Aspergillosis comprises a spectrum of diseases caused by species of the fungal genus Aspergillus, including allergy (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis), colonization (growth of aspergilli occurring in a preexisting cavity in the lung parenchyma = fungus ball; often incorrectly termed “aspergilloma” [Matsumoto and Ajello, 1986; Rinaldi, 1981]), toxicoses (ingestion/inhalation/exposure to mycotoxins or other metabolites produced by aspergilli, e.g., aflatoxin B), and tissue invasion (with potential for dissemination to any body site; particularly noteworthy in patients with abrogated immunity due to a variety of accompanying/underlying disorders).


Invasive Aspergillosis Chronic Granulomatous Disease Invasive Disease Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Sabouraud Dextrose Agar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Albelda, S. M., G. H. Talbot, S. L. Gerson, W. T. Miller, and P. A. Cassileth. 1984. Role of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukemia. Am. J. Med. 76:1027–1034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albelda, S. M., G. H. Talbot, S. I. Gerson, W. T. Miller, and P. A. Cassileth. 1985. Pulmonary cavitation and massive hemoptysis in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: influence of bone marrow recovery in patients with acute leukemia. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 131:115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Austwick, P. K. C., and J. L. Longbottom. 1980. Medically important Aspergillus species, p. 620–627. In E. H. Lennette, A. Balows, W. J. Hausler, Jr., and J. P. Truant (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 3rd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  4. Balogh, N. 1964. Diagnostik Pilzkrankheiten bei Tieren mit modifizierte Parker Blue-Black Superchrome Tintensarbung. Dtsch. Tieraerztl. Wochenschr. 71:327–330.Google Scholar
  5. Bardana, E. J. Jr. 1981. The clinical spectrum of aspergillosis. Part 2: classification and description of saprophytic, allergic, and invasive variants of human disease. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 13:85–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, J. E. 1985. Aspergillus species, p. 1447–1451. In G. L. Mandell, R. G. Douglas, Jr., and J. E. Bennett (ed.), Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  7. Bodey, G. P., R. Bolivar, and V. Fainstein. 1982. Infectious complications in leukemic patients. Semin. Hematol. 19:193–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bothast, R. J., and D. I. Fennell. 1974. A medium for rapid identification and enumeration of Aspergillus flavus and related organisms. Mycologia 66:365–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cahill, K. M., A. M. El Mofty, and T. P. Kawaguchi. 1967. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis. Arch. Dermatol. 96:545–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calhoun, D. L., G. D. Roberts, J. N. Galgiani, J. E. Bennett, D. S. Feingold, J. Jorgensen, G. S. Kobayashi, and S. Shadomy. 1986. Results of a survey of antifungal susceptibility tests in the United States and interlaboratory comparison of broth dilution testing of flucytosine and amphotericin B. J. Clin Microbiol. 23:298–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Christensen, M. A. 1981. A synoptic key and evaluation of species in the Aspergillus flavus group. Mycologia 72:1056–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Repentigny, L., M. Boushira, L. Ste-Marie, and G. Bosisio. 1987. Detection of galactomannan antigenemia by enzyme immunoassay in experimental invasive aspergillosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:863–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. de Repentigny, L., and E. Reiss. 1984. Current needs in immunodiagnosis of candidiasis and aspergillosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:301–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Emmons, C. W., C. H. Binford, J. P. Utz, and K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1977. Medical mycology, 3rd ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  15. Espinel-Ingroff, A., S. Shadomy, R. J. Gebhart. 1984. In vitro studies with R 51,211 (itraconazole). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:5–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Farley, M. L., L. Mabry, L. A. Munoz, and H. W. Diserens. 1985. Crystals occurring in pulmonary cytology specimens. Association with Aspergillus infection. Acta Cytol. 29:737–744.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, B. D., D. Armstrong, B. Yu, and J. W. M. Gold. 1981. Invasive aspergillosis. Progress in early diagnosis and treatment. Am. J. Med. 71:571–577.Google Scholar
  18. Fraser, D. W., J. I. Ward, L. Ajello, an B. D. Plikaytis. 1979. Aspergillosis and other systemic mycoses—the growing problem. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 242:1631–1635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galgiani, J. N. 1986. Antifungal susceptibility testing. Recent findings and experience. Antimicrob. Newsl. 3:17–22.Google Scholar
  20. Goodman, N. L. 1982. Aspergillosis. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 4:9–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Herbert, P. A., and A. S. Bayer. 1981. Fungal pneumonia. Part 4. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Chest 80:220–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones, J. M. 1985. The immunobiology of candidiasis and aspergillosis. Lab. Manage. 23:53–57.Google Scholar
  23. Jorgensen, J. H., and M. G. Rinaldi. 1986. A clinician’s dictionary of bacteria and fungi. Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind.Google Scholar
  24. Kahn, F. W., J. M. Jones, and D. M. England. 1986. The role of bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 86:518–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Karam, G. H., and F. M. Griffin, Jr. 1986. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised, nonneutropenic hosts. Rev. Infect. Dis. 8:357–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaufman, L. 1980. Serodiagnosis of fungal diseases, p. 553–572. In N. R. Rose and H. Friedman (ed.), Manual of clinical immunology, 2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  27. Kaufman, L. 1981. Current methods for serodiagnosing systemic fungus infections and identifying their etiologic agents. Estratto Ig. Mod. 76:422–442.Google Scholar
  28. Kaufman, L. 1983. Mycoserology: its vital role in diagnosing systemic mycotic infections. Jpn. J. Med. My col. 24:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaufman, L., and E. Reiss. 1985. Serodiagnosis of fungal diseases, p. 924–944. In E. H. Lennette, A. Balows, W. J. Hausler, Jr., and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  30. Kaufman, L., and E. Reiss. 1986. Serodiagnosis of fungal diseases, p. 446–466. In N. R. Rose, H. Friedman, and J. L. Fahey (ed.), Manual of clinical laboratory immunology, 3rd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  31. Kaufman, L., P. G. Standard, and A. A. Padhye. 1983. Exoantigen tests for the immunoidentification of fungal cultures. Mycopathologia 82:3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kobayashi, G. S., S. Travis, and G. Medoff. 1986. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo activity of the bis-triazole derivative UK 49,858 with that of amphotericin B against Histoplasma capsulatum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:660–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee, S. H., W. G. Barnes, and W. P. Schaetzel. 1986. Pulmonary aspergillosis and the importance of oxalate crystal recognition in cytology specimens. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 110:1176–1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Matsumoto, T., and L. Ajello. 1986. No granules, no mycetomas [letter]. Chest 90:151–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGinnis, M. R. 1980. Laboratory handbook of medical mycology. Academic Press, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  36. McGinnis, M. R., and M. G. Rinaldi. 1985. Antifungal drugs: mechanisms of action, drug resistance, susceptibility testing, and assays of activity in biological fluids, p. 223–287. In V. Lorian (ed.), Antibiotics in laboratory medicine, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  37. Mirsky, H. S., and J. Cuttner. 1972. Fungal infection in acute leukemia. Cancer 30:348–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nime, F. A., and G. M. Hutchins. 1973. Oxalosis caused by Aspergillus infection. Johns Hopkins Med. J. 133:183–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Opal, S. M., L. B. Reller, G. Harrington, and P. Cannady, Jr. 1986. Aspergillus clavatus endocarditis involving a normal aortic valve following coronary artery surgery. Rev. Infect. Dis. 8:781–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pennington, J. E. 1980. Aspergillus lung disease. Med. Clin. North Am. 64:475–490.Google Scholar
  41. Pennington, J. E. 1986. Aspergillus, p. 175–189. In G. A. Sarosi and S. F. Davies (ed.), Fungal diseases of the lung. Grune & Stratton, Orlando, Fla.Google Scholar
  42. Prystowsky, S. D., B. Vogelstein, D. S. Ettinger, W. G. Merz, H. Kaizer, V. I. Sulica, and W. H. Zinkham. 1976. Invasive aspergillosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 295:655–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Raper, K. B., and D. I. Fennell. 1965. The genus Aspergillus. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  44. Reingold, A. L., X. Dong Lu, B. D. Plikaytis, and L. Ajello. 1986. Systemic mycoses in the United States, 1980–1982. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 24:433–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reiss, E., and P. F. Lehmann. 1979. Galactomannan anti-genemia in invasive aspergillosis. Infect. Immun. 25:357–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Rinaldi, M. G. 1981. Spontaneous lysis of mycetomas after acute cavitating lung disease [letter]. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 124:342–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Rinaldi, M. G. 1982. Use of potato flakes agar in clinical mycology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:1159–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Rinaldi, M. G. 1983. Invasive aspergillosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5:1061–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rinaldi, M. G., and A. W. Howell. 1988. Antifungal antimicrobics: laboratory evaluation. In I. F. Salkin (ed.), Diagnostic procedures for mycotic and parasitic diseases, 7th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. (in press).Google Scholar
  50. Rippon, J. W. 1982. Medical mycology. The pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic Actinomycetes, 2nd ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  51. Roberts, G. D., N. L. Goodman, G. A. Land, H. W. Larsh, and M. R. McGinnis. 1985. Detection and recovery of fungi in clinical specimens, p. 500–513. In E. H. Lennette, A. Balows, W. J. Hausler, Jr., and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  52. Salkin, I. F., and M. A. Gordon. 1975. Evaluation of Aspergillus differential medium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2:74–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Samson, R. A., and J. I. Pitt (eds.). 1985. Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus systematics. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Schaffner, A., H. Douglas, and A. Braude. 1982. Selective protection against conidia by mononuclear and against mycelia by polymorphonuclear phagocytes in resistance to Aspergillus. Observations on these two kinds of defense in vivo and in vitro with human and mouse phagocytes. J. Clin. Invest. 69:617–631.Google Scholar
  55. Sekon, A. S., P. G. Standard, L. Kaufman, A. K. Garg, and P. Cifuentes. 1986. Grouping of Aspergillus species with exoantigens. Diagn. Immunol. 4:112–116.Google Scholar
  56. Sepulveda, R., J. L. Longbottom, and J. Pepys. 1979. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgG and IgE antibodies to protein and polysaccharide antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus. Clin. Allergy 9:359–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shadomy, S., A. Espinel-Ingroff, and R. Y. Cartwright. 1985. Laboratory studies with antifungal agents: susceptibility tests and bioassays, p. 991–999. In E. H. Lennette, A. Balows, W. J. Hausler, Jr., and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  58. Shamsuddin, A. M., and C. C. Harris. 1983. Improved enzyme immunoassays using biotin-avidin enzyme complex. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 107:514–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Swatek, F., C. Halde, M. G. Rinaldi, and H. J. Shadomy. 1985. Aspergillus species and other opportunistic saprophytic hyaline Hyphomycetes, p. 584–594. In E. H. Lennette, A. Balows, W. J. Hausler, Jr., and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  60. Tack, K. J., F. S. Rhame, B. Brown, and R. C. Thompson, Jr. 1982. Aspergillus osteomyelitis. Report of four cases and review of the literature. Am. J. Med. 73:295–300.Google Scholar
  61. Tan, K. K., K. Sugai, and K. L. Tan. 1966. Disseminated aspergillosis. Case report and review of the world literature. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45:697–703.Google Scholar
  62. Tompkins, L. S. 1985. DNA methods in clinical microbiology, p. 1023–1028. In E. H. Lennette, A. Balows, W. J. Hausler, Jr., and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  63. Van Cutsem, J., F. Van Gerven, M-A. Van De Ven, M. Borgers, and P. A. J. Janssen. 1984. Itraconazole, a new triazole that is orally active in aspergillosis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:527–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Wang, J. L., R. Patterson, M. Rosenberg, M. Roberts, and B. J. Cooper. 1978. Serum IgE and IgG antibody activity against Aspergillus fumigatus as a diagnostic aid in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 117:917–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Young, R. C., J. E. Bennett, C. L. Vogel, P. P. Carbone, and V. T. DeVita. 1970. Aspergillosis: the spectrum of disease in 98 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 49:147–173.Google Scholar
  66. Zimmerman, L. E. 1955. Fatal fungus infections complicating other diseases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 25:46–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Zinneman, H. H. 1982. Sino-orbital aspergillosis. Report of a case and review of the literature. Minn. Med. 55:661–664.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael G. Rinaldi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations