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Agroecology pp 305-321 | Cite as

Technological Changes in Energy Use in U.S. Agricultural Production

  • David Pimentel
  • Wen Dazhong
  • Mario Giampietro
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 78)

Abstract

Energy is equally important to land, water, and human resources in U.S. crop production. In addition to human energy, sunlight and fossil energy are the primary energy resources utilized in agricultural production. Because all technologies employed in agriculture require energy resources, the measure of energy flow in crop production provides a good indicator of the technological changes that have taken place in this sector. Energy values (kilocalories) for various resources and activities remain constant, and this is a major advantage in assessing technological change in agriculture, in contrast to economic values that are continually changing depending on the relative supply and demand of various resources and services. Another advantage of using energy as a measure of change in agricultural technology is that it can help assess the substitution of different forms of energy for various practices, as well as the substitution of land, water, and labor resources for energy.

Keywords

Energy Input Technological Change Government Printing Labor Input Fossil Energy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Pimentel
  • Wen Dazhong
  • Mario Giampietro

There are no affiliations available

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