Advertisement

Skin Cancer pp 80-98 | Cite as

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

  • Robert A. Schwartz

Abstract

In 1872, Moritz Kaposi, a Hungarian dermatology professor in Vienna, first described “idiopathisches multiples pigmentsarkom der haut” (1), which has become known as Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). The disease that he described displayed brownish-red to bluish-red nodules in the skin, varying in size from that of a pea to that of a hazel nut. Their surface was smooth, their consistency elastic. They tended to enlarge into dome-shaped tumors that regressed as darkly pigmented scarred depressions. Kaposi observed similar lesions of the viscera, especially of the larynx, trachea, stomach, liver, and colon, with patients dying within 2–3 years. Although one tends to view traditional Kaposi’s sarcoma as an indolent, slowly growing cancer, which a patient dies with rather than of, the aggressive course originally noted by Kaposi has become part of the devastation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), especially among male homosexuals.

Keywords

Acquire Immunodeficiency Syndrome Visceral Involvement Intravenous Drug Abuser Tunistic Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kaposi M: Idiopathisches multiples pigmentsarkom der Haut. Arch Dermatol Syphilol (Prague) 1872; 4:265–273.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haverkos HW, Drotman DP: Prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma among patients with AIDS. N Engl J Med 1985; 312:1518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    AIDS Weekly Surveillance Report, Centers for Disease Control, October 19, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laor Y, Schwartz RA: Epidemiologic aspects of American Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Surg Oncol 1979; 12:229–303.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schwartz RA, Kardashian JF, McNutt SN, Crain WR, Welch KL, Choy SH: Cutaneous angiosarcoma resembling anaplastic Kaposi’s sarcoma in a homosexual man. Cancer 1983; 51:721–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Volberding PA: Kaposi’s sarcoma and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Med Clin North Am 1986; 70:665–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bluefarb SM: Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1957.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lothe F: Kaposi’s sarcoma in Ugandan Africans. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 1963; 83 (Suppl 161): 1–70.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Serwadda D, Carswell W, Ayuko WO, et al: Further experience with Kaposi’s sarcoma in Uganda. Br J Cancer 1986; 53:497–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Phillips JI, Sher R: Kaposi’s sarcoma in different populations in South Africa. S Afr Med J 1987; 71:615–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sengupta SK, Edwards K, Blair A, et al: Childhood Kaposi’s sarcoma in Papua New Guinea. Aust PaediatrJ 1986; 22:301–304.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Klein E, Schwartz RA: Cancer and the skin, in Holland JF, Frei E III (Eds): Cancer Medicine (2nd ed). Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1982, pp 2057–2108.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Templeton AC, Bhana D: Prognosis in Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1975; 55:1301–1304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brownstein MH, Shapiro L, Skolnik P: Kaposi’s sarcoma in community practice. Arch Dermatol 1973; 107:137–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Templeton AC: Kaposi’s sarcoma. Pathol Annu 1981; 16(2):315–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borkovic SP, Schwartz RA: Kaposi’s sarcoma. Am Fam Physician 1982; 26(4): 133–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mitsuyasu RT, Colman MF, Sun NC: Simultaneous occurrence of Hodgkin’s disease and Kaposi’s sarcoma in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Med 1986; 80:954–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berg JW: The incidence of multiple primary cancers: I. Development of further cancers in patients with lymphomas, leukemias and myeloma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1967; 38:741–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ettinger DS, Humphrey RL, Skinner MD: Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with multiple myeloma. Johns Hopkins Med J 1975; 137:88–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Friedman-Birnbaum R, Gilhar A, Carter A: Coexistence of Kaposi’s sarcoma and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1985; 11:76–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burkes RL, Gal AA, Stewart ML, et al: Simultaneous occurrence of Pneumocystis carínii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus infection, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and B-immunoblastic sarcoma in a homosexual man. J Am Med Assoc 1985; 253:3425–3428.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    DeCock KM, Lucas SB, Gichuyia NR, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with hairy cell leukaemia. Postgrad Med J 1983; 59:258–259.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rywlin AM, Rosen L, Cabello B: Coexistence of Castleman’s disease and Kaposi’s sarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol 1983; 5:277–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    O’Brien PH, Brasfield RD: Kaposi’s sarcoma. Cancer 1966; 19:1497–1502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Owor R: Multiple primary malignant tumours in Ugandan Africans. East Afr Med J 1980; 57:692–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Finlay AY, Marks R: Familial Kaposi’s sarcoma. Br J Dermatol 1979; 100:323–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hoshaw RA, Schwartz RA: Kaposi’s sarcoma after immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone. Arch Dermatol 1980; 116:1280–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Koranda FC, Dehmel EM, Kahn G, Penn I: Cutaneous complications in immunosuppressed renal homograft recipients. J Am Med Assoc 1974; 229:419–424.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gange RW, Wilson-Jones E: Kaposi’s sarcoma and immunosuppressive therapy: An appraisal. Clin Exp Dermatol 1978; 3:135–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Klepp O, Dahl O, Stenwig JT: Association of Kaposi’s sarcoma and prior immunosuppressive therapy. Cancer h1978; 42:2626–2630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Greenfield DI, Trinh P, Fulenwider A, Barth WF: Kaposi’s sarcoma in a patient with SLE. J Rheumatol 1986; 13:637–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schulhafer EP, Grossman ME, Fagin G, Bell KE: Steroid-induced Kaposi’s sarcoma in a patient with pre-AIDS. Am J Med 1987; 82:313–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Messina M, Segoloni GP, Triolo G, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma in a renal transplantation patient treated with cyclosporine A. Nephron 1987; 45:154–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Snyder RA, Schwartz RA: Telangiectatic Kaposi’s sarcoma: Occurrence in a patient with thymoma and myasthenia gravis receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Arch Dermatol 1982; 118:1020–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stribling J, Weitzner S, Smith GV: Kaposi’s sarcoma in renal allograft recipients. Cancer 1978; 42:442–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Blayney DW, Ito JI, Jensen FC: Spontaneous remission of Kaposi’s sarcoma in a HTLV-III-negative homosexual man. Cancer 1986; 58:1583–1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liautaud B, Pape JW, Deschamps M-M, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma and AIDS in Haiti (1979–1986). Second International Conference on AIDS Abstracts, 1987, p 21, abstract MP 69.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Whyte BM, Dobson AJ, Gold J, et al: Epidemiology of AIDS in Australia. Second International Conference on AIDS Abstracts, 1987, p 20, abstract MP 64.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weiss SH, Biggar RJ: The epidemiology of human retrovirus-associated illnesses. Mt Sinai J Med 1986; 53:579–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vittecoq D, May T, Roue RT, et al: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome after travelling in Africa: An epidemiological study in seventeen Caucasian patients. Lancet 1987; 1:612–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Landesman SH, Vieira J: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): A review. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143:2307–2309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Borkovic SP, Schwartz RA: Kaposi’s sarcoma presenting in a homosexual man-a new and striking phenomenon. Ariz Med 1981; 38:902–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Friedman-Kien AE, Laubenstein LJ, Rubinstein P, et al: Disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men. Ann Intern Med 1982; 96:693–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ammann AJ, Dritz SK, Volberding P, et al: The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-a multidisciplinary enigma. West J Med 1984; 140:66–81.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Drew WL: Is cytomegalovirus a cofactor in the pathogenesis of AIDS and Kaposi’s sarcoma? Mt Sinai Med J 1986; 53:622–626.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Myskowski PL, Kaufman D, Safai B: Epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma: Initial disease site and survival. Clin Res 1987; 34:417A.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    CDC Task Force on Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infection: Epidemiologic aspects of the current outbreak of Kaposi’s sarcoma and opportunistic infection. N Engl J Med 1982; 306:248–252.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ciobanu N, Andreeff M, Safai B, et al: Lympho-blastoid neoplasia in a homosexual patient with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98:151–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Buck BE, Scott GB, Valdes-Dapena M, Parks WP: Kaposi’s sarcoma in two infants with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Pediatr 1983; 103:911–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Warner TFCS, O’Loughlin S: Kaposi’s sarcoma: A byproduct of tumour rejection. Lancet 1975; 2:687–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ruszczak Z, Mayer-Da Silva A, Orfanos, CE: Kaposi’s sarcoma in AIDS. Multicentric angioneo-plasia in early skin lesions. Am J Dermatopathol 1987; 9:388–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dictor MR: Kaposi’s sarcoma: A trifactorial model. Med Hypotheses 1987; 22:429–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Robbins E, Cohen N, Contu L, Dausset J: A study of the HLA-D region in patients with classic Kaposi’s sarcoma. Immunogenetics 1986; 24:115–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brambilla L, Boneschi V, Pigatto PD, et al: Histological and immunological features of primary Kaposi’s sarcoma: Evaluation before and after chemotherapy. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1987; 67:211–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Scorza Smeraldi R, Fabio G, Lazzarin A, et al: HLA-associated susceptibility to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Italian patients with human-immunodeficiency-virus infection. Lancet 1986; 2:1187–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Melbye M, Kestens L, Biggar RJ, et al: HLA studies of endemic African Kaposi’s sarcoma patients and matched controls: No association with HLA-DR5. Int J Cancer 1987; 39:182–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eales L-J, Nye KE, Parkin JM, et al: Association of different allelic forms of group specific component with susceptibility to and clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Lancet 1987; 1:999–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Delli Bovi P, Basilico C: Isolation of a rearranged human transforming gene following transfection of Kaposi sarcoma DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84:5660–5664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mortimer PP: Viral cause of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 1987; 1:280–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Giraldo B, Beth E, Henle W, et al: Antibody patterns to herpesviruses in Kaposi’s sarcoma: II. Serological association of American Kaposi’s sarcoma with cytomegalovirus. Int J Cancer 1978; 22:126–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Boldogh I, Beth E, Huang E-S, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma: IV. Detection of CMV, DNA, CMV RNA and CMNA in tumour biopsies. Int J Cancer 1981; 28:469–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Giraldo G, Beth E, Huang E-S: Kaposi’s sarcoma and its relationship to cytomegalovirus (CMV): III. CMV DNA and CMV early antigens in Kaposi’s sarcoma. Int J Cancer 1980; 26:23–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fujii Y, Takayasu S, Yokoyama S, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma in a Korean living in Japan. Review of cases reported in Japanese literature. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986; 15:76–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hashimoto H, Muller H, Muller F, et al: In situ hybridization analysis of cytomegalovirus lytic infection in Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with AIDS: A study of 14 autopsy cases. Virchows Arch (Path Anat) 1987; 411:441–448.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ambinder RF, Newman C, Hayward GS, et al: Lack of association of cytomegalovirus with endemic African Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Infect Dis 1987; 156:193–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Weiss RA: Retrovirus and human disease. J Clin Pathol 1987; 40:1064–1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Henrickson RV, Osborn KG, Madden DL, et al: Epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency in rhesus monkeys. Lancet 1983; 1:388–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    London WT, Madden DL, Gravell M, et al: Experimental transmission of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-like skin lesions. Lancet 1983; 2:869–873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schwartz RA, Burgess GH, Hoshaw RA: Patch stage Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1980; 2:509–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dictor M: Kaposi’s sarcoma: Origin and significance of lymphaticovenous connections. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 1986; 409:23–35.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    De Dobbeleer G, Godfrine S, Andre J, et al: Clinically uninvolved skin in AIDS: Evidence of atypical dermal vessels similar to early lesions observed in Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Cutan Pathol 1987; 14: 154–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cockerell CJ, Whitlow MA, Webster GF, Friedman-Kien AE: Epithelioid angiomatosis: A distinct vascular disorder in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex. Lancet 1987; 2:654–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McCarthy WD, Pack GT: Malignant blood vessels tumors. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1950; 91:465–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stewart FW, Treves N: Lymphangiosarcoma in postmastectomy lymphedema. Cancer 1948; 1:64–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hultberg BM: Angiosarcomas in chronically lym-phedematous extremities. Two cases of Stewart-Treves syndrome. Am J Dermatopathol 1987; 9:406–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Otis CN, Peschel R, McKhann C, et al: The rapid onset of cutaneous angiosarcoma after radiotherapy for breast carcinoma. Cancer 1986; 57:2130–2134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Krause KI, Hebert A A, Sanchez RL, Solomon AR Jr: Anterior abdominal wall angiosarcoma in a morbidly obese woman. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986; 15:327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Al-Najjar AA-W, Harrington CI, Slater DN: Angiosarcoma: A complication of varicose leg ulceration. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1986; 66:167–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ohgo N, Hishikawa H, Doi A, Soh Y: A case of hemangioendothelioma (angiosarcoma) complicating gastric carcinoma. Acta Dermatol (Kyoto) 1986; 81:109–116.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nakamura S, Ensoli B, Salahuddin Z, Gallo R: In vitro produced factors promote the growth of Kaposi’s sarcoma cells. Second International Conference on AIDS Abstracts, 1987, p 15, Abstract MP 32.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Leu HJ, Odermatt B: Multicentric angiosarcoma (Kaposi’s sarcoma). Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 1985; 408:29–41.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Guarda LG, Silva EG, Ordonez NG, et al: Factor VIII in Kaposi’s sarcoma. Am J Clin Pathol 1981; 76:197–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nadji M, Morales AR, Ziegles-Weissman J, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma. Immunohistologic evidence of endothelial origin. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1981; 105:274–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Flotte TJ, Hatcher VA, Friedman-Kien AE: Factor VIII-related antigen in Kaposi’s sarcoma in young homosexual men. Arch Dermatol 1984; 120:180–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Muksi K, Rosai J: Application of immunoperoxi-dase techniques in surgical pathology. Prog Surg Pathol 1980; 1:15–49.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Muksi K, Rosai J, Burgdorf WHC: Localization of factor VIII related antigen in vascular endothelial cells using an immunoperoxidase method. Am J Surg Pathol 1980; 4:273–276.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Modlin RL, Hofman FM, Kempf RA, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men: An immuno-histochemical study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983; 8:620–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ordonez NG, Batsakis JG: Comparison of Ulex europeaeus I lectin and factor VIII-related antigen in vascular lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1984; 108:129–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Penneys NS, Kott-Blumenkranz R, Civantos F, Kent J: Von Willebrand factor antigen levels in Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986; 15:1214–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jones RR, Spaull J, Spry C, Wilson Jones E: Histogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma in patients with and without acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Clin Pathol 1986; 39:742–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Recht B, Nickoloff BJ, Wood GS: A bullous variant of Kaposi’s sarcoma in an elderly female. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1986; 12:1192–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cox FH, Helwig EB: Kaposi’s sarcoma. Cancer 1959; 12:289–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jaimovich L, Calb I, Kaminsky A: Kaposi’s sarcoma of the conjunctiva. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986; 14:589–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Conger K, Sporer A: Kaposi’s sarcoma limited to glans penis. Urology 1985; 26:173–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hall DJ, Burns JC, Goplerud DR: Kaposi’s sarcoma of the vulva: A case report and brief review. Obstet Gynecol 1979; 54:478–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schwartz RA, Brenden LD, Breeden JH, Lambert WC: Indolent lymphadenopathic Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Surg Oncol 1987; 34:243–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kohn SR: A variant of ichthyosis. Arch Dermatol 1976; 112:161.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Young L, Steinman HK: Acquired ichthyosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16:395–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lozada F, Silverman S Jr, Migliorati CA, et al: Oral manifestations of tumor and opportunistic infections in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): Findings in 53 homosexual men with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Oral Surg 1983; 56:491–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bradin JL Jr: Kaposi’s sarcoma of the rectum. West J Med 1983; 139:109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Epstein E: Extracutaneous manifestations of Kaposi’s sarcoma-a systemic lymphoblastoma. Calif Med 1957; 87:98–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lemlich G, Schwam L, Lebwohl M: Kaposi’s sarcoma and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Postmortem findings in twenty-four cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16:319–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Templeton AC: Studies in Kaposi’s sarcoma. Postmortem findings and disease patterns in women. Cancer 1972; 30:854–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Anthony CW, Koneman EW: Visceral Kaposi’s sarcoma. Arch Pathol 1960; 70:740–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gorin FA, Bale JF Jr, Halks-Miller M, Schwartz RA: Kaposi’s sarcoma metastatic to the CNS. Arch Neurol 1985; 42:162–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Reed WB, Kamath HM, Weiss L: Kaposi’s sarcoma, with emphasis on the internal manifestations. Arch Dermatol 1974; 110:115–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Neff R, Kremer S, Voutsinas L, et al: Primary Kaposi’s sarcoma of the ileum presenting as massive rectal bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol 1987; 82:276–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Roth JA, Schell S, Panzarino S, Coronato A: Visceral Kaposi’s sarcoma presenting as colitis. Am J Surg Pathol 1978; 75:209–214.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Perrone V, Pergola M, Abate G, et al: Protein-losing enteropathy in a patient with generalized Kaposi’s sarcoma. Cancer 1981; 47:588–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tedeschi CG, Folsom HF, Carnicelli TJ: Visceral Kaposi’s sarcoma. Arch Pathol 1947; 43:335–357.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mitchell N, Feder IA: Kaposi’s sarcoma with secondary involvement of the jejunum, perforation and peritonitis. Ann Intern Med 1949; 31:324–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Coetzee T, Coetzee CGL: Kaposi’s sarcoma-Presentation with intestinal obstruction. S Afr Med J 1967; 41:442–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hamm PG, Judson MA, Aranda CP: Diagnosis of pulmonary Kaposi’s sarcoma with fiberoptic bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsy. A report of five cases. Cancer 1987; 59:807–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Davis SD, Henschke CI, Chamides BK, Westcott JL: Intrathoracic Kaposi’s sarcoma in AIDS patients: Radiographic-pathologic correlations. Radiology 1987; 163:495–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Schwartz RA, Volpe JA, Lambert MW, Lambert WC: Kaposi’s sarcoma. Semin Dermatol 1984; 3:303–315.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mitsuyasu RT: Clinical variants and staging of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Semin Oncol 1987; 14 (Suppl 3): 13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Levy EM, Cottrell M, Kushi LH, et al: Patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma who opt for alternative therapy: Immune and psychological measures. Second International Conference on AIDS Abstracts, 1987, p 15, Abstr MP 31.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Welch K, Finkbeiner W, Alpers CE, et al: Autopsy findings in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Am Med Assoc 1984; 252:1152–1159.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Borton LK, Wintroub BU: Disseminated crytococ-cosis presenting as herpetiform lesions in a homosexual man with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984; 10:387–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lin RY, Schwartz RA, Lambert WC: Cutaneous-pericardial tuberculous fistula in an immunocompromised host. Int J Dermatol 1986; 25:456–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Coulman CU, Greene I, Archibald RWR: Cutaneous pneumocystosis. Ann Intern Med 1987; 106:396–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    O’Connell KM: Kaposi’s sarcoma: Histopathological study in 159 cases from Malawi. J Clin Pathol 1977; 30:687–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    O’Connell KM: Kaposi’s sarcoma in lymph nodes: Histological study of lesions from 16 cases in Malawi. J Clin Pathol 1977; 30:696–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lubin J, Rywlin AM: Lymphoma-like lymph node changes in Kaposi’s sarcoma. Two additional cases. Arch Pathol 1971; 92:338–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mededdu G, Borroni G, Rabbiosi G: Scintigraphic evaluation of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Dermatologica 1978; 156:332–340.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Marquart K-H: Tubuloreticular structures in Kaposi’s sarcoma cells are not an ultrastructural marker for AIDS. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1987; 67:367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Schenk P: Retrovirus in Kaposi’s sarcoma in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Acta Otolaryngol 1986; 101:295–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Abrams DI, Chinn EK, Lewisk BJ, et al: Hematologic manifestations in homosexual men with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Am J Clin Pathol 1984; 81:13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Braun DP, Harris JE: Abnormal monocyte function in patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Cancer 1986; 57:1501–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jeffrey RB Jr, Nyberg DA, Bottles K, et al: Abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Roent 1986; 146:7–13.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Master SP, Taylor JF, Kyalwazi SK, et al: Immunological studies in Kaposi’s sarcoma in Uganda. Br Med J 1970; 1:600–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Vadhan-Raj S, Wong G, Gnecco C, et al: Immunological variables as predictors of prognosis in patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cancer Res 1986; 46:417–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gottlieb MS, Groopman JE, Weinstein WM, et al: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99:208–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Friedman-Kien AE: Disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma syndrome in young homosexual men. J Am Acad Dermatol 1981; 5:468–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lupton GP, James WD, Redfield RP, et al: Oral hairy leukoplakia. A distinctive marker of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. Arch Dermatol 1987; 123:624–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Strutton G, Weedon D: Acro-angiodermatitis. A simulant of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol 1987; 9:85–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Weiss SW, Enzinger FM: Spindle cell hemangioendothelioma. A low-grade angiosarcoma resembling a cavernous hemangioma and Kaposi’s sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1986; 10:521–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Brehmer-Andersson E, Torssander J, Tengvar M: Extensive hemangiomatosis of the extremities with the same histopathologic pattern as the early lesion of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1986; 66:449–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Uyeda K, Nakayasu K, Takaishi Y, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma-like granuloma on diaper dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 1973; 107:605–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hamada T: Granuloma interiginosum infantum (granuloma gluteale infantum). Arch Dermatol 1975; 111:1072–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Arias-Stella J, Lieberman PH, Garcia-Caceres U, et al: Verruga peruana mimicking malignant neoplasms. Am J Dermatopathol 1987; 9:279–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Fayemi AO, Toker C: Nodal angiomatosis. Arch Pathol 1975; 99:170–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Groopman JE: Biology and therapy of epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma. Cancer 1987; 59:633–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Volberding PA: The role of chemotherapy for epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma. Semin Oncol 1987; 14(Suppl 3):23–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Klein E, Schwartz RA, Laor Y, et al: Treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma with vinblastine. Cancer 1980; 45:427–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Couderc LJ, Matheron S, Janier M, et al: Treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi’’s sarcoma (KS/AIDS) by alpha-2-recombinant interferon and bleomycin. Second International Conference on AIDS Abstracts, 1987, p 98, Abstract TP 216.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Shepherd FA, Garvey MB, Evans WK, et al: Combination chemotherapy and interferon in Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and AIDS. Second International Conference on AIDS Abstracts, 1987, p 99, Abstract TP 224.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    El-Akkad S, Bull CA, El-Senoussi MA, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma and its management by radiotherapy. Arch Dermatol 1986; 122:1396–1399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ampil FL: Kaposi’s sarcoma: Report of five cases treated with radiotherapy. J Surg Oncol 1986; 33:259–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Nisce LZ, Safai B, Poussin-Rosillo H: Once weekly total and subtotal skin electron beam therapy for Kaposi’s sarcoma. Cancer 1981; 47:640–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Volberding P, Feigal DW, Cutler K, Hearst N: Decreasing survival in recently diagnosed AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. Second International Conference on AIDS Abstracts, 1987, p 172, Abstract THP 56.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Cooper JS, Fried PR: Defining the role of radiation therapy in the management of epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1987; 13:35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Wheeland RG, Bailin PL, Norris MJ: Argon laser photocoagulative therapy of Kaposi’s sarcoma: A clinical and histologic evaluation. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1985; 11:1180–1185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Rotman M, Rogow L, Roussis K: Radioisotope scanning of Kaposi’s sarcoma-a modality for treatment planning. Cancer 1974; 33:58–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lewis B, Abrams D, Ziegler J, et al: Single agent or combination chemotherapy of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1983; 2:C232 (abstr).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lane HC, Masur H, Kovacs JA, et al: A phase II, placebo-controlled trial of azidothymidine in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Clin Res 1987; 35:480A.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Klein E, Schwartz RA, Case RW, et al: Accessible tumors, in LoBuglio AF (Ed): Clinical Immunotherapy. New York, Marcel Dekker, 1980, pp 31–71.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Cohen HA, Bekierkunst A: Topical treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma, basal cell carcinoma and solar keratosis with ointment of BCG and cord factor. Dermatologica 1979; 158:117–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Krown SE, Real FX, Vadhan-Raj S, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Treatment with recombinant interferon alpha and analysis of prognostic factors. Cancer 1986; 57:1662–1665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Taylor J, Afrasiabi R, Fahey JL, et al: Prognostically significant classification of immune changes in AIDS with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Blood 1986; 67:666–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Fauci AS, Rosenberg SA, Sherwin SA, et al: Immunomodulators in clinical medicine. Ann Intern Med 1987; 106:421–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Volberding PA, Mitsuyasu RT, Golando JP, Spiegel RJ: Treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma with interferon alpha-2b (Intron®A). Cancer 1987; 59:620–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Fahey JL, Taylor JMG, Korns E, Nishanian P: Diagnostic and prognostic factors in AIDS. Mt Sinai Med J 1986; 53:657–663.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Zisbrod Z, Haimov M, Schanzer H, et al: Kaposi’s sarcoma after kidney transplantation. Report of complete remission of cutaneous and visceral involvement. Transplantation 1980; 30:383–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Schwartz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations