Advertisement

Environmental Chemical Stress Effects Associated with Carbon and Phosphorus Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Abraham Lerman
  • Fred T. Mackenzie
  • Robert J. Geiger
Part of the Springer Advanced Text in Life Sciences book series (SATLIFE)

Abstract

Primary biological productivity on land and in waters forms organic materials made of six main elements—C, H, O, N, S, and P—and about a dozen minor elements that are important to the maintenance of organic structures and physiological functions of living organisms. The main elements are present in different proportions in aquatic and land plants. In the surface environment of the Earth, the elements carbon, sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus mostly are found as separate chemical forms. Primary biological productivity represents a coupling mechanism that joins the biogeochemical cycles of the individual elements one to another.

Keywords

Carbon Cycle Land Plant Standing Crop Biogeochemical Cycle Phosphorus Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson MJ, Smith SV (1983) C:N:P ratios of benthic marine plants. Limnol349 Oceanogr 28 (3): 568–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolin B (1986) How much C02 will remain in the atmosphere? The carbon cycle and projecting for the future. In: Bolin B, Jager J, Doos BR, Warrick RA (eds) The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic Change and Ecosystems, Scope 29. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, 574 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Bolin B, Cook RB (1983) (eds) The major biogeochemical cycles and their interactions, Scope 21. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, 554 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Deevey ES Jr (1973) Sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon in the biosphere. In: Woodwell GM, Peacan EV (eds) Carbon and the Biosphere. USAEC, Washington, DC pp. 182–190Google Scholar
  5. Delwiche CC, Likens GE (1977) Biological response to fossil fuel combustion products. In: Stumm W (ed) Global Chemical Cycles and Their Alterations by Man. Dahlem Konferenzen, Berlin, pp. 73–88Google Scholar
  6. Garrels RM, Mackenzie FT (1971) Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks. New York: Norton, 397 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Garrels RM, Mackenzie FT, Hunt C (1975) Chemical Cycles and the Global Environment. Los Altos, California: Kaufmann Wm, 206 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Hoffman JS, Keyes D, Titus JG (1983) Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise: Methodology, Estimates to the Year 2100, and Research Needs. EPA-230–09–007 121 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Houghton RA, Boone RD, Fruci JR, Hobbie JE, Melillo JM, Palm CA, Peterson BJ, Shaver GR, Woodwell GM, Moore B, Skole DL, Myers N (1987) The flux of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in 1980 due to changes in land use: Geographic distribution of the global flux. Tellus 39B: 122–139Google Scholar
  10. Houghton RA, Schlesinger WH, Brown S, Richards JF (1985) Carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. In: Trabalka JR (ed) Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle, Vol ER-2039, US Dept of Energy, Washington, DC, pp. 113–140Google Scholar
  11. Idso SB (1982) Carbon Dioxide: Friend or Foe? IBR Press: Tempe, Arizona, 92 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Judson S (1968) Erosion of the land. Am Scientist 56: 156–374Google Scholar
  13. Lerman A (1979) Geochemical Processes—Water and Sediment Environments.New York: Wiley and Sons, 481 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Lerman A, Mackenzie FT, Garrels RM (1975) Modeling of geochemical cycles-phosphorus as an example. Geol Soc Am Mem 142: 205–218Google Scholar
  15. Mackenzie FT (1981) Global carbon cycle: Some minor sinks for C02. In: Likens G (ed) Flux of Organic Carbon from the Major Rivers of the World to the Ocean. US DOE Conf Rept 80089140, pp. 360–384Google Scholar
  16. Mackenzie FT, Bischoff WD, Paterson V (1983) Biogeochemical cycles and trends in estimates of inputs of anthropogenic chemical constituents to the environment. Cornell University, Ecology Research Center Report 27Google Scholar
  17. Meybeck M (1982) Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport by world rivers.Am J Sci 282: 401–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peterson BJ, Melillo JM (1985) The potential storage of carbon caused by eutrophication of the biosphere. Tellus 37B: 117–127Google Scholar
  19. Redfield AC, Ketchum BH, Richard FA (1963) The influence of organisms on the composition of seawater. In: Hill MN (ed) The Sea. New York: Wiley and Sons, pp. 27–77Google Scholar
  20. Rotty RM (1987) A look at 1983 C02 emissions from fossil fuels (with preliminary data for 1984). Tellus 39B: 203–208Google Scholar
  21. Siegenthaler U, Oeschger H (1987) Biospheric C02 emissions during the past 200 years reconstructed by deconvolution of ice core data. Tellus 39B: 140–154Google Scholar
  22. Sundquist ET (1985) Geological perspectives on carbon dioxide and the carbon350cycle. Geophysical Monograph 32: 5–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Woodwell GM, Whittaker RH, Reiners WA, Likens GE, Delwiche CC, Botkin DB (1978) The biota and the world carbon budget. Science 199: 141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham Lerman
    • 1
  • Fred T. Mackenzie
    • 2
  • Robert J. Geiger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Hawaii Institute of GeophysicsUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations