Trophic and Tractional Retinal Degenerations

  • Keith M. Zinn


The disorders in this section have trophic (nutritional and/or vascular) and tractional components that play a major role in their pathogenesis (see Table 6.1).


Retinal Detachment Retinal Degeneration Retinal Break Neurosensory Retina Retinal Tear 
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White-with- or -without-Pressure

  1. Goldbaum MH, Joondeph N, Huamonte FU, et al: White-with-pressure or white-without-pressure lesions. In Peyman GA, Sanders DR, Goldberg MF (eds): Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1980, pp 1027–8Google Scholar
  2. Grignolo A: Ophthalmoscopy and other methods of examination. In Schepens CL, Regan CDJ (eds): Controversial Aspects of the Management of Retinal Detachment. Boston, Little, Brown, 1965, pp 2–28Google Scholar
  3. Karlin DB, Curtin BJ: Axial length measurements and peripheral fundus changes in the myopic eye. In Pruett RC, Regan CDJ (eds): Retinal Congress. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972, pp 629–42Google Scholar
  4. Nagpal KC, Huamonte FU, Constantaras A, et al: Migratory white without pressure retinal lesions. Arch Ophthalmol 94:576–9, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Rutnin U, Schepens CL: Fundus appearance in normal eyes. IV. Retinal breaks and other findings. Am J Ophthalmol 64:1063–78, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Schepens CL: Subclinical retinal detachments. Arch Ophthalmol 47:593–608, 1952Google Scholar
  7. Watzke RC: The ophthalmic sign white-with-pressure. A clinicopathologic correlation. Arch Ophthalmol 66:812–23, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar

Snail-Track Retinal Degeneration

  1. Aaberg TM, Stevens TR: Snail track degeneration of the retina. Am J Ophthalmol 73:370–6, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Byer NE: Clinical study of lattice degeneration of the retina. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 69:1064–77, 1965Google Scholar
  3. Cibis PA: Vitre et décollement de rétine. Arch Ophtalmol 25:627–37, 1965Google Scholar
  4. Deutman A: Vitreoretinal dystrophies. In Archer DB (ed): Krill’s Hereditary Retinal and Choroidal Diseases, vol 2: Clinical Characteristics.Google Scholar
  5. Gonin J: Le pathogénie du décollement spontané de la rétine. Ann Oculist 132:30, 1904Google Scholar
  6. Gonin J: Le Décollement de la Rétine, Pathogénie-Traitment. Lausanne, Librairie Payot, 1934Google Scholar

Lattice Retinal Degeneration

  1. Allen RA, Straatsma BR: The pathology of lattice degeneration of the retina. Mod Probl Ophthalmol 4:49–66, 1966Google Scholar
  2. Byer NE: Prognosis of asymptomatic retinal breaks. Arch Ophthalmol 92:208–10, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Byer NE: Changes in and prognosis of lattice degeneration of the retina, Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 78:114–25, 1974Google Scholar
  4. Byer NE: A clinical definition of lattice degeneration of the retina and its variations. Mod Probl Ophthalmol 15:58–67, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Byer NE: Lattice degeneration of the retina (a review). Surv Ophthalmol 23:213–48, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonuk M, Butler FC: An autopsy study of lattice degeneration, retinal breaks and retinal pits. In McPherson A (ed): New and Controversial Aspects of Retinal Detachment. New York, Harper & Row, 1968, pp 59–75Google Scholar
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  8. Deutman AF: Vitreoretinal dystrophies. In Archer DB (ed): Krill’s Hereditary Retinal and Choroidal Diseases, vol 2: Clinical Characteristics. Hagerstown, MD, Harper & Row, 1977, pp 1093–6Google Scholar
  9. Dumas J, Schepens CL: Chorioretinal lesions predisposing to retinal breaks. Am J Ophthalmol 61:620–30, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gonin J: Le Décollement de la Rétine, Pathogénie Traitement. Lausanne, Librairie Payot, 1934Google Scholar
  11. Okun E: Gross and microscopic pathology in autopsy eyes. Part III. Retinal breaks without detachment. Am J Ophthalmol 51:369–91, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Rutnin U, Schepens CL: Fundus appearance of normal eyes. III: Peripheral degenerations. Am J Ophthalmol 64(6):1040–62, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Schepens CL: Symposium Retinal Detachment: Diagnostic and prognostic factors as found in preoperative examination. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 56:398–418, 1952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Straatsma BR, Allen RA: Lattice degeneration of the retina. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 66:600–12, 1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Straatsma BR, Zeegen PD, Foos RY, et al: 30th Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture: Lattice degeneration of the retina. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 78:87–113, 1974Google Scholar
  16. Straatsma BR, Zeegen PD, Foos RY, et al: Lattice degeneration of the retina. Am J Ophthalmol 77:619–49, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Streeten BW, Bert M: Retinal surface in lattice degeneration of the retina. Am J Ophthalmol 74:1201–09, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Tillery WV, Lucier AC: Round atrophic holes in lattice degeneration — An important cause of phakic retinal detachment. Trans Am Ophthalmol, Otolaryngol 81:509–18, 1976Google Scholar
  19. Alexander RL, Shea M: Wagner’s disease. Arch Ophthalmol 74:310–18, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar

Hereditary Vitreoretinal Degenerations Wagner’s Hereditary Vitreoretinal Degeneration and Stickler’s Syndrome

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  3. Hagler WS, Crosswell HH Jr: Radial paravascular chorioretinal degeneration and retinal detachment. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 72:203–16, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hirose T, Lee KY, Schepens CL: Wagner’s hereditary vitreo-retinal degeneration and retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol 89:176–85, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hirose T, Miyake Y: Pigmentary paravenous chorioretinal degeneration: Fundus appearance and retinal functions. Annals of Ophthalmology 11:(5), 709–718, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Jansen L: Degeneratio hyaloideo-retinalis hereditaria. Ophthalmologica 144:458–64, 1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Knobloch WH: Inherited hyaloideo-retinopathy and skeletal dysplasia. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 73:417–51, 1976Google Scholar
  8. Knobloch WH, Layer JM: Clef ting syndromes associated with retinal detachment. Am J Ophthalmol 73:517–30, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Liberfarb RM, Hirose T, Holmes LB: The Wagner-Stickler syndrome: A genetic study of twenty-two families. J Pediatr 99:394–9, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  11. Schreiner RL, McAlister WH, Marshall RE, Shearer WT: Stickler syndrome in a pedigree of Pierre Robin syndrome. Am J Dis Child 126:86–90, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  14. Wagner H: Ein bisher unbekanntes Erbleiden des Auges (Degeneratio hyaloideo-retinalis hereditaria) beobachtet im Kanton Zurich. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 100:840–57, 1938Google Scholar

Juvenile Retinoschisis

  1. Burns RP, Lovrien FW, Cibis AB: Juvenile sex-linked retinoschisis: Clinical and genetic studies. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 75:1011–21, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brodrick JD, Wyatt HT: Hereditary sexlinked retinoschisis. Br J Ophthalmol 57:551–9, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ede CH, Wilson RJ: Juvenile retinoschisis. Br J Ophthalmol 57:560–2, 1973Google Scholar
  4. Kraushar MF, Schepens CL, Kaplan JA, Freeman HM: Congenital retinoschisis. In Bellows JG (ed): Contemporary Ophthalmology Honoring Sir Stewart Duke-Elder. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1972, pp 265–90Google Scholar
  5. Lewis RA, Lee GB, Martonyi CL, et al: Familial foveal retinoschisis. Arch Ophthalmol 95:1190–6, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Manschot WA: Pathology of hereditary juvenile retinoschisis. Arch Ophthalmol 88:131–8, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Sabates FN: Juvenile retinoschisis. Am J Ophthalmol 62:683–8, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Sarin LK, Green WR, Daile EG: Juvenile retinoschisis. Congenital vascular veils and hereditary retinoschisis. Am J Ophthalmol 57:793–6, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Schepens CL: Retinal Detachment and Allied Diseases, vol 2. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1983, pp 568–88Google Scholar
  10. Tasman W, Shields JA: Disorders of the Peripheral Fundus. Hagerstown, MD, Harper & Row, 1980, pp 36–41Google Scholar
  11. Tolentino FI, Schepens CL, Freeman HM: Vitreoretinal Disorders: Diagnosis and Management. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1976, pp 249–59Google Scholar
  12. Yanoff M, Rahn EK, Zimmerman LE: His-topathology of juvenile retinoschisis. Arch Ophthalmol 79:49–53, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Zimmerman LE, Naumann G: The pathology of retinoschisis. In McPherson A (ed): New and Controversial Aspects of Retinal Detachment. New York, Hoeber/Harper & Row, 1968, pp 400–23Google Scholar

Goldman-Favre Disease

  1. Blanck MF, Polliot L, Bernard P: La dégénérescence hyaloide tapéto-rétinienne de Goldmann et Favre à propos d’un cas. Bull Mem Soc Fr Ophtal 86:242–5, 1973Google Scholar
  2. Carr RE, Siegel JM: The vitreo-tapeto-retinal degenerations. Arch Ophthalmol 84:436–45, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Deutman AF: Vitreoretinal dystrophies. In Archer DB (ed): Krill’s Hereditary Retinal and Choroidal Diseases, vol 2: Clinical Characteristics. Hagerstown, MD, Harper & Row, 1977, pp 1062–8Google Scholar
  4. Favre M, Goldmann H: Zur Genese der hinteren Glaskörperabhebung. Ophthalmologica 132:87–97, 1957Google Scholar
  5. Favre M: A propos de deux cas de dégénérescence hyaloidéo-rétinienne. Ophthalmologie. 135:604–09, 1958Google Scholar
  6. Feiler-Ofry V, Adams A, Regenbogen L: Hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration and night blindness. Am J Ophthalmol 67:553–8, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Francois J, de Rouck A, Cambie E: Dégénérescence hyaloidéo-tapéto-rétinienne de Goldmann-Favre. Ophthalmologica 168:81–96, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gerhard JP, Bronner A, Flament J: Retinopathie pigmentaire et décollement de la rétine. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 72:133–6, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Goldmann H: Biomicroscopic du corps vitré et du fond d’œil. Rapp Soc Fr Ophtalmol, pp 164–9, 1957Google Scholar
  10. Ricci A: Clinique et transmission héréditaire des dégénérescences vitréo-ré-tiniennes. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 61:618–62, 1961Google Scholar
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Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

  1. Criswick VG, Schepens CL: Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 68:578–94, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  3. Gow J, Oliver GL: Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. An expanded view. Am J Ophthalmol 86:150–5, 1971Google Scholar

Snowflake Degeneration

  1. Deutman AF: Vitreoretinal dystrophies. In Archer DB (ed): Krill’s Hereditary Retinal and Choroidal Diseases. Hagerstown, MD, Harper & Row, 1977, pp 1097–1100Google Scholar
  2. Hirose T, Lee KY, Schepens CL: Snow-flake degeneration in hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 77:143–53, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hirose T, Wolf E, Schepens CL: Retinal functions in snowflake degeneration. Ann Ophthalmol 12:1135–46, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Schepens CL: Retinal Detachment and Allied Diseases, vol 2. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1983, pp 614–15Google Scholar

Systemic Conditions Associated with Vitreoretinal Degeneration, Marfan’s Syndrome

  1. Archard C: Arachnodactylie. Bull Mem Soc Med Hop Paris 19:834–40, 1902Google Scholar
  2. Franceschetti A, Francois J, Babel J: Les Hérédodégénérescences Choriorétiniennes (Dégénérescences Tapeto-Rétiniennes), vol 1, 2. Paris, Masson, 1963Google Scholar
  3. Heilmann K, Suschke J, Murken JD: Marfan-Syndrome. Ophthalmologische, klinische, biochemische und genetische Untersuchungen. Ber. 70. Bericht über die Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, Heidelberg, 1969. München, Bergmann, 1970, pp 457, 599Google Scholar
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  7. Sinclair RJG, Kitchin AW, Turner RWD: The Marfan Syndrome. Q J Med 29:19–46, 1960Google Scholar


  1. Allen RA, Straatsma BR, Apt L, Hall MO: Ocular manifestations of Marfan’s syndrome. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 71:18–38, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Carson NAJ, Dent CE, Field CMB, Gaull CE: Homocystinuria: Clinical and pathological review of ten cases. J Pediat 6:565–83, 1965Google Scholar
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  8. Hudson JR: Marfan’s syndrome with retinal detachment. Br J Ophthalmol 35:244–5, 1951PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  10. Schmike RN, McKusick VA, Huang T, Pollack AD: Homocystinuria studies of twenty families with thirty-eight affected members. JAMA 193:711–19, 1965Google Scholar
  11. Spaeth GL, Barber GW: Homocystinuria, its ocular manifestation. J Pediat Ophthalmol 3:42–8, 1966Google Scholar

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

  1. Beighton P: X-linked inheritance in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Br Med J 2:409–11, 1968Google Scholar
  2. Beighton P: Serious ophthalmological complications in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 54:263–8, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bossu A, Lambrechts J: Manifestations oculaires du syndrome d’Ehlers-Danlos. Ann Oculist (Paris) 187:227–36, 1954Google Scholar
  4. Cottini GB: Concurrence of the Groenblad-Strandberg syndrome and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Acta Derm 29:544–9, 1949Google Scholar
  5. Danlos H: Un cas de cutis laxa avec tumeurs par contusion chromique des coudes et des genoux. Bull Soc Fr Derm Syphilo 19:70, 1908Google Scholar
  6. Durham DG: Cutis hyperelastica (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) with blue scleras, microcornea, and glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 49:220–1, 1953Google Scholar
  7. Ehlers E: Cutis laxa. Neigung zu Hamorrhagien in der Haut, Lockerung mehrerer Artikulationen. Dermatol Wochenschr 8:173, 1899Google Scholar
  8. Green WR: Angioid streaks in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 76:197, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jansen LH: The structure of the connective tissue, an explanation of the symptoms and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Dermatologica 110:108–20, 1955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Johnson SAM, Falls HF: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A clinical and genetic study. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 60:80–105, 1949Google Scholar
  11. Méténier P: A propos d’un familial de maladie d’Ehlers-Danlos. Thesis. University of Algiers, 1939, p 55Google Scholar
  12. Pemberton JW, Freeman HM, Schepens CL: Familial retinal detachment and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 76:817–24, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Summer GK: The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A review of the literature and report of a case with subgaleal hematoma and Bell’s palsy. Am J Dis Child 91:419–28, 1956Google Scholar
  14. Wiedermann HR: Einiges zum Syndrom von Ehlers and Danlos. Z Kinderheilkd 100:252–6, 1952Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Keith M. Zinn and Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith M. Zinn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat HospitalNew YorkUSA

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