Haemophilus influenzae Infections
Since its original description by Pfeiffer in 1892 in association with respiratory disease, Haemophilus influenzae has been found in a number of clinical syndromes involving several organ systems. Encapsulated strains were recognized by Pittman (1931) in association with invasive disease and six serotypes (a-f) have been described based on capsular antigen. Over 95% of all invasive disease has been associated with strains producing the serotype b capsule, although invasive disease due to other capsular serotypes and nonencapsulated strains has been described. Nonencapsulated strains are largely responsible for local mucosal disease of the respiratory tract and contiguous structures such as otitis media, conjunctivitis, genitourinary tract infection, and invasive neonatal disease acquired from the maternal genital tract. Infections due to H. influenzae are perhaps the most important bacterial infections of childhood and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
KeywordsPneumonia Polysaccharide Anemia Nitrite Bacillus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Alexander, H. E. 1943. Treatment of Haemophilus influenzae infections and of meningococci and pneumococcic meningitis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 66:172–187.Google Scholar
- Brunell, P. A., et al., Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. 1984. Revision of recommendation for use of rifampin prophylaxis of contacts of patients with Haemophilus influenzae infection. Pediatrics 74:301–302.Google Scholar
- Brunell, P. A., et al., Committee on Infectious Diseases, Academy of Pediatrics. 1985. Hemophilus type b polysaccharide vaccine. Pediatrics 76:322–324.Google Scholar
- Herriott, R. M.,E. Y. Meyer, M. Vogt, and M. Modan. 1970. Defined medium for growth of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Bacteriol 101:513–516.Google Scholar
- Himmelreich, C. A., S. J. Barenkamp, and G. A. Storch. 1985. Comparison of methods for serotyping isolates of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Clin. Microbol. 21:158–160.Google Scholar
- Ingram, D. L., A. M. Collier, E. Pendergrass, and S. H. King. 1979. Methods for serotyping nasopharyngeal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae: slide agglutination, Quellung reaction, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and antiserum agar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:570–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kilian, M. 1974. A rapid method for the differentiation of Haemophilus strains. The porphyrin test. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 82B:835–842.Google Scholar
- Spagunolo, P. J., J. J. Ellner, P. I. Lerner, M. C. McHenry, F. Flatauer, P. Rosenberg, and M. S. Rosenthal. 1982. Haemophilus influenzae meningitis: the spectrum of disease in adults. Medicine 61:74–85.Google Scholar
- Turk, D. C., and J. R. May. 1967. Haemophilus influenzae: its clinical importance. English Universities Press, London.Google Scholar
- Umetsu, D. T., D. M. Ambrosino, I. Quinti, G. R. Siber, and R. S. Geha. 1985. Recurrent sinopulmonary infection and impaired Haemophilus influenzae antibody response to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen in children with selective IgG-subclass deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 313:1247–1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Winslow, C. E. A., J. Broadhurst, R. E. Buchanan, C. Krumwiede, L. A. Rogers, and G. H. Smith. 1920. The families and genera of the bacteria. Final report of the Society of American Bacteriologoists on characterization and classification of bacterial types. J. Bacteriol. 5:191–229.Google Scholar