Magnitudes and Patterns of Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition in the South
Precipitation in the South currently has a pH of about 4.4 to 4.6, and about 75% to 80% of the free acidity is associated with sulfuric acid, whereas the remainder is derived from nitric acid. Carbonic acid is present in the rain, but in this low pH range, it is essentially fully protonated. Dry deposition adds a largely unquantified amount of chemicals to forests; dry deposition probably exceeds wet deposition in some areas. In this chapter, the sources of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere and the pathways of deposition and the state of knowledge about historic and current deposition rates are summarized.
KeywordsBiomass Combustion Dioxide Dust Europe
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