydatid disease in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of infection. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 26:87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Varela-Diaz, V. M., E. A. Coltorti, and A. D’Alessandro. 1978. Immunoelectrophoresis tests showing Echinococcus granulosus arc 5 in human cases of Echinococcus vogeli and cysticercosis-multiple myeloma. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27:554–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Varela-Diaz, V. M., E. A. Coltorti, U. Prezioso, M. H. Lopez-Lemes, J. A. Guisantes, and L. A. Yarzabal. 1975a. Evaluation of three immunodiagnostic tests for human hydatid disease. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24:312–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Varela-Diaz, V. M., J. A. Guisantes, M. I. Ricardes, L. A. Yarzabal, and E. A. Coltorti. 1975b. Evaluation of whole and purified hydatid fluid antigens in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis by the immunoelectrophoresis test. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24:298–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Varela-Diaz, V. M., M. H. Lopez-Lemes, U. Prezioso, E. A. Coltorti, and L. A. Yarzabal. 1975c. Evaluation of four variant of the indirect hemagglutination test for hu¬man hydatidosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24:304–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Wilson, J. F., A. C. Diddams, and R. L. Rausch. 1968. Cystic hydatid disease in Alaska. A review of 101 autochthonous cases of Echinococcus granulosus infection. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 98:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilson, J. F. and R. L. Rausch. 1980. Alveolar hydatid disease. A review of clinical features of 33 indigenous cases of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in Alas¬kan Eskimos. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 29:1340–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilson, J. F., R. L. Rausch, B. J. McMahon, P. M. Schantz, D. E. Trujillo, and M. O’Gorman. 1987. Alben-dazole therapy in alveolar hydatid disease: a report of favorable results in two patients after short term therapy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37:162–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Yarzabal, L. A., J. Leiton, and M. H. Lopez-Lemes. 1974. The diagnosis of human pulmonary hydatidosis by the immunoelectrophoresis test. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 23:662–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter M. Schantz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations