Advertisement

Gametocytemia and Infectiousness in Falciparum Malaria: Observations and Models

  • Jerry Nedelman
Part of the Advances in Disease Vector Research book series (VECTOR, volume 6)

Abstract

The interface between the mosquito vector of malaria and the human host is mediated in one direction by the sporozoites, whereby mosquitoes infect humans, and in the other by the gametocytes, whereby humans infect mosquitoes. This paper is about the gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum and their environment in the human host: when and why gametocytes are produced; patterns of their appearance; the relationship between patent gametocytemia and infectiousness of the host to the vector; and the immune response of the host.

Keywords

Parasite Density Inoculation Rate Entomological Inoculation Rate Infectious Individual Asexual Parasite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aron, J.L., 1983, Dynamics of acquired immunity boosted by exposure to infection, Math. Biosci. 64:249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aron, J.L., 1988, Mathematical modeling of immunity to malaria, Math. Biosci. 90:385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aron, J.L., and May, R.M., 1982, The population dynamics of malaria, in Anderson, R.M. (ed): Population Dynamics of Infectious Diseases, London, Chapman and Hall, pp. 129–179.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bishop, Y.M.M., Fienberg, S.E., and Holland, P.W., 1975, Discrete Multivariate Analysis. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 557 p.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boyd, M.F., 1941, Epidemiology of malaria: Factors related to the intermediate host, in Boyd, M.F. (ed): Malariology, Philadelphia, Saunders, pp. 551–607.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bray, R.S., McCrae, A.W.R., and Smalley, M.E., (1976), Lack of a circadian rhythm in the ability of the gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum to infect Anopheles gambiae, Int. J. Parasitol. 6:399–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Broegger, S., Storey, J., and Bekessy, A., 1973, Some observations of malaria parasites in thick blood films, Technical Note No. 10, MPD/TN/73.1, WHO.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bruce-Chwatt, L.J., 1963, A longitudinal survey of natural malaria infection in a group of West African adults. Part I, W. Afr. Med. J. 12:141–173; Part II W. Afr. Med. J. 12:199–217.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brumpt, E., 1941, The human parasites of the genus Plasmodium, in Boyd, M.F. (ed): Malariology, Philadelphia, Saunders, pp. 65–121.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carter, R., and Gwadz, R.W., 1980, Infectiousness and gamete immunization in malaria, in Kreier, J.P. (ed): Malaria, Volume 3, Immunology and Immunization, New York, Academic Press, pp. 263–298.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Christophers, S.R., 1924, The mechanism of immunity against malaria in communities living under hyperendemic conditions, Indian J. Med. Res. 12:273–294.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen, J.E., 1988, Estimating the effects of successful malaria control programs on mortality. Popul. Bull. U. N. 25:6–26.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cohen, S., McGregor, I.A., and Carrington, S., 1961, Gamma-globulin and acquired immunity to human malaria, Nature 192:733–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Colbourne, M.J., 1956, The effect of prolonged examination of blood films on the parasite rate, W. Afr. Med. J. 1:26–30.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Covell, G., 1960, Relationship between malarial parasitemia and symptoms of the disease, Bull. WHO 22:605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Davidson, G., 1955, Further studies of the basic factors concerned in the transmission of malaria, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 49:339–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Davidson, G., and Draper, C.C., 1953, Field studies of the basic factors concerned in the transmission of malaria, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 47:522–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dietz, K., 1987, Mathematical models for transmission and control of malaria, in Wernsdorfer, W., and McGregor, I. (eds): Textbook of Malaria, Edinburgh, Churchill-Livingstone, Ch. 3.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dietz, K., Molineaux, L., and Thomas, A., 1974, A malaria model tested in the African savannah, Bull. WHO 50:347–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dowling, M.A.C., and Shute, G.T.A., 1966, A comparative study of thick and thin blood films, Bull. WHO 34:249–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dutertre, J., 1976, Etude d’un modèle épidémiologique appliqué au paludisme. Ann. Soc. Beige Med. Trop. 56:127–141.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Elderkin, R.H., Berkowitz, D.P., Gunn, C.F., Hickernell, F.J., Kass, S.N., Mansfield, F.I., and Taranto, R.G., 1977, On the steady state of an age dependent model for malaria, in Lakshikantham, V. (ed): Nonlinear Systems and Applications, New York, Academic Press, pp. 391–512.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eyles, D.E., and Young, M.D., 1951, The duration of untreated or inade-quately treated Plasmodium falciparum infections in the human host, J. Natl. Malaria Soc. 10:327–336.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garnham, P.C.C., 1966, Malaria Parasites and Other Haemosporidia, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1114 p.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Halloran, M.E., Struchiner, C.J., and Spielman, A., 1989, Modelling malaria vaccines II: Population effects of stage-specific malaria vaccines dependent on natural boosting, Math. Biosci. 94:115–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hawking, F., Worms, M.J., and Gammange, K., 1968, 24- and 48-Hour cycles of malaria parasites in the blood; their purpose, production, and control, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65:549–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hawking, F., Worms, M.J., Gammage, K., and Goddard, P.A., 1966, The biological purpose of the blood cycle of the malaria parasite P. cynomolgi, Lancet ii:422–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jeffery, G.M., and Eyles, D.E., 1955, Infectivity to mosquitoes of Plasmodium falciparum as related to gametocyte density and duration of infection, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 4:781–789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Macdonald, G., 1957, The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria, London, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miller, M.J., 1958, Malaria in the semi-resistant West African, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52:152–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Molineaux, L., and Gramiccia, G., 1980, The Garki Project. Research on the Epidemiology and Control of Malaria in the Sudan Savanna of West Africa, Geneva, WHO, 311 p.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Muirhead-Thomson, R.C., 1954, Factors determining the true reservoir of infection of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti in a West African village, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 48:208–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Muirhead-Thomson, R.C., 1957, The malarial infectivity of an African village population to mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae), Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 6:971–979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nedelman, J., 1984, Inoculation and recovery rates in the malaria model of Dietz, Molineaux, and Thomas, Math. Biosci. 69:209–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nedelman, J., 1985, Some new thoughts about some old malaria models, Math. Biosci. 73:159–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nedelman, J., 1988, The prevalence of malaria in Garki, Nigeria: Double sampling with a fallible expert, Biometrics 44:635–655.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pampana, E., 1969, A Textbook of Malaria Eradication, London, Oxford University Press, 593 p.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ross, R., 1911, The Prevention of Malaria, London, John Murray.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rutledge, L.C., Gould, D.J., and Tantichareon, B., 1969, Factors affecting the infection of anophelines with human malaria in Thailand, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 63:613–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shute, P.G., and Maryon, M., 1951, A study of gametocytes in a West African strain of Plasmodium falciparum, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 44:421–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sinden, R.E., 1983a, Sexual development of malarial parasites, Adv. Parasitol. 22:154–216.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sinden, R.E., 1983b, The cell biology of sexual development in Plasmodium. in Whitfield, P.J. (ed): Symposia of the British Society for Parasitolgy, Volume 20, The Reproductive Biology of Parasites, published as Parasitology 86(4):7–28.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smalley, M.E., and Brown, J., 1981, Plasmodium falciparum gametocytogenesis stimulated by lymphocytes and serum from infected Gambial children, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:316–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smalley, M.E., Brown, J., and Bassett, N.M., 1981, The rate of production of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes during natural infections, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:318–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Smalley, M.E., and Sinden, R.E., 1977, Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: Their longevity and infectivity, Parasitology 74:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Struchiner, C.J., Halloran, M.E., and Spielman, A., 1989, Modelling malaria vaccines I: New uses for old ideas, Math. Biosci. 94:87–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Trape, J.F., 1985, Rapid evaluation of malaria parasite density and standardization of thick smear examination for epidemiological investigations, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 79:181–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    World Health Organization, 1987, The Biology of Malaria Parasites. Report of a WHO Scientific Group. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 743. Geneva, WHO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerry Nedelman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematical SciencesClemson UniversityClemsonUSA

Personalised recommendations