From Visual Structure to Perceptual Function

  • William Maguire
  • Naomi Weisstein
  • Victor Klymenko


We are bombarded by light. It caroms off the objects around us in an apparent chaos of changing wavelengths and intensities. Every surface that deflects its path leaves its stamp, however, and so organisms have evolved that form and process images, the tracks of those distant objects. Vision experienced is an apprehension of those objects within a structure of sensory qualities. We describe our experienced images in terms of size, shape, color, brightness, direction, velocity, depth. These qualities arise in the brain’s image processing circuitry and resonate to the world’s intrinsic structure.


Spatial Frequency Temporal Frequency High Spatial Frequency Illusory Contour Binocular Disparity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adelson EH, Movshon JA (1982). Phenomenal coherence of moving visual patterns. Nature (London) 300:523–525.Google Scholar
  2. Albrecht DG, Farrar SB, Hamilton DB (1984). Spatial contrast adaptation characteristics of neurones recorded in the cat’s visual cortex. J. Physiol. 347:713–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allman J, Meizin F, McGuiness E (1985). Stimulus specific responses from beyond the classical receptive field: Neurophysiological mechanisms for local-global comparisons in visual neurons. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 8:407–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alwitt LF (1981). Two neural mechanisms related to modes of selective attention. J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 7:324–332.Google Scholar
  5. Arditi A (1986). Binocular vision. In Chap. 23. Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, (K Boff, L Kaufman, JP Thomas, eds.), Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Beck J (1966). Effect of orientation and of shape similarity on perceptual grouping. Percept. Psychophys. 1:300–302.Google Scholar
  7. Beck J (1982). Textural segmentation. In Organization and Representation in Perception (J Beck, ed.), pp. 285–317. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  8. Berbaum K, Bever T, Chung CS (1983). Light source position in the perception of object shape. Perception 12:411–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berbaum K, Bever T, Chung CS (1984). Extending the perception of shape from known to unknown shading. Perception 13:479–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Best J (1989). Cognitive Psychology, 2nd ed. West Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Blakemore C, Julesz B (1971). Stereoscopic depth aftereffect produced without monocular cues. Science 171:286–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blakemore C, Sutton P (1969). Size adaptation: A new aftereffect. Science 166:245–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brand J (1971). Classification without identification in visual search. J. Exp. Psychol. 23:178–186.Google Scholar
  14. Breitmeyer BG (1975). Simple reaction time as a measure of the temporal response properties of transient and sustained channels. Vision Res. 15:1411–1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Breitmeyer BG (1984). Visual Masking: An Integrative Approach. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Breitmeyer BG, Ganz L (1976). Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression and information processing. Psychol. Rev. 83:1–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown J, Weisstein N (1985). Flickering phantoms: A figure/ground approach. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  18. Brown J, Weisstein N (1986). Depth information within phantom inducing regions can influence phantom visibility. Paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  19. Brown J, Weisstein N (1988). A spatial frequency effect on perceived depth. Percept. Psy- chophys. 44:157–166.Google Scholar
  20. Calis G, Leeuwenberg E (1981). Grounding the figure. J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 7:1386–1397.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell FW, Kulikowski JJ (1966). Orientation selectivity of the human visual system. J. Physiol. 187:437–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cavanaugh P, Tyler CW, Favreau OE (1984). Perceived velocity of moving chromatic gratings. J. Opt. Soc. Am. Sect. A:Opt. Image Sei. 1:893–899.Google Scholar
  23. Crawford BH (1947). Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli. Proc. R. Soc. London 134:283–302.Google Scholar
  24. Davis ET, Kramer P, Graham N (1983). Uncertainty about spatial frequency, spatial position, or contrast of visual patterns. Percept. Psychophys. 33:20–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. DeMonasterio FM, Gouras P (1975). Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina. J. Physiol. 251:167–195.Google Scholar
  26. Derrington AM, Lennie P (1984). Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurons in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque. J. Physiol. (London) 357:219–240.Google Scholar
  27. De Valois K (1977). Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity. Vision Res. 17:1057–1065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dow B, Gouras P (1973). Color and spatial specificity of single units in rhesus monkey foveal striate cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 36:79–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Enns JT (1988). Three dimensional figures that pop out in visual search. Paper presented at First International Conference on Visual Search. Durham, U.K.Google Scholar
  30. Enns JB, Gilani AB (1988). Three dimensionality and discriminability in the object superiority effect. Percept. Psychophys. 44:243–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Enns JT, Printzmetal W (1984). The role of redundancy in the object-line effect. Percept. Psychophys. 35:22–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Enroth-Cugell C, Robson JG (1966). The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat. J. Physiol. 187:517–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Foster KH, Gaska JP, Nagler M, Pollen D (1985). Spatial and temporal frequency selectivity of neurones in visual cortical areas VI and V2 of the macaque monkey. J. Physiol. (London) 365:331–363.Google Scholar
  34. Fries W, Albus K, Creutzfeldt O (1977). Effects of interacting visual patterns on single cell responses in cat’s striate cortex. Vision Res. 17:1001–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Frisby JP, Mayhew JE (1978). The relationship between apparent depth and disparity in revalrous-texture stereograms. Perception 7:661–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Genter CR (1981). Temporal factors in the perception of complex imagery. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York, Buffalo. Genter CR, Weisstein N (1981). Flickering phantoms: A motion illusion without motion. Vision Res. 21:963–966.Google Scholar
  37. Gibson JJ, Radner M (1937). Adaptation, after-effect, and contrast in the perception of tilted lines. I. Quantitative studies. J. Exp. Psychol. 20:453–467.Google Scholar
  38. Gibson JJ, Kaplan GA, Reynolds HN, Wheeler K (1969). The change from visible to invisible: A study of optical transitions. Percept. Psychophys. 5:113–116.Google Scholar
  39. Ginsburg A (1978). Visual Information Processing Based on Spatial Filters Constrained By Biological Data. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.Google Scholar
  40. Gouras P (1974). Opponent-color cells in different layers of foveal striate cortex. J. Physiol. 238:583–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Graham N (1985). Detection and identification of near-threshold visual patterns. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2:1468–1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Graham N (1989). Visual Pattern Analyzers. Oxford University Press, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  43. Graham N, Nachmias J (1971). Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: A comparison of single channel and multiple-channels models. Vision Res. 11:251–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Graham N, Beck J, Sutter A (1989). Two nonlinearities in texture segregation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sei. 30(Suppl):161.Google Scholar
  45. Green M (1981). Psychophysical relationships among mechanisms sensitive to pattern, motion, and flicker. Vision Res. 21:971–983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Greenlee MG, Magnussen S (1988). Interaction among spatial frequency and orientation channels adapted concurrently. Vision Res. 28:1303–1310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Grossberg S, Mingolla E (1985a). Neural dynamics of perceptual grouping: Textures, boundaries, and emergent features. Percept. Psychophys. 38:141–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Grossberg S, Mingolla E (1985b). Neural dynamics of form perception: Boundary completion, illusory figures, and neon color spreading. Psychol. Rev. 92:173–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Growney R (1976). The function of contour in metacontrast. Vision Res. 16:253–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Growney R, Weisstein N, Cox S (1977). Metacontrast as a function of spatial separation with narrow line targets and masks. Vision Res. 17:1205–1210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gyoba J (1983). Stationary phantoms: A completion effect without motion or flicker. Vision Res. 22:119–134.Google Scholar
  52. Hochberg J (1971). Perception: Space and movement. In Woodworth and Schlosbergs Experimental Psychology,(JA Kling, LA Riggs, eds.), pp. 475–550. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN (1974). Sequence regularity and geometry of orientation columns in the monkey striate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 158:267–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hurvich LM, Jameson D (1955). Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. II. Brightness, saturation and hue in normal and dichromatic vision. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45:602–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ikeda H, Wright MJ (1975). Spatial and temporal properties of “sustained” and “transient” neurones in area 17 of the cat’s visual cortex. Exp. Brain Res. 22:363–383.Google Scholar
  56. Julesz B (1975). Experiments in the visual perception of texture. Sei. Am. 232:34–43.Google Scholar
  57. Julesz B (1978). Perceptual limits of texture discrimination and their implications for figure-ground separation. In Formal Theories of Perception (E Leeuwenberg, ed.), pp. 205–216. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Julesz B (1987). Preattentive human vision: Link between neurophysiology and psychophysics. In Handbook of Physiology Section I-Nervous System. Vol. 5, Higher Functions of the Brain, Pt 2 (VB Mountcastle, ed.). American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  59. Kanisza G, Gerbino W (1982). Amodal completion: Seeing or thinking? in Organization and Representation in Perception (J. Beck, ed.), pp. 167–190. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  60. Kaufman D (1989). Visual search for conjunction of motion and orientation: The effects of varying distractor-type ratio and relative temporal frequencies. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sei. 30:456.Google Scholar
  61. Keesey UT (1972). Flicker and pattern detection: A comparison of thresholds. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56:446–448.Google Scholar
  62. Kelly DH (1961). Visual response to time-dependent stimuli. I. Amplitude sensitivity measurements. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51:422–429.Google Scholar
  63. Kinchla HA, Wolfe JM (1979). The order of visual processing: “Top-down”, “bottom-up”, or “middle-out”. Percept. Psychophys. 25:225–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. King-Smith PE, Kulikowski JJ (1975). Pattern and flicker detection analysed by subthreshold summation. J. Physiol. 249:519–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Klymenko V, Weisstein N (1986). Spatial frequency differences can determine figure-ground organization. J. Exp. Psychol. Human Percept. Perform. 12:324–330.Google Scholar
  66. Klymenko V, Weisstein N (1987). The resonance theory of kinetic shape perception and the motion-induced contour. In The Perception of Illusory Contours (S Petry, GE Meyer, eds.), pp 143–148. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Klymenko V, Weisstein N (1989a). Figure and ground in space and time: 1. Temporal response surfaces of perceptual organization. Perception 18:627–637.Google Scholar
  68. Klymenko V, Weisstein N (1989b). Figure and ground in space and time: 2. Frequency velocity and perceptual organization. Perception 18:639–648.Google Scholar
  69. Klymenko V, Weisstein N, Ralston J (1987). Illusory contours, projective transformations, and kinetic shape perception. Acta Psychol. 64:229–243.Google Scholar
  70. Klymenko V, Weisstein N, Topolski R, Hsieh CH (1989) Spatial and temporal frequency in figure-ground organization. Percep. Psychophys. 45:395–403.Google Scholar
  71. offka K(1935). Principles of Gestalt Psychology Harcourt Brace, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Kulikowski JJ, Tolhurst DJ (1973). Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision. J. Physiol. 232:149–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kulikowski JJ, Abadi R, King-Smith PE (1973). Orientation selectivity of grating and line detectors in human vision. Vision Res. 13:1479–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lanze M, Weisstein N, Harris J (1982). Perceived depth vs. structural relevance in the object superiority effect. Percept. Psychophys. 31:376–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lanze M, Maguire W, Weisstein N (1985). Emergent features: A new factor in the object-superiority effect? Percept. Psychophys. 38:438–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lawson RB, Cowan E, Gibbs TD, Whitmore CG (1974). Stereoscopic enhancement and erasure of subjective contours. J. Exp. Psychol. 103:1142–1146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Leibovic KN (1969). Some problems of information processing and models of the visual pathway. J. Theoret. Biol. 22:62–79.Google Scholar
  78. Leibovic KN (1972). Nervous System Theory. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Leibovic KN, Balsleve E, Mathieson TA (1971). Binocular vision and pattern recognition. Kybernetic 8:14–23.Google Scholar
  80. Livingstone MS, Hubel DH (1987). Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth. J. Neurosci. 7:3416–3468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lu C, Fender DH (1972). The interaction of color and luminance in stereoscopic vision. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sei. 11:482–490.Google Scholar
  82. Maguire W, Baizer J (1982). Luminance coding of briefly presented stimuli in area 17 of the rhesus monkey. J. Neurophysiol. 47:128–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Maguire W, Brown J (1987). The current state of research into visual phantoms. In The Perception of Illusory Contours (S Petry, GE Meyer, eds.), pp 213–219. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  84. Maguire W, Sitkowski S (1984). The role of target discriminability and distractor redundancy in discrimination of numbers among letters. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  85. Maguire W, Meyer GE, Baizer JS (1980). The McCollough effect in the rhesus monkey. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sei. 19:312–324.Google Scholar
  86. Marlin SG, Hasan SS, Cynander MS (1988). Direction-selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 59:1314–1330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Maunsell JHR, Newsome WT (1987). Visual processing in monkey extrastriate cortex. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 10:363–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Maunsell JHR, Van Essen DC (1983). The connections of the middle temporal visual area (MT) and their relationship to a cortical hierarchy in the macaque monkey. J. Neurophysiol. 3:2563–2586.Google Scholar
  89. McCollough C (1965). Color adaptation of edge detectors in the human visual system. Science 149:1115–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Merigan WH (1989). Chromatic and achromatic vision of macaques: Role of the p pathway. J. Neurosci. 9:776–783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Meyer GE, Dougherty T (1987). Effects of flicker-induced depth on chromatic subjective contours. J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 13:355–360.Google Scholar
  92. Meyer GE, Maguire W (1977). Spatial frequency and the mediation of short term visual storage. Science 198:524–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Meyer GE, Maguire W (1981). Effects of spatial-frequency specific adaptation and target duration on visual persistence. J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 7:151–156.Google Scholar
  94. Michael CR (1978a). Color vision mechanisms in monkey striate cortex: Simple cells with dual opponent-color receptive fields. J. Neurophysiol. 41:1233–1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Michael CR (1978b). Color sensitive complex cells in monkey striate cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 41:1250–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Movshon JA, Adelson EH, Gizzi SM, Newsome WT (1986) The analysis of moving visual patterns. In Pattern Recognition Mechanisms, (C Chagas, R Gatass, C Gross, eds.), pp 117–151. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Murch GM (1976). Classical conditioning of the McCollough effect: Temporal parameters. Vision Res. 19:939–942.Google Scholar
  98. Nakayama K, Shimojo S, Silverman GH (1989). Stereoscopic depth: Its relation to image segmentation, grouping, and the recognition of occluded objects. Perception, in press.Google Scholar
  99. Olzak LA, Thomas JP (1986). Seeing spatial patterns. In Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (K Boff, L Kaufman, JP Thomas, eds.), Chapt. 7. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  100. Pantle A, Sekuler R (1968). Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: Initial psychophysical evidence. Vision Res. 8:445–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Pentland AP (1985) The focal gradient: Optics ecologically salient. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sei. 26:243.Google Scholar
  102. Pizer S (1988). Multiscale methods and the segmentation of medical images. TR88–051 Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  103. Pokorny J, Smith VC (1986). Colorimetry and color discrimination. In Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (K Boff, L Kaufman, JP Thomas, eds.), Chapt. 8. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Pomerantz JR, Kubovy M (1986). Theoretical approaches to perceptual organization. In Handbook of Perception and Human Performance Vol. 2: Cognitive Processes and Performance (KR Boff, L Kaufman, JP Thomas, eds.), Chapt. 36. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  105. Ramachandron VS (1988). Perception of shape from shading. Nature (London) 331:133–136.Google Scholar
  106. Ramachandron VS, Anstis S (1986). Figure-ground segregation modulates apparent motion. Vision Res. 26:1969–1975.Google Scholar
  107. Ramachandran VS, Gregory RL (1978). Does colour provide an input to human motion perception? Nature (London) 275:55–56.Google Scholar
  108. Ratliff F (1965). Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina. Holden-Day, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  109. Regan D (1986). Visual processing of four kinds of relative motion. Vision Res. 26:127–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Regan D, Beverly KI (1978). Looming detectors in the human visual pathway. Vision Res. 18:415–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rogowitz BE (1983). Spatial temporal interactions- Backward and forward metacontrast masking with sine-wave gratings. Vision Res. 23:1057–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rubin E (1958). Figure and ground. In Readings in Perception. (DC Beardslee, M Wert-heimer, eds.). Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ. (Original work published 1921.).Google Scholar
  113. Sachs MB, Nachmias J, Robson J (1971). Spatial-frequency channels in human vision. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61:1176–1186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Saito H, Yukie M, Tanaka K, Hikosaka K, Fukada Y, Iwai E (1986). Integration of direction signals of image motion in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque monkey. J. Neurosci. 6:145–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Schiller P, Finlay BL, Volman SF (1976). Quantitative studies of single-cell properties in monkey striate cortex II. Orientation specificity and ocular dominance. J. Neurophysiol. 39:1320–1333.Google Scholar
  116. Scott TR, Powell DA (1963). Measurement of a visual motion aftereffect in the rhesus monkey. Science 140:57–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Sekuler R, Pantle A (1967). A model for the aftereffects of seen movement. Vision Res. 7:427–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Shapley R, Gordon J (1985). Nonlinearity in the perception of form. Percept. Psychophys. 37:84–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Shapley R, Kaplan E, Soodak R (1981). Spatial summation and contrast sensitivity of X and Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the macaque. Nature (London) 292: 543–545.Google Scholar
  120. Shiffrin RM, Schneider W (1977). Controlled and automatic information processing II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychol. Rev. 84: 127–190.Google Scholar
  121. Shimojo S, Nakayama K (1990). Amodal representation of occluded surfaces: Role of invisible stimuli in apparent motion correspondence. Perception (In Press).Google Scholar
  122. Shimojo S, Silverman GH, Nakayama K (1988). An occlusion-related mechanism of depth perception based on motion and interocular sequence. Nature, 333:265–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Skowbo D (1984). Are McCollough effects conditioned responses. Psychol. Bull. 96: 215–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Smith AT (1985). Velocity coding: Evidence from perceived velocity shifts. Vision Res. 25:1969–1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Smith AT, Over R (1975). Tilt aftereffects with subjective contours. Nature 257:581–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Strohmeyer CF (1978). Form-color aftereffects in human vision. Handbook of Sensory Physiology: Vol 8. Perception (R Held, H Leibowitz, HL Teuber, eds.), pp 97–142. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Teller D (1984). Linking propositions. Vision Res. 10:1233–1246.Google Scholar
  128. Thompson P (1981). Velocity aftereffects: The effects of adaptation to moving stimuli on the perception of subsequently seen moving stimuli. Vision Res. 21:337–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Tolhurst DJ, Barfield LP (1978). Interactions between spatial frequency channels. Vision Res. 18:951–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Treisman A (1986). Properties, parts, and objects. In Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (K Boff, L Kaufman, JP Thomas, eds.), Chapt. 35. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  131. Treisman A, Gormican S (1988). Feature analysis in early vision: Evidence from search asymmetries. Psychol. Rev. 95:15–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Tynan P, Sekuler R (1975a). Simultaneous motion contrast: Velocity, sensitivity, and depth response. Vision Res. 15:1231–1238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Tynan P, Sekuler R (1975b). Moving visual phantoms: A new completion effect. Science 188:951–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Van Nes FL, Bowman MA (1967). Spatial modulation transfer in the human eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57:401–406.Google Scholar
  135. Vautin RG, Berkley MA (1977). Responses of single cells in cat visual cortex to prolonged stimulus movement: Neural correlates of visual aftereffects. J. Neurophysiol. 40:1051–1065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. von der Heydt R, Peterhans E, Baumgartner G (1984). Illusory contours and cortical neuron responses. Science 224:1260–1261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Walker P, Powell DJ (1974). Lateral interaction between neural channels sensitive to velocity in human visual system. Nature (London) 252:732–733.Google Scholar
  138. Watson AB (1986). Temporal Sensitivity. In Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (K Boff, L Kaufman, JP Thomas, eds.), Chapt. 6. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  139. Watson AB, Nachmias J (1977). Patterns of temporal interaction in the detection of gratings. Vision Res. 17:893–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Watson AB, Robson JG (1981). Discrimination at threshold: Labelled detectors in human vision. Vision Res. 21:1115–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Weisstein N (1968). A Rashevsky-Landahl neural net: Simulation of metacontrast. Psychol. Rev. 75:494–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Weisstein N (1970). Neural symbolic activity: a psychophysical measure. Science, 168: 1489–1491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Weisstein N (1972). Metacontrast. In Handbook of Sensory Physiology (D. Jameson & L. Hurvich, eds.), Vol. 7:233–272. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  144. Weisstein N (1973). Beyond the yellow Volkswagen detector and the grandmother cell: A general strategy for the exploration of operations in human pattern recognition. In Contemporary Issues in Cognitive Psychology: The Loyola Symposium (R Solso, ed.). Winston & Sons, Washington, DC.: 17–51.Google Scholar
  145. Weisstein N, Harris CS (1974). Visual detection of line segments: An object-superiority effect. Science 186:752–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Weisstein N, Harris CS (1980). Masking and unmasking of distributed representations in the visual system. In Visual Coding and Adaptability (CS Harris, ed.). Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ:317–364.Google Scholar
  147. Weisstein N, Maguire W (1978). Computing the next step: Psychophysical measures of representation and interpretation. In Computer Vision Systems (AR Hanson, EM Rise-man, eds.), pp 243–260. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  148. Weisstein N, Wong E (1986). Figure-ground organization and the spatial and temporal responses of the visual system. In Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines Vol. 2. (E Schwab, HC Nusbaum, eds.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  149. Weisstein N, Wong E (1987). Figure-ground organization affects the early visual processing of information. In Vision, Brain, and Cooperative Computation (MA Arbib, AR Hanson, eds.). MIT Press, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  150. Weisstein N, Matthews M, Berbaum K (1974). Illusory contours can mask real contours. Bull. Psychon. Soc. 4:266.Google Scholar
  151. Weisstein N, Ozog G, Szoc R (1975). A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast. Psychol. Rev. 82:375–343.Google Scholar
  152. Weisstein N, Maguire W, Berbaum K (1977). A phantom motion aftereffect. Science 189:955–958.Google Scholar
  153. Weisstein N, Maguire W, Williams MC (1982a). The effect of perceived depth of phantoms and the phantom motion aftereffect. Organization and Representation in Perception. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.:235–249.Google Scholar
  154. Weisstein N, Williams MC, Harris CS (1982b). Depth, connectedness, and structural relevance in the object-superiority effect: Line segments are harder to see in flatter patterns. Perception 11:5–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wertheim AH (1990). Visual vestibular and oculomotor interactions in the perception of object motion during egomotion. In The Perception and Control of Egomotion (R Warren, AH Wertheim, eds.). Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  156. Williams A, Weisstein N (1977). The time course of object-superiority with contexts whose local environments are similar. Bull. Psychon. Soc. Abstr. 10:9243.Google Scholar
  157. Williams A, Weisstein N (1978). Line segments are perceived better in a coherent contest than alone: An object-line effect. Memory Cognit. 6:85–90.Google Scholar
  158. Williams MC (1980). Fast and slow response to configurational factors in “object superiority” stimuli. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.Google Scholar
  159. Williams MC, Weisstein N (1984). The effect of perceived depth and connectedness on metacontrast functions. Vision Res. 24:1279–1288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Wohlgemuth A (1911). On the aftereffect of seen movement. Br. J. Psychol. Monogr. Suppl. 1.Google Scholar
  161. Wong E, Weisstein N (1982). A new perceptual contest-superiority effect: Line segments are more visible against a figure than against a ground. Science 218:587–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Wong E, Weisstein N (1983). Sharp targets are detected better against a figure, and blurred targets are detected better against a background. J. Exp. Psychol: Human Percept. Perform. 9:194–202.Google Scholar
  163. Wong E, Weisstein N (1984). Flicker induces depth: Spatial and temporal factors in the perceptual segregation of flickering and nonflickering regions in depth. Percept. Psychophys. 35:229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Wong E, Weisstein N (1985). A new visual illusion: Flickering fields are localized in a depth plane behind nonflickering fields. Perception 14:13–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Wong E, Weisstein N (1987). The effects of flicker on the perception of figure and ground. Percept. Psychophys. 41:440–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Wong E, Weisstein N (1990a). Spatial frequency, perceived depth, and figure/ground perception. Vision Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  167. Wong E, Weisstein N (1990b). Time course of context effects on target discrimination: Studies of the object superiority and object-line effect in reaction time, speed/accuracy tradeoff and critical flicker fusion, (manuscript in prep.).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Maguire
  • Naomi Weisstein
  • Victor Klymenko

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations