Societal Philosophies Affecting Habilitation Strategies

  • Robert L. Schalock
  • William E. Kiernan
Part of the Disorders of Human Learning, Behavior, and Communication book series (HUMAN LEARNING)

Overview

We are able to write this book in large part because of recent changes in the larger society and systems-level philosophies regarding how we view and deal with adults with disabilities. The last 20 years have seen tremendous changes and improvements in the life experiences of most adults with disabilities. As stated recently by Lakin and Bruininks (1985):

These improvements demonstrate society’s increased concern for furthering integration, individual opportunity and equitable treatment for all citizens. For handicapped citizens and their families, social advances have been reflected in an evolving, more progressive philosophy toward integrating handicapped individuals into society, toward reorganizing and extending their legal rights, and toward substantially increasing public support for educational, residential, income maintenance, training, and other essential services. (p. 3)

Keywords

Transportation Income Sonal Hemp 

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Additional Readings

Normalization

  1. Landesman, S., & Butterfield, E.C. (1987). Normalization and deinstitutionalization of mentally retarded individuals: Controversy and fact. American Psychologist, 42(8), 809–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Perrin, B., & Nirje, B. (1985). Setting the record straight: A critique of some misconceptions of the normalization principle. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 11, 69–74.Google Scholar
  3. Wolfensberger, W. (1980). The definition of normalization: Update, problems, disagreements, and misunderstanding. In R.J. Flynn & K.E. Nitsch (Eds.). Normalization social integration, and community services. (pp. 71–115 ). Austin: Pro-ed.Google Scholar

Least-Restrictive Environment

  1. Bruininks, R.H., & Lakin, K.C. (Eds.) (1988). Living and learning in the least restrictive environment. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  2. Taylor, S.J. (1988). Caught in the continuum: A critical analysis of the principle of the least restrictive environment. Journal of the Association for Persons with Service Handicaps 13(1), 41–53.Google Scholar
  3. Turnbull, R., Ellis, J.W., Boggs, E.M., Brookes, P.O., & Biklen, D.P. (Eds.) (1981). Least restrictive alternatives: Principles and practices. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar

Public Laws

  1. Ludlow, B.L., Turnbull, A.P., & Luckasson, R. (Eds.) (1988). Transitions to adult life for people with mental retardation: Principles and practices. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  2. Turnbull, H.R., & Barber, P.A. (1986). Federal laws and adults with developmental disabilities. In J.A. Summers (Ed.). The right to grow up: An introduction to adults with developmental disabilities (pp. 255–285 ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  3. U.S. Department of Education (1988). Summary of existing legislation relating to the handicapped. Washington, DC: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services-Office of Handicapped Individuals (Pub. No. E-88–22014)Google Scholar

Advocacy

  1. Ludlow, B.L., & Herr, S.S. (1988). Advocacy and adult rights to habilitation. In B.L. Ludlow, A.P. Turnbull, & R. Luckasson (Eds.). Transitions to adult life for people with mental retardation: Principles and practices. (pp. 233–256 ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  2. Sobsey, D., & McDonald, L. (1988). Special education: Coming of age. In B.L. Ludlow, A.P. Turnbull, & R. Luckasson (Eds.). Transitions to adult life for people with mental retardation: Principles and practices (pp. 21–44 ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Schalock
    • 1
  • William E. Kiernan
    • 2
  1. 1.Mid-Nebraska Mental Retardation ServicesHastings CollegeHastingsUSA
  2. 2.Training and Research Institute for Adults with DisabilitiesBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA

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