Environmental Chemical Stress Effects Associated with Carbon and Phosphorus Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Abraham Lerman
  • Fred T. Mackenzie
  • Robert J. Geiger
Part of the Springer Advanced Text in Life Sciences book series (SATLIFE)


Primary biological productivity on land and in waters forms organic materials made of six main elements—C, H, O, N, S, and P—and about a dozen minor elements that are important to the maintenance of organic structures and physiological functions of living organisms. The main elements are present in different proportions in aquatic and land plants. In the surface environment of the Earth, the elements carbon, sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus mostly are found as separate chemical forms. Primary biological productivity represents a coupling mechanism that joins the biogeochemical cycles of the individual elements one to another.


Carbon Cycle Land Plant Standing Crop Biogeochemical Cycle Phosphorus Cycle 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham Lerman
    • 1
  • Fred T. Mackenzie
    • 2
  • Robert J. Geiger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Hawaii Institute of GeophysicsUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

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