Advertisement

Abstract

The ocular globe is covered anteriorly by the eyelids, which, when closed, occlude the palpebral rim. When the lids are open to their normal position, the whole iris is visible through the cornea except for a small portion of its upper ciliary margin. The upper border of the lower lid is practically tangential to the lower ciliary margin of the iris, with no sclera showing between the two (Fig. 2.1A). At times the upper border of the lower lid can cover a portion of the iris (Fig. 2.1B).

Keywords

Orbicular Muscle Ciliary Margin Ocular Globe Free Skin Graft Scleral Show 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Additional Reading

  1. Aston SI: Orbicularis oculi muscle flaps: A technique to reduce crow’s feet and lateral canthal skin folds. Plast Reconstr Surg, 1980; 65: 206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beyer CK, Smith B et al: Ophthalmological aspects of blepharoplasty. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon1970; 49: 242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Dhooghe P: Aesthetic blepharoplasty, ectropion and incipient ectropion. Acta Chir Belg1978; 77: 127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Edgerton MT: Causes and prevention of lower lid ectropion following blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg1972; 49: 367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Foerster DW: A new method for tightening the orbicularis oculi muscles during blepharoplasty. Aesthet Plast Surg1979; 3: 265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fosatti GH: Treatment of lower lid hipotonicity (a new procedure). Rev Cir Plast Urug1967; 1: 21. (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  7. Frishberg IA: The technique of excision of surplus skin in eyelid of the ageing face. Acta Chir Plast1976; 18, 2: 75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kuhnt H and Szymanowsky J: In Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (p. 516–517) Padgett EC and Stephenson KL (ed) Springfield, Illinois, Charles C. Thomas, 1948.Google Scholar
  9. Loeb R: Scleral Show. Aesth Plast Surg1988; 12: 165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mackinnon SE, Fielding JC et al: The incidence and degree of scleral show in the normal population. Plast Reconstr Surg1987; 80: 15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rees TD, Dupuis C: Cosmetic blepharoplasty in the older age group. Ophthalmic Surg1970; 1: 30.Google Scholar
  12. Shore JW: Changes in lower eyelid resting position, movement and tone with age. Am J Ophthalmol1985; 99: 415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Smith B, Lisman RD: Cosmetic correction of Eyelid deformities associated with exophthalmos. Clin Plast Surg1981; 8: 777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Stasior OG: Complications of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol1976; 81: 550.Google Scholar
  15. Tenzel RR: Complications of Blepharoplasty. Clin Plast Surg1981; 8: 797.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raul Loeb
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Escola Paulista de MedicinaFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.International Society of Aesthetic Plastic SurgerySão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations