Advertisement

Haemophilus influenzae Infections

  • W. L. Albritton

Abstract

Since its original description by Pfeiffer in 1892 in association with respiratory disease, Haemophilus influenzae has been found in a number of clinical syndromes involving several organ systems. Encapsulated strains were recognized by Pittman (1931) in association with invasive disease and six serotypes (a-f) have been described based on capsular antigen. Over 95% of all invasive disease has been associated with strains producing the serotype b capsule, although invasive disease due to other capsular serotypes and nonencapsulated strains has been described. Nonencapsulated strains are largely responsible for local mucosal disease of the respiratory tract and contiguous structures such as otitis media, conjunctivitis, genitourinary tract infection, and invasive neonatal disease acquired from the maternal genital tract. Infections due to H. influenzae are perhaps the most important bacterial infections of childhood and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

Keywords

Otitis Medium Bacterial Meningitis Septic Arthritis Invasive Disease Latex Agglutination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Albritton, W. L., J. L. Brunton, M. Meier, M. N. Bowman, and L. A. Slaney. 1982. Haemophilus influenzae: comparison of respiratory tract isolates with genitourinary tract isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:826–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, H. E. 1943. Treatment of Haemophilus influenzae infections and of meningococci and pneumococcic meningitis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 66:172–187.Google Scholar
  3. Asmar, B. I., T. L. Slovis, J. O. Reed, and A. S. Dajani. 1978. Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia in 43 children. J. Pediatr. 93:389–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bada, H., and S. P. Wright. 1974. Hemophilus influenzae cellulitis. Clin. Pediatr. 13:658–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belmaaza, A., J. Hamel, S. Mousseau, S. Montplaisir, and B. R. Brodeur. 1986. Rapid diagnosis of severe Haemophilus influenzae serotype b infections by monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay for outer membrane proteins. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:440–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergeron, M. G., and G. Y. Lavoie. 1985. Tolerance of Haemophilus influenzae to ß-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28:320–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berk, S. L., S. A. Holtsclaw, S. L. Wiener, and J. K. Smith. 1982. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in the elderly. Arch. Intern. Med. 142:537–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodor, F. F., C. D. Marchant, P. A. Shurin, and S. J. Barenkamp. 1985. Bacterial etiology of conjunctivitisotitis media syndrome. Pediatrics 76:26–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunell, P. A., et al., Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. 1984. Revision of recommendation for use of rifampin prophylaxis of contacts of patients with Haemophilus influenzae infection. Pediatrics 74:301–302.Google Scholar
  10. Brunell, P. A., et al., Committee on Infectious Diseases, Academy of Pediatrics. 1985. Hemophilus type b polysaccharide vaccine. Pediatrics 76:322–324.Google Scholar
  11. Campognone, P., and D. B. Singer. 1986. Neonatal sepsis due to nontypable Haemophilus influenzae. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140:117–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cochi, S. L., C. V. Broome, and A. W. Hightower. 1985. Immunization of US children with Hemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine: a cost-effectiveness model of strategy assessment. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 253:521–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cochi, S. L., D. W. Fleming, A. W. Hightower, K. Limpakarnjanarat, R. R. Facklam, J. D. Smith, R. K. Sikes, and C. V. Broome. 1986. Primary invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease: a population-based assessment of risk factors. J. Pediatr. 108:887–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dajani, A. S., B.I. Asmar, and M. C. Thirumoorthi. 1979. Systemic Haemophilus influenzae disease: an overview. J. Pediatr. 94:355–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daum, R. S., G. R. Siber, J. S. Kawou, and R. R. Russell. 1982. Evaluation of a commercial latex particle agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection. Pediatrics 69:466–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Drapkin, M. S., M. E. Wilson, S. M. Shrager, and R. H. Rubin. 1977. Bacteremic Hemophilus influenzae type b cellulitis in the adult. Am. J. Med. 63:449–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elwell, L. P., J. D. DeGraaff, D. Seibert, and S. Falkow. 1975. Plasmid-linked ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae type b. Infect. Immun. 12:404–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Eng, R. H. K., M. L. Corrado, D. Cleri, and M. R. Sierra. 1980. Non-type b Haemophilus influenzae infections in adults with reference to biotype. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:669–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Farley, M. M., D. S. Stephens, M. H. Mulks, M. D. Cooper, J. V. Bricker, S. S. Mira, and A. Wright. 1986. Pathogenesis of IgAl protease-producing and -nonproducing Haemophilus influenzae in human nasopharyngeal organ cultures. J. Infect. Dis. 154:752–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feldman, W. E., and J. Schwartz. 1983. Haemophilus influenzae type b brain abscess complicating meningitis: case report. Pediatrics 72:473–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Friesen, C. A., and C. T. Cho. 1986. Characteristic features of neonatal sepsis due to Haemophilus influenzae. Rev. Infect. Dis. 8:777–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gellady, A. M., S. T. Shulman, and E. M. Ayoub. 1978. Periorbital and orbital cellulitis in children. Pediatrics 61:272–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gigliotti, F., W. T. Williams, F. G. Hayden, and J. O. Hendley. 1981. Etiology of acute conjunctivitis in children. J. Pediatr. 98:531–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ginsburg, C. M., J. B. Howard, and J. D. Nelson. 1979. Report of 65 cases of Haemophilus influenzae b pneumonia. Pediatrics 64:283–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldberg, F., A. S. Berne, and F. A. Oski. 1978. Differentiation of orbital cellulitis from prespeptal cellulitis by computed tomography. Pediatrics 62:1000–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Granoff, D. M., and R. S. Daum. 1980. Spread of Haemophilus influenzae type b: recent epidemiologic and therapeutic considerations. J. Pediatr. 97:854–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grassberger, R. 1897. Beiträge zür Bakteriologie der Influenca. Z. Hyg. Infektionskr. 25:453–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gratten, M. 1983. Haemophilus influenzae biotype VII. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:1015–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Greene, G. R. 1978. Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae other than type b: case report and review. Pediatrics 62:1021–1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Herriott, R. M.,E. Y. Meyer, M. Vogt, and M. Modan. 1970. Defined medium for growth of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Bacteriol 101:513–516.Google Scholar
  31. Himmelreich, C. A., S. J. Barenkamp, and G. A. Storch. 1985. Comparison of methods for serotyping isolates of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Clin. Microbol. 21:158–160.Google Scholar
  32. Hirschmann, J. V., and E. D. Everett. 1979. Haemophilus influenzae infectious in adults: report of nine cases and a review of the literature. Medicine 58:80–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoiseth, S. K., C. J. Connelly, and E. R. Moxon. 1985. Genetics of spontaneous, high-frequency loss of b capsule expression in Haemophilus influenzae. Infect. Immun. 49:389–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hollander, R., and W. Mannheim. 1975. Characterization of hemophilic and related bacteria by their respiratory quinones and cytochromes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 25:102–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Honig, P. J., P. S. Pasquariello, and S. E. Stool. 1973. H. influenzae pneumonia in infants and children. J. Pediatr. 83:215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ingram, D. L., P. Anderson, and D. H. Smith. 1972. Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of systemic diseases caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b. J. Pediatr. 81:1156–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ingram, D. L., A. M. Collier, E. Pendergrass, and S. H. King. 1979. Methods for serotyping nasopharyngeal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae: slide agglutination, Quellung reaction, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and antiserum agar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:570–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jacobs, N. M., and V. J. Harris. 1979. Acute Haemophilus pneumonia in childhood. Am. J. Dis. Child. 133:603–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Jadavji, T., W. D. Biggar, R. Gold, and C. G. Prober. 1986. Sequelae of acute bacterial meningitis in children treated for seven days. Pediatrics 78:21–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaplan, K. M., and F. A. Oski. 1980. Anemia with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Pediatrics 65:1101–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kilian, M. 1974. A rapid method for the differentiation of Haemophilus strains. The porphyrin test. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 82B:835–842.Google Scholar
  42. Kilian, M. 1976. A taxonomic study of the genus Haemophilus with the proposal of a new species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 93:9–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kilian, M., J. Mestecky, and R. E. Schrohenloher. 1979. Pathogenic species of the genus Haemophilus and Streptococcus pneumoniae produce immunoglobulin A1 protease. Infect. Immun. 26:143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kurlandsky, L. E., P. H. Quinn, and E. M. Sills. 1979. Haemophilus influenzaeas a cause of Brodie’s abscess in an infant. Johns Hopkins Med. J.144:15–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Lerman, S. J. 1982. Systemic Haemophilus influenzae infection: a study of risk factors. Clin. Pediatr. 21:360–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Levin, D. C., M. I. Schwarz, R. A. Matthay, and F. M. LaForce. 1977. Bacteremic Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia in adults: a report of 24 cases and a review of the literature. Am. J. Med. 62:219–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li, K. I., and E. R. Wald. 1986. Use of rifampin in Haemophilus influenzae type b infections. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140:381–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lindberg, J., U. Rosenhall, O. Nylen, and A. Ringner. 1977. Long-term outcome of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis related to antibiotic treatment. Pediatrics 60:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Liston, T. E., and W. S. Foshee. 1982. Invasive disease due to nontypable Haemophilus influenzae in children. South. Med. J. 75:753–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Male, C. 1979. Immunoglobulin Al protease production by Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 26:254–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Mason, E. O., S. L. Kaplan, B. L. Wiedermann, E. P. Norrod, and W. A. Stenback. 1985. Frequency and properties of naturally occurring adherent piliated strains of Haemophilus influenzae. Infect. Immun. 49:98–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Michaels, R. H. 1971. Increase in influenzal meningitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 285:666–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Minnefor, A. B., J. J. Murray, and P. H. Davis. 1972. Hemophilus influenzae cellulitis of the lower extremity. Am. J. Dis. Child. 124:920–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Molteni, R. A. 1976. Epiglottitis: incidence of extraepiglottic infection: report of 72 cases and review of the literature. Pediatrics 58:526–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Moxon, E. R. 1986. The carrier state: Haemophilus influenzae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 18 (Suppl. A):17–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Musser, J. M., S. J. Barenkamp, D. M. Granoff, and R. K. Selander. 1986. Genetic relationships of serologically nontypable and serotype b strain of Haemophilus influenzae. Infect. Immun. 52:183–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Oberhofer, T. R., and A. E. Back. 1979. Biotypes of Haemophilus encountered in clinical laboratories. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10:168–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Paradise, J. L. 1980. Otitis media in infants and children. 1980. Pediatrics 65:917–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Parr, T. R., and L. E. Bryan. 1984. Mechanism of resistance of an ampicillin-resistant, ß-lactamase-negative clinical isolate of Haemophilus influenzae type b to ß-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25:747–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Peltola, H., H. Kayhty, M. Virtanen, and P. H. Mäkelä, 1984. Prevention of Hemophilus influenzae type b bacteremic infections with the capsular polysaccharide vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. 310:1566–1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Petersen, G. M., E. M. Scott, J. I. Rotter, D. R. Silimperi, D. B. Hall, and J. I. Ward. 1985. Uridine monophosphate kinase 3: a genetic marker for susceptibility to Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Lancet 2:417–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pfeiffer, R. 1892. Vorlaufige Mitteilungen uber die Evreger der Influenza. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 18:28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pittman, M. 1931. Variation and type specificity in the bacterial species Haemophilus influenzae. J. Exp. Med. 53:471–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pittman, M., and D. J. Davis. 1950. Identification of the Koch-Weeks bacillus (Hemophilus aegyptius). J. Bacteriol. 59:413–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Prober, C. G., T. Jadavji, and S. J. Soldin. 1985. Effect of rifampin on chloramphenicol levels. N. Engl. J. Med. 312:788–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Quintiliani, R., and P. J. Hymans. 1971. The association of bacteremic Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia in adults with typable strains. Am. J. Med. 50:781–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rogers, K. B., K. Zinnemann, and W. P. Foster. 1960. The isolation and identification of Haemophilus spp. from unusual lesions in children.J. Clin. Pathol. 13:519–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rotbart, H. A., and M. P. Glode. 1985. Haemophilus influenzae type b septic arthritis in children: report of 23 cases. Pediatrics 75:254–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rowe, D. S. 1975. Acute suppurative otitis media. Pediatrics 56:285–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Rutman, O. L., and E. R. Wald. 1981. Fever in i type b meningitis. Clin. Pediatr. 20:192–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schell, R. F., J. L. LeFrock, J. P. Babu, and D. B. Robinson. 1979. Recovery of Haemophilus influenzae from twenty-three blood culture media. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Shaw, R. A., and J. F. Plouffe. 1979. Haemophilus influenzae cellulitis in an adult. Arch. Intern. Med. 139:368–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith, A. L. 1976. Antibiotics and invasive Haemophilus influenzae. N. Engl. J. Med. 294:1329–1331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith, T. F., D. O’Day, and P. F. Wright. 1978. Clinical implications of preseptal (periorbital) cellulitis in childhood. Pediatrics 62:1006–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sottnek, F. O., and W. L. Albritton. 1984. Haemophilus influenzae biotype VIII. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:815–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Spagunolo, P. J., J. J. Ellner, P. I. Lerner, M. C. McHenry, F. Flatauer, P. Rosenberg, and M. S. Rosenthal. 1982. Haemophilus influenzae meningitis: the spectrum of disease in adults. Medicine 61:74–85.Google Scholar
  77. Sturm, A. W. 1986. Isolation of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae from genital tract specimens with a selective culture medium. J. Med. Microbiol. 21:349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tarr, P. I., and G. Peter. 1978. Demographic factors in the epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in young children. J. Pediatr. 92:884–888.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Taylor, H. G., R. H. Michaels, P. M. Mazur, R. E. Bauer, and C. B. Liden. 1984. Intellectural, neuropsychological, and achievement outcomes in children six to eight years after recovery from Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Pediatrics 74:198–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Turk, D. C., and J. R. May. 1967. Haemophilus influenzae: its clinical importance. English Universities Press, London.Google Scholar
  81. Umetsu, D. T., D. M. Ambrosino, I. Quinti, G. R. Siber, and R. S. Geha. 1985. Recurrent sinopulmonary infection and impaired Haemophilus influenzae antibody response to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen in children with selective IgG-subclass deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 313:1247–1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wallace, R. J., D. M. Musher, and R. R. Martin. 1978. Hemophilus influenzae pneumonia in adults. Am. J. Med. 64:87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wallace, R. J., C. J. Baker, F. J. Quinones, D. G. Hollis, R. E. Weaver, and K. Wiss. 1983. Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (biotype 4) as a neonatal, ma¬ernal, and genital pathogen. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5:123–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ward, J. I., G. R. Siber, D. W. Scheifele, and D. H. Smith. 1978. Rapid diagnosis of Hemophilus influenzae type b infections by latex particle agglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis. J. Pediatr. 93:37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ward, J. I., D. W. Fraser, L. J. Baraff, and B. D. Plikaytis. 1979. Haemophilus influenzae meningitis: a national study of secondary spread in household contacts. N. Engl. J. Med. 301:122–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weber, M. L., R. Desjardins, G. Perreault, G. Rivard, and Y. Turmel. 1976. Acute epiglottitis in children—treatment with nasotracheal intubation: report of 14 consecutive cases. Pediatrics 57:152–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Weimert, T. A., and T. A. Kwyer. 1978. Haemophilus influenzae cellulitis. Arch. Otolaryngol. 104:544–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Winslow, C. E. A., J. Broadhurst, R. E. Buchanan, C. Krumwiede, L. A. Rogers, and G. H. Smith. 1920. The families and genera of the bacteria. Final report of the Society of American Bacteriologoists on characterization and classification of bacterial types. J. Bacteriol. 5:191–229.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. L. Albritton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations