Expert Knowledge, General Abilities, and Text Processing

  • Wolfgang Schneider
  • Joachim Körkel
  • Franz E. Weinert

Abstract

Although it has been recognized for some time that memory performance is highly dependent on the developing knowledge base, systematic studies on the impact of task-relevant prior knowledge on memory behavior and performance have only been carried out in the last decade. The findings have been so striking that in recent descriptions of memory development knowledge base or domain-specific knowledge has been considered an extremely important source of memory development (e.g., Bjorklund, 1985, 1987; Chi & Ceci, 1987; Ornstein & Naus, 1985; Schneider & Pressley, 1989; Siegler, 1986).

Keywords

Sorting Prose 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bjorklund, D.F. (1985). The role of conceptual knowledge in the development of organization in children’s memory. In C.J. Brainerd & M. Pressley (Eds.), Basic processes in memory development (pp. 103–142). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  2. Bjorklund, D.F. (1987). How age changes in knowledge base contribute to the development of children’s memory: An interpretive review. Developmental Review, 7, 93–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, A.L. Bransford, J.D., Ferrara, R.A., & Campione, J.C. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In J.H. Flavell & E.M. Markman (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology, Cognitive development (Vol. 3, pp. 77–166). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, A.L., & Smiley, S.S. (1977). Rating the importance of structural units of prose passages: A problem of metacognitive development. Child Development, 48, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ceci, S.J., & Liker, J. (1986). A day at the races: The study of IQ, expertise, and cognitive complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 225–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chi, M.T.H. (1978). Knowledge structures and memory development. In R.S. Siegler (Ed.), Children’s thinking: What develops? (pp. 73–96). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Chi, M.T.H. (1981). Knowledge development and memory performances. In M.P. Friedman, J.P. Das, & N. O’Connor (Eds.), Intelligence and learning (pp. 221–229). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chi, M.T.H. (1985). Interactive roles of knowledge and strategies in the development of organized sorting and recall. In S.F. Chipman, J.W. Segal, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills. Research and open questions (Vol. 2, pp. 457–483). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Chi, M.T.H. (1987). Representing knowledge and metaknowledge: Implications for interpreting metamemory research. In F.E. Weinert & R.H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 239–266). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Chi, M.T.H., & Ceci, S.J. (1987). Content knowledge: Its role, representation, and restructuring in memory development. In H.W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 20, pp. 91–142). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiesi, H.L., Spilich, G.J., & Voss, J.F. (1979). Acquisition of domain-related information in relation to high and low domain knowledge. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 257–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ericsson, K.A., & Crutcher, R.J. (1989). The nature of exceptional performance. In P.B. Baltes, D.L. Featherman, & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 10). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Forrest-Pressley, D.L., & Waller, T. (1984). Cognition, metacognition, and reading. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  14. Gagné, E. (1985). The cognitive psychology of school learning. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  15. Garcia, J. (1981). The logic and limits of mental ability testing. American Psychologist, 36, 1172–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  17. Hasselhorn, M. (1986). Differentielle Bedingungsanalyse verbaler Gedächtnisleistungen bei Schulkindern. Frankfurt/Main: Lang.Google Scholar
  18. Knopf, M., Körkel, J., Schneider, W., & Weinert, F.E. (1988). Human memory as a faculty versus human memory as a set of specific abilities: Evidence from a life-span approach. In F.E. Weinert & M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Memory development: Universal changes and individual differences (pp. 331–352). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Körkel, J. (1987). Die Entwicklung von Gedächtnis-und Metagedächtnisleistungen in Abhängigkeit von bereichsspezifischen Vorkenntnissen. Frankfurt/Main: Lang.Google Scholar
  20. Mandler, J.M., & Johnson, N.S. (1977). Remembrance of things parsed: Story structure and recall. Cognitive Psychology, 9, 111–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Means, M., & Voss, J. (1985). Star Wars: A developmental study of expert and novice knowledge structures. Memory and Language, 24, 746–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ornstein, P.A., & Naus, M.J. (1985). Effects of the knowledge base on children’s memory strategies. In H.W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 19, pp. 113–148). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Paris, S.G. (1975). Integration and inference in children’s comprehension and memory. In F. Restie, R.M. Shiffrin, J. Castellan, H. Lindman, & D. Pisoni (Eds.), Cognitive theory (Vol. 1, pp. 223–246). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Paris, S.G., & Lindauer, B.K. (1977). Constructive aspects of children’s comprehension and memory. In R.V. Kail & J.W. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition (pp. 35–60). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Pearson, P.D., Hansen, J., & Gordon, C. (1979). The effect of background knowledge on young children’s comprehension of explicit and implicit information. Journal of Reading Behavior, 11, 201–209.Google Scholar
  26. Pressley, M., Borkowski, J.G., & Schneider, W. (1987). Cognitive strategies: Good strategy users coordinate metacognition and knowledge. In R. Vasta & G. Whitehurst (Eds.), Annals of Child Development (Vol. 5, pp. 89–129). New York: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  27. Pressley, M., Forrest-Pressley, D.L., & Elliott-Faust, D.J. (1988). What is strategy instructional enrichment and how to study it: Illustrations from research on children’s prose memory and comprehension. In F.E. Weinert & M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Memory development: Universal changes and individual differences (pp. 101–130). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Rabinowitz, M., & Chi, M.T.H. (1987). An interactive model of strategic processing. In S.J. Ceci (Ed.), Handbook of the cognitive, social, and physiological characteristics of learning disabilities (Vol. 2, pp. 83–102). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Schneider, W., & Körkel, J. (in press). The knowledge base and text recall: Evidence from a short-term longitudinal study. Contemporary Educational Psychology.Google Scholar
  30. Schneider, W., & Körkel, J., & Weinert, F.E. (1987). The effects of intelligence, self-concept, and attributional style on metamemory and memory behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 10, 281–299.Google Scholar
  31. Schneider, W., Körkel, J., & Weinert, F.E. (1989). Domain-specific knowledge and memory performance: A comparison of high-and low-aptitude children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81.Google Scholar
  32. Schneider, W., & Pressley, M. (1989). Memory development between 2 and 20. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  33. Siegler, R.S. (1986). Children’s thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  34. Siegler, R.S., & Richards, D.D. (1982). The development of intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 897–971). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Spilich, G.J., Vesonder, G.T., Chiesi, H.L., & Voss, J.F. (1979). Text processing of domain-related information for individuals with high and low domain knowledge. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sternberg, R.J., & Wagner, R.K. (1985). Practical intelligence: Origins of competence in the everyday world. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Voss, J.F., Fincher-Kiefer, R.H., Greene, T.R., & Post, T.A. (1986). Individual differences in performance: The contrastive approach to knowledge. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 3, pp. 297–334). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Voss, J.F., Vesonder, G.T., & Spilich, G.J. (1980). Text generation and recall by high-knowledge and low-knowledge individuals. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 651–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Walker, C.H. (1987). Relative importance of domain knowledge and overall aptitude on acquisition of domain-related information. Cognition and Instruction, 4, 25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weinert, F.E., & Hasselhorn, M. (1986). Memory development: Universal changes and individual differences. In F. Klix & H. Hagendorf (Eds.), Human memory and cognitive capabilities (pp. 423–435). Amsterdam: Elsevier (North Holland).Google Scholar
  41. Weinert, F.E., Knopf, M., Körkel, J., Schneider, W., Vogel, K., & Wetzel, M. (1984). Die Entwicklung einiger Gedächtnisleistungen bei Kindern und älteren Erwachsenen in Abhängigkeit von kognitiven, metakognitiven und motivationalen Einflussfaktoren. In K.E. Grossmann & P. Lütkenhaus (Eds.), Bericht über die sechste Tagung Entwicklungspsychologie (pp. 313–326). Regensburg: Universitäts-Druckerei.Google Scholar
  42. Weinert, F.E., Schneider, W., & Knopf, M. (1988). Individual differences in memory development across the life-span. In P.B. Baltes, D.L. Featherman, & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 9, pp. 39–85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Schneider
  • Joachim Körkel
  • Franz E. Weinert

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations