The theory of difference equations, despite its absence from the undergraduate curriculum, is an old and beautiful part of mathematics, one with diverse applications to many subjects: biology, economics, numerical analysis, etc. In a difference equation, change takes place in discrete time intervals. For example, in modeling populations of seasonally breeding animals, it is preferable to use difference equations rather than differential equations because the size of the next generation is largely determined by that of the current one.


Periodic Orbit Difference Equation Logistic Equation Intrinsic Growth Rate Stable Fixed Point 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hüseyin Koçak
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Lefschetz Center for Dynamical Systems Division of Applied MathematicsBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics and Computer ScienceUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA

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