Perspectives in Stimulation of Human Nervous System with the Magnetic Coil

  • Vahe E. Amassian
  • Roger Q. Cracco
  • Paul J. Maccabee

Abstract

Neural stimulation by powerful magnetic fields has been sought since the turn of this century, but Bickford and Fremming 26 were the first to demonstrate magnetic coil (MC) excitation of human peripheral nerve. A major advance occurred when Barker et a1.,23,24 introduced an MC stimulator powerful enough to elicit peripheral movement by transcranial stimulation of the motor cortex. Earlier, Merton and Morton52,53 activated peripheral muscles by transcranial stimulation with individual electrical pulses. For the first time it became feasible to add the study of the central motor system in normal persons to that of patients with brains exposed during surgical operations. Despite improvements in a design of the stimulating electrodes2,41,61 considerable discomfort with electrical stimulation remained, thus limiting its usefulness, especially in patients. However, unlike an electrical pulse, the MC pulse penetrates skin, muscle, bone and membranes covering the brain with little attenuation. Excitation of neurons by the MC pulse was presumed to result from the electric currents induced in the volume conductor.

Keywords

Anisotropy Depression Ischemia Attenuation Cortisol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Amassian VE. The use of contact placing in analytical and synthetic studies of the higher sensorimotor control system. In: Integration in the Nervous System. A Symposium in Honor of David PC Lloyd and Rafael Lorente de No (Eds. H Asanuma, VJ Wilson ). Igaku-Shoin Press, Tokyo. 1979; 279 - 304.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ. Human cerebral cortical responses to contralateral transcranial stimulation. Neurosurg 1987; 20: 148 - 155.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amassian VE, Anziska BJ, Cracco JB, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ. Focal magnetic coil excitation of frontal cortex activates laryngeal muscles in man. J Physiol (Lond) 1988; 398: 41 P.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amassian VE, Cadwell J, Cracco RQ, Maccabee Pi. Focal cerebral and peripheral nerve stimulation in man with the magnetic coil. J Physiol (Lond) 1987; 390: 24 P.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amassian VE, Cracco JB, Cracco RQ, Eberle L, Maccabee PJ. Suppression of human visual perception with the magnetic coil over occipital cortex. J Physiol (Lond) 1988; 398: 40 P.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Amassian VE, Cracco JB, Cracco RQ, Eberle L, Maccabee PJ. Suppression of human visual perception with the magnetic coil over occipital cortex. J Physiol (Lond) 1988; 398: 40 P.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ. Focal magnetic coil activation of human motor cortex elicits a sense of movement in ischaemically paralyzed, distal arm. J Physiol 1988; 403: 75 P.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ. Basic mechanisms of magnetic coil excitation of nervous system in humans and monkeys and their applications In: IEEE/EMBS 10th Annual Conference, Maturing Technologies and Emerging Horizons in Biomedical Engineering. McGregor & Werner Inc, Washington, DC. 1988; 10 - 17.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee Pi. Transcallosal responses elicited by focal magnetic coil stimulation of human frontal cortex. J Physiol 1988; 407: 69 P.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ. Focal magnetic coil activation of human motor cortex elicits a sense of movement in ischemically paralyzed, distal arm. J Physiol (Lond) 1988; 403: 75 P.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ. A sense of movement elicited in paralyzed distal arm by focal magnetic coil stimulation of human motor cortex. Brain Research 1989; 479: 355 - 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ. A sense of movement elicited in paralyzed distal arm by focal magnetic coil stimulation of human motor cortex. Brain Research 1989; 479: 355 - 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ. A sense of movement elicited in paralyzed distal arm by focal magnetic coil stimulation of human motor cortex. Brain Research 1989; 479: 355 - 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 15.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee Pi, Marsh R. Comparing magnetic fields when stimulating human brain with different coils. J Physiol (Lond) 1989; 412: 7 P.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee Pi, Marsh R. Comparing magnetic fields when stimulating human brain with different coils. J Physiol (Lond) 1989; 412: 7 P.Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    Amassian VE, Maccabee PJ, Cracco RQ. Focal stimulation of human peripheral nerve with the magnetic coil: A comparison with electrical stimulation. Exp Neurol 1989; 103: 282 - 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Amassian VE, Maccabee PJ, Cracco RQ. Focal stimulation of human peripheral nerve with the magnetic coil: A comparison with electrical stimulation. Exp Neurol 1989; 103: 282 - 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Amassian VE, Maccabee PJ, Cracco RQ, Cracco JB. Basic mechanisms of magnetic coil excitation of nervous system in humans and monkeys: Applications in focal stimulation of different cortical areas in humans. In: Magnetic Stimulation in Clinical Neurophysiology (Ed. S Chokroverty). Butterworth, Stoneham. (in press).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Amassian VE, Quirk GJ, Stewart M. Magnetic coil versus electrical stimulation of monkey motor cortex. J Physiol (Lond) 1987; 394: 119 P.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Amassian VE, Stewart M, Quirk GJ, Rosenthal JL. Physiological basis of motor effects of a transient stimulus to cerebral cortex. Neurosurg 1987; 20: 7493.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barker AT, Freeston IL, Jalinous R, Jarratt JA. Clinical evaluation of conduction time measurements in central motor pathways using magnetic stimulation of the human brain. Lancet 1986; i:1325–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barker AT, Freeston IL, Jalinous R, Jarratt JA. Magnetic stimulation of human brain peripheral nervous system: an introduction and the results of an initial clinical evaluation. Neurosurg 1987; 20: 100 - 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barker AT, Freeston IL, Jalinous R, Merton PA, Morton HB. Magnetic stimulation of the human brain. J Physiol (Lund) 1985; 369: 3 P.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barker AT, Jalinous R, Freeston IL. Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Lancet 1985; i:1106–1107.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Berlin L, Amassian VE. Pyramidal tract responses during seizures. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1965; 19: 587 - 597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bickford RG, Fremming BD. Neuronal stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields in animals and man. Digest 6th Int Conf Med Electronics Biol Eng 1965; 112.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cadwell MES-10 Operator’s Manual, 1–16, appendix 12.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Campbell AW. Histological Studies on the Localization of Cerebral Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 1905.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cowan JMA, Rothwell JC, Dick JPR, Thompson PD, Day BL, Marsden CD. Abnormalities in central motor pathway conduction in multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1984; ii:304–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cracco RQ, Amassian VE, Maccabee PJ, Cracco JB. Comparison of human transcallosal responses evoked by magnetic coil and electrical stimulation. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol (in press).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Day BL, Dick JPR, Marsden CD, Thompson PD. Differences between electrical and magnetic stimulation of the human brain. J Physiol (Lond) 1986; 378: 36 P.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Day BL, Dressler D, Maertens de Noordhout A, Marsden CD, Nakashima K, Rothwell JC, Thompson PD. Differential effect of cutaneous stimuli on responses to electrical or magnetic stimulation of the human brain. J Physiol (Lond) 1988; 399: 68 P.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Day BL, Maertens de Noordhout A, Marsden CD, Nakashima K, Rothwell JC, Thompson PD. Temporary interruption of brain processing by an electrical or magnetic cortical shock in man. J. Physiol (Lond) 1987; 390: 197 P.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Duron B, Khater-Boidin J. Percutaneous stimulation of spinal cord and brain: central motor pathways, conduction velocities in human newborn. J Physiol (Lond) 1988; 406: 35 P.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eyre JA, Koh THHG. Maturation of descending motor pathways in man from birth to adulthood. J Physiol (Lond) 1988; 396: 58 P.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eyre JA, Flecknell PA, Kenyon BR, Koh THGG, Miller S. Effects of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain on cortical activity, cortical blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 1988; 396: 154 P.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eyre JA, Gibson M, Koh THHG, Miller S, O’Sullivan MC, Ramesh V. Corticospinal transmission excited by electromagnetic stimulation of the brain is impaired in children with spastic hemiparesis but normal in those with quadriparesis. J Physiol (Lond) 1989; 414: 9 P.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goddard GV, McIntyre DC, Leech CK. A permanent change in brain function resulting from daily brain stimulation. Exp Neurol 1969; 25: 295 - 330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goodwin GM, McCloskey DJ, Matthews PBC. The contribution of muscle afferents to kinaesthesia shown by vibration induced illusions of movement and by the effects of paralyzing joint afferents. Brain 1972; 95: 705 - 748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Harrington DO. The Visual Fields: A Textbook and Atlas of Clinical Perimetry. CV Mosby, St Louis, MO, 1976.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hassan NF, Rossini, Cracco RQ, Cracco JB. Unexposed motor cortex excitation by low voltage stimuli. In: Evoked Potentials: Neurophysiological and Clinical Aspects (Eds. C Morocutti, PA Rizzo ). Elsevier, Amsterdam. 1985; 107 - 113.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hess CW, Mills KR, Murray NMF. Responses in small hand muscles from magnetic stimulation of the human brain. J Physiol (Lond) 1987; 388: 397419.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Krynjevic K, Phillis JW. Iontophoretic studies of neurones in the mammalian cerebral cortex. J Physiol (London) 1963; 165: 274 - 304.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levy WJ, Jr. Clinical experience with motor and cerebellar evoked potential monitoring. Neurosurg 1987; 20: 169 - 182.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lewis R, Brindley G. The extrapyramidal motor map. Brain 1965; 88: 397406.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lewis T, Pickering GW, Rothschild. Centripetal paralysis arising out of arrested blood flow to the limbs, including notes on a form of tingling. Heart 1931; 16: 1 - 32.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Libet B, Alberts WW, Wright EW Jr, Delatrre LD, Levin G, Feinstein B. Production of threshold levels of conscious sensation by electrical stimulation of human somatosensory cortex. J Neurophysiol 1964; 27: 564 - 578.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Maccabee PJ, Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Cadwell JA. An analysis of peripheral motor nerve stimulation in humans using the magnetic coil. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1988; 70: 524 - 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Maccabee PM, Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Cracco JB, Anziska BJ. Intracranial stimulation of facial nerve in humans with the magnetic coil: Electroencephal Clin Neurophysiol 1988; 70: 350 - 354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maccabee PJ, Eberle L, Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Rudell A. Studies of 3dimensional voltage distributions induced by homogeneous media volume conductors by round and butterfly magnetic coils. In Proc 11th Ann Int Conf IEEEE/EMB. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ. 1989: 1259 - 1260.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    McCloskey DI, Colebatch JG, Potter EK, Burke D. Judgements about onset of rapid voluntary movements in man. J Neurophysiol 1983; 49: 851 - 863.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Merton PA, Morton HB. Stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the intact human subject. Nature 1980; 285: 227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Merton PA, Morton HB. Electrical stimulation of human motor and visual cortex through the scalp. J Physiol (Lond) 1980; 305: 9 - 1O P.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Michaels CF, Turvey MT. Central sources of visual masking: indexing structures supporting seeing at a single brief glance. Psychol Res 1979; 41: 1 - 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mills KR, Murray NMF, Hess FMH. Magnetic and electrical transcranial brain stimulation: Physiological mechanisms and clinical applications. Neurosurg 1987; 20: 164 - 168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ojemann G, Mateer C. Human language cortex: Localization of memory, syntax and sequential motor-phoneme identification systems. Science 1979; 205: 1401 - 1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Patton HD, Amassian VE. Single-and multiple-unit analysis of cortical stage of pyramidal tract activation. J Neurophysiol 1954; 17: 345 - 363.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Patton HD, Amassian VE. The pyramidal tract: Its excitation and functions. In: Handbook of Physiology. Neurophysiology. American Physiology Society, Washington, DC. 1960; II(1):837–861.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Penfield W, Roberts L. Speech and brain mechanisms. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ, 1959.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rosenthal J, Waller HJ, Amassian VE. An analysis of the activation of motor cortical neurons by surface stimulation. J Neurophysiol 1967; 30: 84458.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rossini PM, Caramia MD, Zaroli F. Mechanisms of nervous propagation along central motor pathways: non-invasive evaluation in healthy subjects and in patients with neurological disease. Neurosurg 1987; 20: 183 - 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rothwell JC, Day BL, Thompson PD, Dick JPR, Marsden CD. Some experiences of techniques for stimulation of the human cerebral motor cortex through the scalp. Neurosurg 1987; 20: 156 - 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schriefer TN, Mills KR, Murray NMF, Hess CW. Evaluation of proximal facial nerve conduction by transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988; 51: 60 - 66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shafran B, Maccabee PJ, Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Strashun A, Vaquer R, Singman R. Spectamine imaging of cerebral blood flow during voluntary movement and focal stimulation of motor cortex with magnetic coil. Neurosc Abstr 1989; 15: 789.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Snooks SJ, Swash M. Motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord: Slowed conduction in multiple sclerosis and radiation myelopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1985; 48: 1135. 39.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tasaki I. Nervous Transmission. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1953.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tasaki I. Conduction of the nerve impulse. In: Handbook of Physiology. Amer Physiol Soc, Washington, DC. 1959; I(1):75–121.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Thomas JE, Lambert EH. Ulnar nerve conduction velocity and H-reflex in infants and children. J Appl Physiol 1960; 15: 1 - 9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vahe E. Amassian
  • Roger Q. Cracco
  • Paul J. Maccabee

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations