Gorda Ridge pp 241-251 | Cite as

Distributional Ecology of Selected Megaepifauna on Abyssal Plains Adjacent to Gorda Ridge, Northeast Pacific Ocean

  • Andrew G. CareyJr.
Conference paper

Abstract

Patterns of distribution and abundance of benthic megaepifauna demonstrate mesoscale zoogeographic trends across the nearshore Cascadia Abyssal Plain and offshore Tufts Abyssal Plain. Species composition analysis of Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) and Galatheidae (Crustacea: Decapoda) separates the fauna into sediment fan, slope-base, Cascadia Plain, Tufts Plain, Gorda Ridge, and northern California abyssal elements. Faunal distribution and abundance are correlated with distance from the continent and depth of the water column. Gradients in rates of sedimentation and food flux to the seafloor are probable causes. Unlike macrofaunal distribution and abundance patterns, the species composition, abundance, and diversity of megafauna (e.g., Holothuroidea) appear to be more controlled by depth than by distance from the continent.

Megafaunal species that live on the surrounding plains have been identified from Gorda Ridge axial valley, particularly the sediment-filled Escanaba Trough at the southern end of the ridge system. Deposit-feeding holothuroids and ophiuroids, and omnivorous galatheid crabs have been collected and observed from sedimented areas along the length of the axial valley; three species have been positively identified. Further sampling in the valley should demonstrate that many of the abundant deposit feeding species associated with abyssal plains also live in association with sediment cover in Gorda Ridge axial valley. Data suggest that the valley deposit-feeding mega-epifauna is derived from the surrounding abyssal plains from a broad range of depths.

Keywords

Biomass Sedimentation Brittle Petrol Sponge 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambler JW (1980) Species of Munidopsis (Crustacea, Galatheidae) occurring off Oregon and in adjacent waters. Fish Bull 78:13–34.Google Scholar
  2. Carey AG Jr (1965) Preliminary studies on animal-sediment interrelationships off the central Oregon coast. Ocean Sci Eng 1:100–110.Google Scholar
  3. Carey AG Jr (1972) Food sources of sublittoral, bathyal and abyssal asteroids in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Ophelia 10:35–47.Google Scholar
  4. Carey AG Jr (1972) Benthic ecology and radioecology. In: Cutshall N (ed) Ecological Studies of Radioactivity in the Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Pacific Ocean. Progress Report, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, RLO-2227-T12-30, p. 23.Google Scholar
  5. Carey AG Jr (1981) A comparison of benthic in-faunal abundance on two abyssal plains in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res 28A:467–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carey AG Jr, Heyamoto H (1972) Techniques and equipment for sampling benthic organisms. In: Pruter AT, Alverson DL (eds) The Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Ocean Waters, Bio-environmental Studies. Seattle: University of Washington Press, p 378.Google Scholar
  7. Carey AG Jr, Stein DL, Taghon GL (1987) Analysis of benthic epifauna community structure on the Gorda Ridge. State of Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Open-File Report 0–87–05, 48 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Carney RS (1976) Patterns of abundance and relative abundance of benthic holothurians (Echi-nodermata: Holothuroidea) on Cascadia Basin and Tufts Abyssal Plain in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 185 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Carney RS, Carey AG Jr (1976) Distribution pattern of holothurians on the Northeastern Pacific (Oregon, U.S.A.) continental shelf, slope, and abyssal plain. Thallassia Jugoslavica 12:67–74.Google Scholar
  10. Carney RS, Carey AG Jr (1980) The effectiveness of odometer wheels for the measurement of area sampled by beam trawls. Fish Bull 78:791–796.Google Scholar
  11. Carney RS, Carey AG Jr (1982) Distribution and diversity of holothuroids (Echinodermata) on Cascadia Basin and Tufts Abyssal Plain. Deep-Sea Res 29:597–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickinson JJ, Carey AG Jr (1978) Distribution of gammarid Amphipoda (Crustacea) on Cascadia Abyssal Plain (Oregon). Deep-Sea Res 25:97–106.Google Scholar
  13. Duncan JR, Kulm LD (1970) Mineralogy, provenance, and dispersal history of late quaternary deep-sea sands in Cascadia Basin and Blanco Fracture Zone off Oregon. J Sediment Petrol 40:874–887.Google Scholar
  14. Fauchald K, Hancock DR (1981) Deep-water polychaetes from a transect off Oregon. Monogr Allan Hancock Found 11:73.Google Scholar
  15. Griggs GB, Carey AG Jr, Kulm LD (1969) Deep-sea sedimentation and sediment-fauna interaction in Cascadia Channel and on Cascadia Abyssal Plain. Deep-Sea Res 16:157–170.Google Scholar
  16. Hamilton EL (1967) Marine geology of abyssal plains in the Gulf of Alaska. J Geophys Res 72:4189–4213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamilton EL (1973) Marine geology of the Aleutian Abyssal Plain. Marine Geol 14:295–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Joreskog K, Klovan J, Reymont R (1976) Methods in Geomathematics, Vol 1: Geological Factor Analysis. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 178 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Kulm LD, Fowler GA (1974) Oregon continental margin structure: A test of the imbricate thrust model. In: Burk CA, Drake CL (eds) The Geology of Continental Margins. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp 261–283.Google Scholar
  20. Kulm LD et al. (1984) Western North American Continental Margin and Adjacent Ocean Floor Off Oregon and Washington. Atlas 1. Ocean Margin Drilling Program, Regional Atlas Series. Woods Hole, MA: Marine Science International, 32 sheets.Google Scholar
  21. McManus DA (1964) Major bathymetric features near the coast of Oregon, Washington, and Vancouver Island. Northwest Sci 38:65–82.Google Scholar
  22. Moore GW (1970) Sea-floor spreading at the junction between Gorda Rise and mendocino Ridge. Geol Soc Am Bull 81:2817–2824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pearcy WG, Stein DL, Carney RS (1982) The deep-sea benthic fish fauna of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean on Cascadia and Tufts abyssal plains and adjoining continental slopes. Biol Oceanogr 1:375–428.Google Scholar
  24. Sokolova MN (1972) Trophic structure of deep-sea macrobenthos. Marine Biol 16:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stein DL (1985) Towing large nets by single warp at abyssal depths: Methods and biological results. Deep-Sea Res 32:183–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Dover CL, Franks PJS, Ballard RD (1987) Prediction of hydrothermal vent locations from distributions of brachyuran crabs. Limnol Oceanogr 32:1006–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew G. CareyJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations