Hematuria and Proteinuria

  • Leticia U. Tina
  • Robert D. Fildes


Hematuria and proteinuria are the most important laboratory signs of renal disease. Clinical investigation of these findings in children must be both logical and orderly, taking into consideration the clinical presentation, natural history and judicious testing of a patient-tailored differential diagnosis (1–3). Accurate prognostication and management may depend more on a well-structured clinical evaluation than on the availability of sophisticated and invasive studies such as renal biopsy.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Nephrotic Syndrome Renal Biopsy Tubular Proteinuria Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dodge WF, West EF, Smith EH, et al (1976) Proteinuria and hematuria in school children: Epidemiology and early natural history. J Pediatr 88:327–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kitagawa T (1988) Lessons learned from the Japanese nephritis screening study. Pediatr Nephrol 2:256–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    West CD (1976) Asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria in children: Causes and appropriate diagnostic studies. J Pediatr 89:173–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lyttle JD (1933) The Addis sediment count in normal children. J Clin Invest 12:87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Snoke AW (1938) The normal Addis sediment count in children. J Pediatr 12:473–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Glassock RJ (1983) Hematuria and pigmenturia. In: Massry SG, Glassock RJ (eds) Textbook of Nephrology. William and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 4.14–4.24Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fairley KF, Birch DF (1982) Hematuria: A simple method for identifying glomerular bleeding. Kidney Int 21:105–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rizzoni G, Braggion F, Zacchello G (1983) Evaluation of glomerular and non-glomerular hematuria by phase-contrast microscopy. J Pediatr 103:370–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stapleton FB (1987) Morphology of urinary red blood cells: A simple guide in localizing the site of hematuria. Pediatr Clin North Am 34:561–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ingelfinger JR, Davis AE, Grupe WE (1977) Frequency and etiology of gross hematuria in a general pediatric setting. Pediatrics 59:557–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Northway JD (1971) Hematuria in children. J Pediatr 78:381–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leiberman E (1976) Work-up of the child with hematuria. In: Leiberman E (ed) Work-up of the Child with Hematuria. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 12–25Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Emancipator SN, Gallo GR, Lamm ME (1985) IgA nephropathy: perspectives on pathogenesis and classification. Clin Nephrol 24:161–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grünfield J-P (1985) The clinical spectrum of hereditary nephritis. Kidney Int 27:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barakat AY, Dakessian B (1986) The kidney in heart disease. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 7:153–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moore ES (1981) Hypercalciuria in children. In: Berlyne GM (ed) Contributions to Nephrology. Karger, New York, pp 20–32Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Davies AG, Postlethwaite RJ, Price DA, et al (1984) Urinary albumin excretion in school children. Arch Dis Child 59:625–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Houser M (1984) Assessment of proteinuria using random urine samples. J Pediatr 104:845–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miltenyi M (1979) Urinary protein excretion in healthy children. Clin Nephrol 12:216–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaysen GA, Meyers, BD, Couser WG, et al (1986) Mechanism and consequences of proteinuria. Lab Invest 54:479–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mogensen CE, Christensen CK, Christiansen JS, et al (1986) On predicting and preventing diabetic nephropathy. In: Friedman EA, L’Esperance FA, Jr (eds) Diabetic Renal Retinal Syndrome, volume 3. Grune & Stratton, Orlando, FL, pp 81–109Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ginsberg JM, Chang BS, Matarese RA, et al (1983) Use of single voided urine samples to estimate quantitative proteinuria. New Engl J Med 309:1543–1546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cameron JS, Blandford G (1966) The simple assessment of selectivity in heavy proteinuria. Lancet 2:242–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Houser MT (1987) Characterization of recumbent, ambulatory, and postexercise proteinuria in the adolescent. Pediatr Res 21:442–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rytand DA, Spreiter S (1981) Prognosis in postural (orthostatic) proteinura: forty to fifty year follow-up of six patients after diagnosis by Thomas Addis. N Engl J Med 305:618–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vehaskari VM, Robson AM (1981) The nephrotic syndrome in children. Pediatr Ann 10:42–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wynn SR, Stickler GB, Burke EC (1988) Long-term prognosis for children with nephrotic syndrome. Clin Pediatr 27:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leticia U. Tina
  • Robert D. Fildes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations