Platelet-Derived Growth Factor

  • E. W. Raines
  • D. F. Bowen-Pope
  • R. Ross
Part of the Springer Study Edition book series (SSE)


Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a ubiquitous mitogen that was originally discovered because it was the principal source of growth factor activity for mesenchymal cells in culture that was present in whole blood serum and missing in cell-free, plasma-derived serum (Kohler and Lipton 1974; Ross et al. 1974). The possibility that platelets might serve as a source for this growth factor activity had been postulated by Balk (1971). However, not until it was demonstrated that platelets could restore all of the growth factor activity missing from plasma did it become clear that these cells were the source of not only PDGF, but of other growth factors also present in whole blood serum. These include an epidermal growth factor-like molecule (Oka and Orth 1983), an angiogenic molecule (Miyazono et al. 1987), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β; Assoian et al. 1983; Childs et al. 1982), all of which appear to be sequestered within α-granules (White 1974; Witte et al. 1978; Kaplan et al. 1979 a, b; Gerrard et al. 1980).


Granulosa Cell Sertoli Cell Platelet Derive Growth Factor Follicular Fluid Human Platelet Derive Growth Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akiyama K, Hoshioka Y, Schmid K, Offner GD, Troxler RF, Tsuda R, Hara M (1985) The amino acid sequence of human-microseminoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta 829: 288–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aten RF, Williams AT, Behrman HR, Wolin DL (1986) Ovarian gonadotropin- releasing proteins: demonstration and characterization. Endocrinology 118: 961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Au CL, Robertson DM, de Kretser DM (1986) Measurement of inhibin and an index of inhibin production by rat testes during postnatal development. Biol Reprod 35: 37–43Google Scholar
  4. Axelrad AÄ, Croizat H, Eskinazi D (1981) A washable macromolecule from Fv2rr marrow negatively regulates DNA synthesis in erythropoietic progenitor cells BFU- E. Cell 26: 233–244Google Scholar
  5. Axelrad AA, Croizat H, del Rizzo D, Eskinazi D, Pezzutti G, Stewart S, Van der Gaag H (1987) Properties of a protein NRP that negatively regulates DNA synthesis of the early erythropoietic progenitor cells BFU-E. In: Najman A, Guigon M, Govin N, Govin MJY (eds) The inhibitors of hematopoiesis, vol 162. Libbey, London, pp 79–92Google Scholar
  6. Bagby GC Jr, Dinarello CA, Wallace P, Wagner C, Hefeneider S, McCall E (1986) Interleukin 1 stimulates granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating activity release by vascular endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 78: 1316–1323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker HW, Bremner WJ, Burser HG, de Kretser DM, Dulmanis A, Eddie LW, Hudson B, Keosh EJ, Lee VW, Rennie GC (1976) Testicular control of follicle- stimulating hormone secretion. Recent Prog Horm Res 32: 429–476Google Scholar
  8. Bardin CW, Morris PL, Chen C-L, Shaha C, Voglmayr J, Rivier J, Spiess J, Vale WW (1987) Testicular inhibin: structure and regulation by FSH, androgens and EGF. In: Burger HG et al. (eds) Proceedings of the Serono Conference on Inhibin, vol 42. Raven, New York, pp 179–190Google Scholar
  9. Bersch E, Groopman JE, Golde DW (1982) Natural and biosynthetic insulin stimulates the growth of human erythroid progenitors in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55: 1209–1211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bevilacqua MP, Schleef RR, Gimbrone MA Jr, Loskutoff DJ (1986) Regulation of the fibrinolytic system of cultured human vascular endothelium by interleukin 1. J Clin Invest 78: 587–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhanot R, Wilkinson M (1983) Opiatergic control of gonadotropin secretion during puberty in the rat: a neurochemical basis for the hypothalmmic “gonadostat”? Endocrinology 113: 596–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bicsak TA, Tucker EM, Cappel S, Vaughan V, Rivier J, Vale W, Hsueh AJW (1986) Hormonal regulation of granulosa cell inhibin biosynthesis. Endocrinology 119: 2711–2719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bicsak TA, Vale W, Vaughan J, Tucker EM, Cappel S, Hsueh AJW (1987) Hormonal regulation of inhibin production by cultured Sertoli cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 49: 211–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bicsak TA, Cajander SB, Vale W, Hsueh AJW (1988) Inhibin: studies of stored and secreted forms by biosynthetic labeling and immunodetection in cultured rat granulosa cells. Endocrinology 122: 741–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Billestrup N, Swanson LW, Vale W (1986) Growth hormone releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophs in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 6854–6857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Billestrup N, Potter E, Vale W (1988) Inhibition of growth hormone expression by FSH releasing protein (FRP) in primary pituitary cells. July 17–23, 1988, International congress of endocrinology, Kyoto (abstr)Google Scholar
  17. Bindon BM, Piper LR, Cahill LP, Driancourt MA, O’Shea T (1986) Genetic and hormonal factors affecting superovulation. Theriogenology 5: 53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Birnbaumer L, Shahabi N, Rivier J, Vale W (1985) Evidence for a physiological role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( GnRH) or GnRH-like material in the ovary. Endocrinology 116: 1367–1370Google Scholar
  19. Brazeau P, Vale W, Burgus R, Ling N, Butcher M, Rivier J, Guillemin R (1973) Hypothalamic polypeptide that inhibits the secretion of immunoreactive pituitary growth hormone. Science 179: 77–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Broudy VC, Kaushansky K, Segal GM, Harlan JM, Adamson JW (1986) Tumor necrosis factor type alpha stimulates human endothelial cells to produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 7467–7471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Broxmeyer JE, Lu L, Cooper S, Schwall RH, Mason AJ, Nikolics K (1988) Selective and indirect modulation of human multipotential and erythroid hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation by recombinant human activin and inhibin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 9052–9056PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burger HG (1988) Inhibin-regulation and mechanism of action. In: Hodgen GD, Rosenwaks Z, Spieler JM (eds) Nonsteroidal gonadal factors: physiological roles and possibilities in contraceptive development. Jones, Institute Press, Norfolk, VA, pp 137–148.Google Scholar
  23. Burger HG, Igarashi M (1988) Inhibin: definition and nomenclature, including related substances (letter to the editor). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66: 885–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Campen CA, Vale W (1987) Binding of radioiodinated FSH-releasing protein (FRP) to pituitary membranes and leukemia cells. 17th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Nov 16–21, 1987, New Orleans, LA (pt 3), vol 13, p 1530 (abstr no 425.14)Google Scholar
  25. Campen CA, Vale W (1988 a) Interaction between ovine inhibin and steroids on the release of gonadstropin: from cultured rat pituitary cells. Endocrinology 123: 1320–1328Google Scholar
  26. Campen CA, Vale W (1988 b) Characterizatioin of activin A binding sites on the human leukemia cell line K562. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 157: 844–849.Google Scholar
  27. Carroll RS, Gharib SD, Corrigan AZ, Chin WW (1989) Effects of gonadal peptides on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) beta-subunit mRNA in cultured pituitary cells. In: 71st Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, June 21–24,1989; Seattle (abstr subm)Google Scholar
  28. Cate RL, Mattaliano RJ, Hession C, Tizard R, Farber NM, Cheung A, Ninfa EG, Frey AZ, Gash DJ, Chow EP (1986) Isolation of the bovine and human genes for Mullerian inhibiting substance and expression of the human gene in animal cells. Cell 45: 685–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Channing C, Gordon W, Lin W-K, Ward D (1985) Physiology and biochemistry of ovarian inhibin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 178: 339–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark SC, Kamen R (1987) The human hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors. Science 236: 1229–1237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cline MJ, Golde DW (1974) Production of colony-stimulating activity by human lymphocytes. Nature 248: 703–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Condon TP, Heber D, Stewart JM, Sawyer CH, Whitmoyer DI (1984) Differential gonadotropin secretion: blockade of periovulatory LH but not FSH secretion by a potent LHRH antagonist. Neuroendocrinology 38: 357–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Corrigan AZ, Billestrup N, Bilezikjian LM (1988) FSH releasing protein inhibits growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone production by rat anterior pituitary cells. In: 70th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, June 8–11,1988, New Orleans, vol 571 (abstr no 163)Google Scholar
  34. Crawford RJ, Hammond VE, Evans BA, Coghlan JP, Haralambidis J, Hudson B, Penschow JD, Richards RI, Tregear GW (1987) a-Inhibin gene expression occurs in the ovine adrenal cortex, and is regulated by adrenocorticotropic Mol Endocrinol 1: 699–706Google Scholar
  35. Cuevas P, Ying SY, Ling N, Ueno N, Esch F, Guillemin R, Healy D, Ta S (1987) Immunohistochemical detection of inhibin in the gonad [published erratum appears in Biochem Biophys Res Commun (1987) 146(2):926]. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 142: 23–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Culler MD, Negro-Vilar A (1988) Passive immunoneutralization of endogenous inhibin: sex-related differences in the role of inhibin during development. Mol Cell Endocrinol 58: 263–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cummins LJ, O’Shea T, Al-Obaidi SAR, Bindon BM, Findlay JK (1986) Increase in ovulation rate after immunization of Merino ewes with a fraction of bovine follicular fluid containing inhibin activity. J Reprod Fertil 77: 365–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Daane TA, Parlow AF (1971) Periovulatory patterns of rat serum follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the normal estrous cycle: effects of pentobarbital. Endocrinology 88: 653–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dainiak N, Kreczko S (1985) Interactions of insulin, insulinlike growth factor II, and platelet-derived growth factor in erythropoietic culture. J Clin Invest 76: 1237–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Davis SR, Dench F, Nikolaidis I, Clements JA, Forage RG, Krozowski Z, Burger HG (1986) Inhibin a-subunit gene expression in the ovaries of immature female rats is stimulated by pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 138: 1191–1195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davis SR, Burger HG, Robertson DM, Farnworth PG, Carson RS, Krozowski Z (1988) Pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin stimulates inhibin subunit gene expression in the immature rat ovary: dose response characteristics and relationships to serum gonadotropins, inhibin, and ovarian steroid content. Endocrinology 123: 2399–2407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. De Jong FH (1979) Inhibin -fact or artifact. Mol Cell Endocrinol 13: 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. De Jong FH, Sharpe RM (1976) Evidence for inhibin-like activity in bovine follicular fluid. Nature 263: 71–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Jong FH, Welschen R, Hermans WP, Smith SD, van der Molen HJ (1978) Effects of testicular and ovarian inhibin-like activity, using in vitro and in vivo systems. Geilo, Norway: 125–138Google Scholar
  45. De Jong FH, Welschen R, Hermans WP, Smith SD, van der Molen HJ (1979) Effects of factors from ovarian follicular fluid and Sertoli cell culture medium on in vivo and in vitro release of pituitary gonadotrophins in the rat: an evaluation of systems for the assay of inhibin. J Reprod Fertil 26: 47Google Scholar
  46. De Kretser DM, Robertson DM, Risbridger GP, Hedger MP, McLachlan RI, Burger HG, Findlay JK (1988) Inhibin and related peptides. Prog Endocrinol 13–23Google Scholar
  47. Delwiche F, Raines E, Powell JS, Adamson JW (1983) Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) enhances in vitro erythroid colony growth via stimulation of mesenchymal cells. Blood 62:121 a (abstr).Google Scholar
  48. DePaolo LV, Shander D, Wise PM, Barraclough CA, Channing CP (1979) Identification of inhibin-like activity in ovarian venous plasma of rats during the estrous cycle. Endocrinology 105: 647 - 654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Derynck R, Jarret JA, Chen EY, Eaton DH, Bell JR, Assoian RK, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Goeddel DV (1985) Human transforming growth factor-beta complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells. Nature 316: 701–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dessypris EN, Krantz SB (1984) Effect of pure erythropoietin on DNA-synthesis by human marrow day 15 erythroid burst forming units in short-term liquid culture. Br J Haematol 56: 295–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dijke PT, Hansen P, Iwata KK, Pieler C, Foulkes JG (1988) Identification of another member of the transforming growth factor type beta gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 85: 4715–4719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Docherty AJP, Lyons A, Smith BJ, Wright EM, Stephens PE, Harris TJR (1985) Sequence of human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and its identity to erythroid-potentiating activity. Nature 318: 66–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Duncan JA, Dalkin AC, Barkan A, Regiani S, Marshall JC (1983) Gonadal regulation of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors during sexual maturation in the rat. Endocrinology 113: 2238–2246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Eaves AC, Eaves CJ (1988) Maintenance and proliferation control of primitive hemopoietic progenitors in long-term cultures of human marrow cells. Blood Cells 14: 355–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Erickson GF, Hsueh AJW (1978) Secretion of “inhibin” by rat granulosa cells in vitro. Endocrinology 102: 1275–1282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Esch FS, Shimasaki S, Cooksey K, Mercado M, Mason AJ, Ying S, Ueno N, Ling N (1987 a) Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) cloning and DNA sequence analysis of rat ovarian inhibins. Mol Endocrinol 5: 388–396Google Scholar
  57. Esch FS, Shimasakki S, Mercado M, Cooksey K, Ling N, Ying S, Ueno N, Guillemin R (1987 b) Structural characterization of follistatin: a novel follicle-stimulating hormone release-inhibiting polypeptide from the gonad. Mol Endocrinol 1: 849–855Google Scholar
  58. Eto Y, Tsuji T, Takezawa M, Takano S, Yokogawa Y, Shibai H (1987) Purification and characterization of erythroid differentiation factor (EDF) isolated from human leukemia cell line THP-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 142: 1095–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Farnworth PG, Robertson DM, deKretser DM, Burger HG (1988) Effects of 31 kilodalton bovine inhibin on follicle-stimulating hormone in rat pituitary cells in vitro: actions under basal conditions. Endocrinology 122: 207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fevold HL, Hisaw FL, Leonard SL (1931) The gonad-stimulating and luteinizing hormones of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis. Am J Physiol 97: 291–301Google Scholar
  61. Forage RG, Ring JM, Brown RW, Mclnerney BV, Cobon GS, Gregson RP, Robert-son DM, Morgan FJ, Hearn MT, Findlay JK (1986) Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA species coding for the two subunits of inhibin from bovine follicular fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 3091–3095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Forage RG, Brown RW, Oliver KJ, Atrache BT, Devine PL, Hudson GC, Goss NH, Bertram KC, Tolstoshev P, Robertson DM, DeKretser DM, Doughton B, Burger HG, Findlay JK (1987) Immunizatioin against an inhibin subunit produced by recombinant DNA techniques results in increased ovulation rate in sheep. J Endocrinol 114: R1 - R4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Franchimont P, Verstraelen-Proyard J, Hazee-Hagelstein MT, Renard C, Demoulin A, Bourguignon JP, Hustin J (1979) Inhibin: from concept to reality. Vitam Horm 37: 243–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fujii T, Hoover DJ, Channing CP (1983) Changes in inhibin activity, and progesterone, oestrogen and androstenedione concentrations, in rat follicular fluid throughout the oestrous cycle. J Reprod Fertil 69: 307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fukuda M (1980) K562 human leukaemic cells express fetal type (i) antigen on different glycoproteins from circulating erythrocytes. Nature 285: 405–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fukuda M, Miyamoto K, Hasegawa Y, Ibuki Y, Igarashi M (1987) Action mechanism of inhibin in vitro-cycloheximide mimics inhibin action on pituitary cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 51: 41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gasson JC, Golde DW, Kaufman SE, Westbrook CA, Hewick RM, Kaufman RJ, Wong GG, Temple PA, Leary AC, Brown EL, Orr EC, Clark SC (1985) Molecular characterization and expression of the gene encoding human erythroid-potentiating activity. Nature 315: 768–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gearing DP, Gough NM, King JA, Hiltonk DJ, Nicola AN, Simpson RJ, Nice EC, Kelson A, Metealf D (1987) Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a murine myeloid leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) EMBO J 6: 3995–4002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gonzalez-Manchon C, Vale W (1989) Activin A, inhibin and TGF-beta modulate proliferation of two gonadal cell lines. Endocrinology (in press)Google Scholar
  70. Gordon MY, Riley GP, Watt SM, Greaves MF (1987) Compartmentalization of a haematopoietic growth factor ( GM-CSF) by glycosaminoglycans in the bone marrow microenvironment. Nature 326: 403–405Google Scholar
  71. Gordon WL, Liu W, Akiyama K, Tsuda R, Hara M, Schmid K, Ward DN (1987) Beta-microseminoprotein (β-MSP) is not an inhibin. Biol Reprod 36: 829–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gospodarowicz D (1972) Purification and physicochemical properties of the pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Endocrinology 91: 101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Guillemin R, Brazeau P, Bohlen P, Esch F, Ling N (1982) Growth hormone-releasing factor from a human pancreatilc tumor that caused acromegaly. Science 218: 585–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hasegawa Y, Miyamoto K, Yazaki C, Igarashi M (1981) Regulation of the second surge of follicle-stimulating hormone; effects of antiluteinizing hormone-releasing hormone serum and pentobarbital. Endocrinology 109: 130–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hasegawa Y, Miyamoto H, Igarashi M, Yamaka T, Sasaki I, Wamura S (1987) Changes in serum concentrations of inhibin during the estrous cycle of the rat, pig and cow. In: Ares Serono symposia, Tokyo. Raven, New York (in press)Google Scholar
  76. Hasegawa Y, Miyamoto K, Abe Y, Nakamura T, Sugino H, Eto Y, Shibai H, Igarashi M (1988) Induction of follicle stimulating hormone receptor by erythroid differentiation factor on rat granulosa cell. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 156: 668–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Henderson KM, Franchimont P, Lecomte-Yerna MJ, Hudson N, Ball K (1984) In-crease in ovulation rate after active immunization of sheep with inhibin partially purified from bovine follicular fluid. J Endocrinol 102: 305–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hermans WP, vanLeeuwen CEM, Debets MHM, deJong FH (1980) Involvement of inhibin in the regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations in prepubertal and adult male and female rats. J Endocrinol 86: 79–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hirano T, Yasukawa K, Harada H, Taga T, Watanabe Y, Matsuda T, Kashiwamura S, Nakajima K, Koyama K, Iwamatsu A, Tsunasawa S, Sakiyama F, Matsui H, Takahara Y, Taniguchi T, Kishimoto T (1986) Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobin. Nature 324: 73–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hoak DC, Schwartz NB (1980) Blockade of recruitment of ovarian follicles by suppres¬sion of the secondary surge of follicle-stimulating hormone with porcine follicular fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 4953–4956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hochberg ZJ, Weiss J, Richman RA (1981) Inhibin-like activity in extracts of rabbit placentae. Placenta 2: 259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hoffmann JC, Lorenzen JR, Weil T, Schwartz NB (1979) Selective suppression of the primary surge of follicle-stimulating hormone in the rat: further evidence for folliculostatin in porcine follicular fluid. Endocrinology 105: 200–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Howard RP, Sniffen RC, Simmons FA, Albright F (1950) Testicular deficiency: a clinical and pathologic study. J Clin Endocrinol 10: 121–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hsueh AJW, Erickson GF (1979) Extrapituitary action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone: direct inhibition of ovarian steroidogenesis. Science 204: 854–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hsueh AJW, Adashi EY, Jones PBC, Welsh TH Jr (1984) Hormonal regulation of the differentiation of cultured ovarian granulosa cells. Endocr Rev 5: 76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hsueh AJW, Dahl KD, Vaughan J, Tucker E, Rivier J, Bardin CW, Vale W (1987) Heterodimers and homodimers of inhibin subunits have different paracrine action in the modulation of luteinizing hormone-stimulated androgen biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 5082–5086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hudson B, Baker HW, Eddie LW, Higginson RE, Burger HG, deKretser DM, Dobos M, Lee VW (1979) Bioassays for inhibin: a critical review. J Reprod Fertil 26: 17–29Google Scholar
  88. Hutchison LA, Findlay JK, de Vos FL, Robertson DM (1987) Effects of bovine inhibin, transforming growth factor and bovine activin-A on granulosa cell differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 146: 1405–1412Google Scholar
  89. Hutson JM, Fallat ME, Kamagata S, Donahoe PK, Budzik GP (1984) Phosphorylation events during Mullerian duct regression. Science 223: 586–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Igarashi M, McCann SM (1964) A hypothalamic follicle stimulating hormone-releasing factor. Endocrinology 74: 446–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ishibashi T, Koziol J A, Burstein SA (1987) Human recombinant erythropoietin promotes differentiation of murine megakaryocytes in vitro. J Clin Invest 79: 286–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jones HM, Wood CL, Rush ME (1985) A role for inhibin in the control of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in male rats. Life Sci 36: 889–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kaneko H, Taya K, Sasamoto S (1987) Changes in the secretion of inhibin and steroid hormones during induced follicular atresia after hypophysectomy in the rat. Life Sci 41: 1823–1830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kimura J, Katoh M, Taya K, Sasamoto S (1983) An inverse relationship between inhibin and follicle-stimulating hormone during the period of ovulation induced by human chorionic gonadotrophin in dioestrous rats. J Endocrinol 97: 313–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Klinefelter HF Jr, Reifenstein EC Jr, Albright F (1942) Syndrome characterized by gynecomastia, aspermatogenesis without A-Leydigism, and increased excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. J Clin Endocrinol 2: 615–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Koury MJ, Bondurant MC, Graber SE, Sawyer ST (1988) Erythropoietin messenger RNA levels in developing mice and transfer of12-erythropoietin by the placenta. J Clin Invest 82: 154–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kurtz A, Hartl W, Jelkmann W, Zapf I, Bauer C (1985) Activity in fetal bovine serum that stimulates erythroid colony formation in fetal mouse livers is insulinlike growth factor 1. J Clin Invest 76: 1643–1648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. LaPolt PS, Soto D, Su JG, Vaughan J, Vale W, Hsueh AJW (1989) Activin stimulation of inhibin secretion and alpha subunit mRNA levels in cultured granulosa cells. Mol Endocrinol (in press) Lee VWK, McMaster J, Quigg H, Findlay J, Leversha L (1981) Ovarian and peripheral blood inhibin concentrations increase with gonadotropin treatment in immature rats. Endocrinology 108:2403–2405Google Scholar
  99. Lee VWK, McMaster J, Quig H, Leversha L (1982) Ovarian and circulating inhibin levels in immature female rats treated with gonadotropin and after castration. Endocrinology 111: 1849–1854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lee W, Mason AJ, Schwall R, Szony E, Mather JP (1989) Secretion of activin by interstitial cells in the testis. Science 243: 396–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. LeGac F, DeKretser DM (1982) Inhibin production by Sertoli cell cultures.Mol Cell Endocrinol 28: 487–498Google Scholar
  102. Lerner RA (1982) Tapping the immunological repertoire to produce antibodies of predetermined specificity. Nature 299: 592–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Leversha LJ, Robertson DM, Vos FLD, Morgan FJ, Hearn MT, Wettenhall RE, Findlay JK, Burger HG, deKretser DM (1987) Isolation of inhibin from ovine follicular fluid. J Endocrinol 113: 213–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Li CH, Ramasharma K (1987) Inhibin. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 27: 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Li CH, Hammonds RG, Ramasharma K, Chung D (1985) Human seminal alpha inhibins: isolation, characterization, and structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 4041–4044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lilja H, Jeppsson J (1985) Amino acid sequence of the predominant basic protein in human seminal plasma. FEBS Lett 182: 181–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ling N, Ying SY, Ueno N, Esch F, Denoroy L, Guillemin R (1985) Isolation and partial characterization of a Mr 32,000 protein with inhibin activity from porcine follicular fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 7217–7221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ling N, Ying SY, Ueno N, Shimasaki S, Esch F, Hotta M, Guillemin R (1986 a) Pituitary FSH is released by a heterodimer of the beta-subunits from the two forms of inhibin. Nature 321: 779–782Google Scholar
  109. Ling N, Ying SY, Ueno N, Shimasaki S, Esch F, Hotta M, Guillemin R (1986 b) A homodimer of the beta-subunits of inhibin A stimulates the secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 138: 1129–1137Google Scholar
  110. Kartha S, Bradham DM, Grotendorst GR, Toback FG (1988) Kidney epithelial cells express c-sis protooncogene and secret PDGF-like protein. Am J Physiol 255:F800–F806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Katoh O, Kimura A, Kuramoto A (1988) Platelet-derived growth factor is decreased in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. Am J Hematol 27:276–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kavanaugh WM, Harsh GR, Starksen NF, Rocco CM, Williams LT (1988) Transcriptional regulation of the A and B chain genes of platelet-derived growth factor in microvascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 263:8470–8472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kazlauskas A, Bowen-Pope D, Seifert R, Hart CE, Cooper J A (1988) Different effects of homo- and heterodimers of platelet-derived growth factor A and B chains on human and mouse fibroblasts. EMBO J 7:3727–3735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kazlauskas A, Cooper J A (1988) Protein kinase C mediates platelet-derived growth factor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p42. J Cell Biol 106:1395–1402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kazlauskas A, DiCorleto PE (1985) Cultured endothelial cells do not respond to a platelet-derived growth-factor-like protein in an autocrine manner. Biochim Biophys Acta 846:405–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Keating MT, Williams LT (1987) Processing of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor: biosynthetic and degradation studies using anti-receptor antibodies. J Biol Chem 262:7932–7937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Keating MT, Williams LT (1988) Autocrine stimulation of intracellular PDGF receptors in v-sis-transformed cells. Science 239:914–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kelly K, Cochran BH, Stiles CD, Leder P (1983) Cell-specific regulation of c-myc gene by lymphocyte mitogens and platelet-derived growth factor. Cell 35:603–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. King CR, Giese NA, Robbins KC, Aaronson SA (1985) In vitro mutagenesis of the v- sis transforming gene defines functional domains of its growth factor-related product. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:5295–5299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Klein R, Thiel H-J (1988) Highly glycosylated PDGF-like molecule secreted by simian sarcoma virus-transformed cells. Virology 164:403–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Knighton DR, Fiegel VD, Austin LL, Ciresi KF, Butler EL (1986) Classification and treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds. Ann Surg 204:322–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kohler N, Lipton A (1974) Platelets as a source of fibroblast growth-promoting activity. Exp Cell Res 87:297–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kozak M (1986) Bifunctional messenger RNAs in eukaryotes. Cell 47:481–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Krupp MN, Connolly DT, Lane MD (1982) Synthesis, turnover, and down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptors in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells and skin fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 257:11489–11496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Lawler J (1986) The structural and functional properties of thrombospondin. Blood 67:1197–1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Lawrence WT, Sporn MB, Gorschboth C, Norton J A, Grotendorst GR (1986) The reversal of an Adriamycin induced healing impairment with chemoattractants and growth factors. Ann Surg 203:142–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Leal F, Williams LT, Robbins KC, Aaronson SA (1985) Evidence that the v-sis gene product transforms by interaction with the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor. Science 230:327–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Lee BA, Maher DW, Hannink M, Donoghue DJ (1987) Identification of a signal for nuclear targeting in platelet-derived growth-factor-related molecules. Mol Cell Biol 7:3527–3537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Leof EB, Wharton W, Van Wyk JJ, Pledger WJ (1982) Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and somatomedin C regulate G1 progression in competent Balb/c-3T3 cells. Exp Cell Res 141:107–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Leof EB, Proper JA, Goustin AS, Shipley GD, DiCorleto PE, Moses HL (1986) Induction of c-sis mRNA and activity similar to pletelet-derived growth factor by transforming growth factor β: a proposed model for indirect mitogenesis involving autocrine activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:2453–2457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Letterio JJ, Coughlin SR, Williams LT (1986) Pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway in the stimulation of c-myc expression and DNA synthesis by bombesin. Science 234:1117–1119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Levin M, Walters MDS, Waterfield MD, Stroobant P, Cheng D, Barratt TM (1986) Platelet-derived growth factor as possible mediators of vascular proliferation in the sporadic haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Lancet Oct 11:830–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Libby P, Warner SJC, Salomon RN, Birinyi LK (1988) Production of platelet-derived growth factor-like mitogen by smooth-muscle cells from human atheroma. N Engl J Med 318:1493–1498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Limanni A, Fleming T, Molina R, Hufnagel H, Cunningham RE, Cruess DF, Sharef-kin JB (1988) Expression of genes for platelet-derived growth factor in adult human venous endothelium. A possible non-platelet-dependent cause of intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts and perianastomotic areas of vascular prostheses. J Vase Surg 7:10–20.Google Scholar
  135. Linzer DIH, Nathans D (1983) Growth-related changes in specific mRNAs of cultured mouse cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4271–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lopez-Rivas A, Mendoza SA, Nanberg E, Sinnett-Smith J, Rozengurt E (1987) Ca2+- mobilizing actions of platelet-derived growth factor differ from those of bombesin and vasopressin in Swiss 3T3 mouse cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:5768–5772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lucas CA, Gillies RJ, Olson JE, Giuliano KA, Martinez R, Sneider JM (1988) Intracellular acidification inhibits the proliferative response in BALB/c-3T3 cells. J Cell Physiol 136:161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lynch SE, Nixon JC, Colvin RB, Antoniades HN (1987) Role of platelet-derived growth factor in wound healing: synergistic effects with other growth factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:7696–7700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. MacDonald ML, Mack KF, Glomset J A (1987) Regulation of phosphoinositide phosphorylation in Swiss 3T3 cells stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor. J Biol Chem 262:1105–1110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Maher DW, Lee BA, Donoghue DJ (1989) The alternatively spliced exon of the platelet derived growth factor A chain encodes a nuclear targeting signal. Mol Cell Biol 9:2251–2253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Majack RA, Cook SC, Bornstein P (1985) Platelet-derived growth factor and heparin-like glycosaminoglycans regulate thrombospondin synthesis and deposition in the matrix by smooth muscle cells. J Cell Biol 101:1059–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Majack RA, Mildbrandt J, Dixit VM (1987) Induction of thrombospondin messenger RNA levels occurs as an immediate primary response to platelet-derived growth factor. J Biol Chem 262:8821–8825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Majesky MW, Benditt EP, Schwartz SM (1988) Expression and developmental control of platelet-derived growth factor A-chain and B-chain/sis genes in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:1524–1528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Maniatis AK, Amsel S, Mitus WJ, Coleman N (1969) Chromosome pattern of bone marrow fibroblasts in patients with chronic granulocytic leukaemia. Nature 222:1278–1279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Martinet Y, Bitterman PB, Mornex J-F, Grotendorst GR, Martin GR, Crystal RG (1986) Activated human monocytes express the c-sis proto-oncogene and release a mediator showing PDGF-like activity. Nature 319:158–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Martinez R, Gillies RJ, Giuliano KA (1988) Effect of serum on intracellular pH of BALB/c-3T3 cells: serum deprivation causes changes in sensitivity of cells to serum. J Cell Physiol 136:154–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Matsui T, Heidaran M, Miki T, Popescu N, La Rochelle W, Kraus M, Pierce J, Aaronson S (1989) Isolation of a novel receptor cDNA establishes the existence of two PDGF receptor genes. Science 243:800–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Matuoka K, Fukami K, Nakanishi O, Kawai S, Takenawa T (1988) Mitogenesis in response to PDGF and bombesin abolished by microinjection of antibody to PIP2. Science 239:640–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mercola M, Melton DA, Stiles CD (1988) Platelet-derived growth factor A chain is maternally encoded in Xenopus embryos. Science 241:1223–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Miyazono K, Okabe T, Urabe A, Takaku F, Heldin C-H (1987) Purification and properties of an endothelial cell growth factor from human platelets. J Biol Chem 262:4098–4103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Moolenar WH, Tertoolen LGJ, de Laat SW (1984) Phorbol ester and diacylglycerol mimic growth factors in raising cytoplasmic pH. Nature 312:371–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Moore S, Friedman RJ, Singal DP, Gauldie MA, Blajchman MA, Roberts RS (1976) Inhibition of injury induced thromboatherosclerotic lesions by anti-platelet serum in rabbits. Thromb Haemost 35:70–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mornex J-F, Martinet Y, Yamauchi K, Bitterman PB, Grotendorst GR, Chytil-Weir A, Martin GR, Crystal RG (1986) Spontaneous expression of the c-sis gene and release of platelet-derived growth factor like molecule by human alveolar macrophages. J Clin Invest 78:61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Narayanan AS, Page RC (1983) Biosynthesis and regulation of typeV collagen in diploid human fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 258:11694–11699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Nilsson J, Thyberg J, Heldin C-H, Westermark B, Wasteson A (1983) Surface binding and internalization of platelet-derived growth factor in human fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 5592–5596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Nilsson J, Sjolund M, Palmberg L, Thyberg J, Heldin C-H (1985) Arterial smooth muscle cells in primary culture produce a platelet-derived growth factor-like protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:4418–4422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Niman HL, Houghten RA, Bowen-Pope DF (1984) Detection of high molecular weight forms of platelet-derived growth factor by sequence-specific antisera. Science 226:701–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Niman HL, Thompson AMH, Yu A, Markman M, Willems JJ, Herwig KR, Habib NA, Wood CB, Houghten RA, Lerner RA (1985) Anti-peptide antibodies detect oncogene-related proteins in urine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:7924–7928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Nishimura J, Huang JS, Deuel TF (1982) Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity in Swiss mouse 3T3 cell membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:4303–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Nister M, Hammacher A, Mellstrom K, Siegbahn A, Ronnstrand L, Westermark B, Heldin C-H (1988a) A glioma-derived PDGF A chain homodimer has different functional activities than a PDGF AB heterodimer purified from human platelets. Cell 52:791–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Nister M, Heldin C-H, Westermark B (1986) Clonal variation in the production of a platelet-derived growth factor-like growth factor and expression of corresponding receptors in a human malignant glioma. Cancer Res 46:332–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Nister M, Libermann TA, Betsholtz C, Pettersson M, Claesson-Welsh L, Heldin C-H, Schlessinger J, Westermark B (1988 b) Expression of messenger RNAs for platelet- derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-a and their receptors in human malignant glioma cell lines. Cancer Res 48:3910–3918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Noble M, Murray K, Stroobant P, Waterfield MD, Riddle P (1988) Platelet-derived growth factor promotes division and motility and inhibits premature differentiation of the oligodendrocyte/type-2 astrocyte progenitor cell. Nature 333:560–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Oka Y, Orth DN (1983) Human plasma epidermal growth factor/beta-urogastrone is associated with blood platelets. J Clin Invest 72:249–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Oquendo P, Alberta J, Wen D, Graycar JL, Derynck R, Stiles CD (1989) The platelet- derived growth factor-inducible KC gene encodes a secretory protein related to platelet α-granule proteins. J Biol Chem 264:4133–4137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Ostman A, Rail L, Hammacher A, Wormstead MA, Coit D, Valenzuela P, Betsholtz C, Westermark B, Heldin C-H (1988) Synthesis and assembly of a functionally active recombinant platelet-derived growth factor AB heterodimer. J Biol Chem 263:16202–16208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Owen AJ, Geyer RP, Antoniades HN (1982) Human platelet-derived growth factor stimulates amino acid transport and protein synthesis by human diploid fibroblasts in plasma-free media. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3203–3207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Owen AJ, Pantazis P, Antoniades HN (1984) Simian sarcoma virus-transformed cells secrete a mitogen identical to platelet-derived growth factor. Science 225:54–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Pandolfi A, Florita A, Altomare G, Pigatto P, Donati MB, Poggi A (1989) Increased plasma levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) activity in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 191:1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Pantazis P, Peliccii PG, Dalla-Favera R, Antoniades HN (1985) Synthesis and secretion of proteins resembling platelet-derived growth factor by human glioblastoma and fibrosarcoma cells in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:2404–2408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Pantazis P, Sariban E, Kufe D, Antoniades HN (1986) Induction of c-sis gene expression and synthesis of platelet-derived growth factor in human myeloid leukemia cells during monocytic differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:6455–6459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Papayannopoulou T, Raines E, Collins S, Nakamoto B, Tweeddale M, Ross R (1987) Constitutive and inducible secretion of platelet-derived growth factor analogs by human leukemic cell lines coexpressing erythroid and megakaryocytic markers. J Clin Invest 79:859–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Paris S, Pouyssegur J (1984) Growth factors activate the Na+/H+ antiporter in quiescent fibroblasts by increasing its affinity for intracellular H+. J Biol Chem 259:10989–10994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Pasquale EB, Maher PA, Singer S J (1988) Comparative study of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts stimulated by a variety of mitogenic agents. J Cell Physiol 137:146–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Paulsson Y, Hammacher A, Heldin C-H, Westermark B (1987) Possible positive autocrine feedback in the prereplicative phase of human fibroblasts. Nature 328:715–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Pech M, Rao CD, Rubbins KC, Aaronson SA (1989) Functional identification of regulatory elements within the promoter region of platelet-derived growth factor 2. Mol Cell Biol 9:396–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Peres R, Betsholtz C, Westermark B, Heldin C-H (1987) Frequent expression of growth factors for mesenchymal cells in human mammary carcinoma cells lines. Cancer Res 47:3425–3429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Pfeifle B, Boeder H, Ditschuneit H (1987) Interaction of receptors for insulin-like growth factor I, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor in rat aortic cells. Endocrinol 120:2251–2258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Pike LJ, Bowen-Pope D, Ross R, Krebs EG (1983) Characterization of platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation in cell membranes. J Biol Chem 258:9383–9390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Pledger WJ, Stiles CD, Antoniades HN, Scher CD (1977) Induction of DNA synthesis in BALB/c3T3 cells by serum components: reevaluation of the commitment process. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:4481–4485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Raines EW, Ross R (1982) Platelet-derived growth factor. I. High yield purification and evidence for multiple forms. J Biol Chem 257:5154–5160.Google Scholar
  182. Raines EW, Ross R (1985) Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor. Methods Enzymol 109:749–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Raines EW, Ross R (1988) Identification and assay of platelet-derived growth factor-binding proteins. Methods Enzymol 147:48–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Raines EW, Bowen-Pope DF, Ross R (1984) Plasma binding proteins for platelet-derived growth factor that inhibit its binding to cell-surface receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:3424–3428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Raines EW, Dower SK, Ross R (1989) IL-1 mitogenic activity for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells is due to PDGF-AA. Science 243:393–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1987) Expression of growth factor receptors in injured nervous tissue. II. Induction of specific platelet-derived growth factor binding in the injured PNS is associated with a breakdown in the blood-nerve barrier and endoneurial interstitial oedema. J Neurocytol 16:701–711.Google Scholar
  187. Rakowicz-Szulazynska EM, Rodeck U, Herlyn M, Koprowski H (1986) Chromatin binding of epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor in cells bearing the appropriate surface receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:3728–3732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Rao CD, Igarashi H, Chiu I-M, Robbins KC, Aaronson SA (1986) Structure and sequence of the human c-sis/platelet-derived growth factor 2 (SIS/PDGF2) transcriptional unit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:2392–2396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Rao CD, Pech M, Robbins KC, Aaronson SA (1988) The 5′ untranslated sequence of the c-sis/platelet-derived growth factor 2 transcript is a potent translational inhibitor. Mol Cell Biol 8:284–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Rappolee DA, Brenner CA, Schultz R, Mark D, Werb Z (1988) Development expression of PDGF, TGF-α, and TGF-β genes in preimplantation mouse embryos. Science 241:1823–1825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Ratner L, Josephs SF, Jarrett R, Reitz MS, Wong-Staal F (1985) Nucleotide sequence of transforming human c-sis cDNA clones with homology to platelet-derived growth factor. Nucleic Acids Res 13:5007–5018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Ratner L, Thielan B, Collins T (1987) Sequences of the 5′ portion of the human c-sis gene: characterization of the transcriptional promoter and regulation of expression of the protein product by 5′ untranslated mRNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res 15:6017–6036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Richardson WD, Pringle N, Mosley MJ, Westermark B, Dubois-Dalcq M (1988) A role for platelet-derived growth factor in normal gliogenesis in the central nervous system. Cell 53:309–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Rizzino A, Bowen-Pope DF (1985) Production of PDGF-like factors by embryonal carcinoma cells and response to PDGF by endoderm-like cells. Dev Biol 110:15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Rizzino A, Kazakoff P, Ruff E, Kuszynski C, Nebelsick J (1988) Regulatory effects of cell density on the binding of transforming growth factor β, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor. Cancer Res 48:4266–4271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Robbins KC, Antoniades HN, Devare SG, Hunkapiller MW, Aaronson SA (1983) Structural and immunological similarities between simian sarcoma virus gene product(s) and human platelet-derived growth factor. Nature 305:605–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Robbins KC, Leal F, Pierce JA, Aaronson SA (1985) The v-sis/PDGF-2 transforming gene product localizes to cell membranes but is not a secretory protein. EMBO J 4:1783–1792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Roberts WM, Look AT, Roussel MF, Sherr CJ (1988) Tandem linkage of human CSF-1 receptor (c-fms) and PDGF receptor genes. Cell 55:655–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rollins BJ, Stiles CD (1988) Regulation of c-myc and c-fos proto-oncogene expression by animal cell growth factors. In Vitro 24:81–84.Google Scholar
  200. Rollins BJ, Morrison ED, Stiles CD (1987) A cell-cycle constraint on the regulation of gene expression by platelet-derived growth factor. Science 238:1269–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rollins BJ, Morrison ED, Stiles CD (1988) Cloning and expression of JE, a gene inducible by platelet-derived growth factor and whose product has cytokine-like properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:3738–3742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Ronnett GV, Tennekoon G, Knutson VP, Lane MD (1983) Kinetics of insulin receptor transit to and removal from the plasma membrane: effect of insulin-induced down- regulation in 3T3–L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem 258:283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Ronnstrand L, Beckmann MP, Faulders B, Ostman A, Ek B, Heldin C-H (1987) Purification of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor from porcine uterus. J Biol Chem 262:2929–2932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Ronnstrand L, Terracio L, Claesson-Welsh L, Heldin C-H, Rubin K (1988) Characterization of two monoclonal antibodies reactive with the external domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem 263:10429–10435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Rorsman F, Bywater M, Knott TJ, Scott J, Betsholtz C (1988) Structural characterization of the human platelet-derived growth factor A-chain cDNA and gene: alternative exon usage predicts two different precursor proteins. Mol Cell Biol 8:571–577.Google Scholar
  206. Rosenfeld ME, Bowen-Pope DF, Ross R (1984) Platelet-derived growth factor: morphologic and biochemical studies of binding, internalization, and degradation. J Cell Physiol 121:263–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Rosenfeld M, Keating A, Bowen-Pope DF, Singer JW, Ross R (1985) Responsiveness of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment to platelet-derived growth factor. Leuk Res 9:427–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Rosenfeld ME, Tsukada T, Chait A, Bierman EL, Gown AM, Ross R (1987 a) Fatty streak expansion and maturation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipemic and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits. Arteriosclerosis 7:24–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Rosenfeld ME, Tsukada T, Gown AM, Ross R (1987 b) Fatty streak initiation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipemic and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits. Arteriosclerosis 7: 9–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Ross R (1968) The fibroblast and wound repair. Biol Rev 43:51–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Ross R (1981) Atherosclerosis — a problem of the biology of arterial wall cells and their interactions with blood components. Arteriosclerosis 1:293–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Ross R (1986) The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: an update. N Engl J Med 314:488–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Ross R, Glomset JA (1973) Arteriosclerosis and the arterial smooth muscle cell. Science 180:1332–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Ross R, Glomset J A (1976) The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 295:369–377, 420–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Ross R, Glomset JA, Kariya B, Harker L (1974) A platelet-dependent serum factor that stimulates the proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:1207–1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Ross R, Vogel A, Davies P, Raines E, Kariya B, Rivest MJ, Gustafson C, Glomset J (1979) The platelet-derived growth factor and plasma control cell proliferation. In: Hormones in cell culture. Cold Spring Harbor conferences on cell proliferation, vol 6. Cold Spring Harbor, New York, p 27.Google Scholar
  217. Ross R, Raines EW, Bowen-Pope DF (1986) The biology of platelet-derived growth factor. Cell 46:155–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Rozengurt E, Stroobant P, Waterfield MD, Deuel TF, Keechan M (1983) Platelet- derived growth factor elicits cyclic AMP accumulation in Swiss 3T3 cells: role of prostaglandin production. Cell 34:265–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Rozengurt E, Rodriquez-Pena A, Coombs M, Sinnett-Smith J (1984) Diacylglycerol stimulates DNA synthesis and cell division in mouse 3T3 cells: role of Ca2+- sensitive phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:5748–5752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Rubin K, Terracio L, Ronnstrand L, Heldin C-H, Klareskog L (1988a) Expression of plateled-derived growth factor receptors is induced on connective tissue cells during chronic synovial inflammation. Scand J Immunol 27:285–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Rubin K, Hansson GK, Ronnstrand L, Claesson-Welsh L, Fellstrom B, Tingstrom A, Larsson E, Klareskog L, Heldin C-H, Terracio L (1988b) Induction of B-type receptors for platelet-derived growth factor in vascular inflammation: possible implications for development of vascular proliferative lesions. Lancet June 18:1353–1356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Rutherford RB, Ross R (1976) Platelet factors stimulate fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells quiescent in plasma serum to proliferate. J Cell Biol 69:196–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Sariban E, Kufe D (1988) Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor 1 and 2 genes in human myeloid cell lines and monocytes. Cancer Res 48:4498–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Sariban E, Mitchell T, Rambaldi A, Kufe DW (1988a) C-sis but not c-fos gene expression is lineage specific in human myeloid cells. Blood 71:488–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Sariban E, Sitaras NM, Antoniades HN, Kufe DW, Pantazis P (1988b) Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-related transcripts and synthesis of biologically active PDGF-like proteins by haman malignant epithelial cell lines. J Clin Invest 82:1157–1164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Sauer MK, Donoghue DJ (1988) Identification of nonessential disulfide bonds and altered conformations in the v-sis protein, a homolog of the B chain of platelet- derived growth factor. Mol Cell Biol 8:1011–1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Sauer MK, Hannink M, Donoghue DJ (1986) Deletions in the N-terminal coding region of the v-sis gene: determination of the minimal transforming region. J Virol 59:292–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Sawyer ST, Cohen S (1981) Enhancement of calcium uptake and phosphatidylinositol turnover by epidermal growth factor in A-431 cells. Biochemistry 20:6280–6286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Seemayer TA, Lagace R, Schurch W, Tremblay G (1979) Myofibroblasts in the stroma of invasive and metastatic carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 3:525–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Seifert RA, Schwartz SM, Bowen-Pope DF (1984) Developmentally regulated production of platelet-derived growth factor-like molecules. Nature 311:669–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Seifert RA, Hart CE, Phillips PE, Forstrom JW, Ross R, Murray MJ, Bowen-Pope DF (1989) Two different subunits associate to create isoform-specific platelet-derived growth factor receptors. J Biol Chem 264:8771–8778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Sejersen T, Betsholtz C, Sjolund M, Heldin C-H, Westermark B, Thyberg J (1986) Rat skeletal myoblasts and arterial smooth muscle cells express the gene for the A chain but not the gene for the B chain (c-sis) of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and produce a PDGF-like protein. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 83:6844–6848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Senior RM, Griffin GL, Huang JS, Walz DA, Deuel TF (1983) Chemotactic activity of platelet alpha granule proteins for fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 96:382–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Seppa H, Grotendorst G, Seppa S, Schiffmann E, Martin GR (1982) Platelet-derived growth factor is chemotactic for fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 92:584–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Shaw G, Kamen R (1986) A conserved AU sequence from the 3′untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation. Cell 46:659–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Shier WT (1980) Serum stimulation of phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin release in 3T3 cells is associated with platelet-derived growth-promoting activity. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 77:137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Shier WT, Durkin JP (1982) Role of stimulation of arachidonic acid release in the proliferative response of 3T3 mouse fibroblasts to platelet-derived growth factor. J Cell Physiol 112:171–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Shimokado K, Raines EW, Madtes DK, Barrett TB, Benditt EP, Ross R (1985) A significant part of macrophage-derived growth factor consists of at least two forms of PDGF. Cell 43:277–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Shultz PJ, DiCorleto PE, Silver BJ, Abboud HE (1988) Mesangial cells express PDG mRNAs and proliferate in response to PDGF. Am J Physiol 255:F674–F684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Silverstein RL, Leung LLK, Nachman RL (1986) Thrombospondin: a versatile multifunctional glycoprotein. Arteriosclerosis 6:245–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Singh JP, Chaikin MA, Stiles CD (1982) Phylogenetic analysis of platelet-derived growth factor by radio-receptor assay. J Cell Biol 95:667–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Sitaris NM, Sariban E, Pantazis P, Zetter B, Antoniades HN (1987) Human iliac artery endothelial cells express both genes encoding the chains of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and synthesize PDGF-like mitogen. J Cell Physiol 132:376–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Sjolund M, Hedin U, Sejersen T, Heldin C-H, Thyberg J (1988) Arterial smooth muscle cells express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A chain mRNA, secrete a PDGF-like mitogen, and bind exogenous PDGF in a phenotype- and growth state- dependent manner. J Cell Biol 106:403–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Smith JC, Stiles CD (1981) Cytoplasmic transfer of the mitogenic response to platelet-derived growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 78:4363–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Smith JW, Shulman HM, Thomas ED, Fefer A, Buckner CD (1981) Bone marrow transplantation for acute myelosclerosis. Cancer 48:2198–2203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Sprugel KH, McPherson JM, Clowes AW, Ross R (1987) Effects of growth factors in vivo. I. Cell ingrowth into porous subcutaneous chambers. Am J Pathol 129:601–613.Google Scholar
  247. Starksen NF, Harsh GR, Gibbs VC, Williams LT (1987) Regulated expression of the platelet-derived growth factor A chain gene in microvascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 262:14381–14384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Stenman G, Rorsman F, Betsholtz C (1988) Sublocalization of the human PDGF A-chain gene to chromosome 7, band ql1.23, by in situ hybridization. Exp Cell Res 178:180–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Stevens CW, Brondyk WH, Burgess JA, Manoharan TH, Hane BG, Fahl WE (1988) Partially transformed, anchorage-independent human diploid fibroblasts result from overexpression of the c-sis oncogene: mitogenic activity of an apparent monomelic platelet-derived growth factor 2 species. Mol Cell Biol 8:2089–2096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Stiles CD (1983) The molecular biology of platelet-derived growth factor. Cell 33:653–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Stiles CD, Capone GT, Scher CD, Antoniades HN, Van Wyk JJ, Pledger WJ (1979) Dual control of cell growth by somatomedins and platelet-derived growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:1279–1283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Stoscheck CM, Carpenter G (1984) Down regulation of epidermal growth factor receptors: direct demonstration of receptor degradation in human fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 98:1048–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Stroobant P, Waterfield MD (1984) Purification and properties of porcine platelet-derived growth factor. EMBO J 3:2963–2967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Stroobant P, Gullick WJ, Waterfield MD, Rozengurt E (1985) Highly purified fibroblast-derived growth factor, an SV-40-transformed fibroblast-secreted mitogen, is closely related to platelet-derived growth factor. EMBO J 4:1945–1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Studzinski GP, Brelvi ZS, Feldman SC, Watt RA (1986) Participation of c-myc protein in DNA synthesis of human cells. Science 234:467–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Swan DC, McBride OW, Robbins KC, Keithley DA, Reddy EP, Aaronson SA (1982) Chromosomal mapping of the simian sarcoma virus one gene analogue in human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 79:4691–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Swenne I, Heldin C-H, Hill DJ, Hellerstrom C (1988) Effects of platelet-derived growth factor and somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I on the deoxyribonucleic acid replication of fetal rat Islets of Langerhans in tissue culture. Endocrinology 122:214–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Takehara K, Grotendorst GR, Silver R, LeRoy EC (1987) Dipyridamole decreases platelet-derived growth factor levels in human serum. Arteriosclerosis 7:152–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Taylor RN, Williams LT (1988) Development expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptor in the human placenta. Mol Endocrinol 2:627–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Terracio L, Ronnstrand L, Tingstrom A, Rubin K, Claesson-Welsh L, Funa K, Heldin C-H (1988) Induction of platelet-derived growth factor receptor expression in smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts upon tissue culturing. J Cell Biol 107:1947–1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Thiel H-J, Hafenrichter R (1984) Simian sarcoma virus transformation-specific glycopeptide: immunological relationship to human platelet-derived growth factor. Virology 136:414–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Thiel H-J, Matthews TJ, Broughton EM, Butchko AW, Bolognesi DP (1981) Detection of a transformation-specific glycopeptide in SSV-infected cells. Virology 112:642–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Thielen GH, Gould D, Fowler M, Dungworth DL (1971) C-type virus in tumor tissue of a wooly monkey (Lagothrix spp.) with fibrosarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 47:881–889.Google Scholar
  264. Tong BD, Auer DE, Jaye M, Kaplow JM, Ricca G, McConathy E, Drohan W, Deuel TF (1987) cDNA clones reveal differences between human glial and endothelial cell platelet-derived growth factor A-chains. Nature 328:619–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Tzeng DY, Deuel TF, Huang JS, Baehner RL (1985) Platelet-derived growth factor promotes human peripheral monocyte activation. Blood 66:179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Tzeng DY, Deuel TF, Huang JS, Senior RM, Boxer LA, Baehner RL (1984) Platelet-derived growth factor promotes polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation. Blood 64:1123–1128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Valente AJ, Delgado R, Metter JD, Cho C, Sprague EA, Schwartz CJ, Graves DT (1988) Cultured primate aortic smooth muscle cells express both the PDGF-A and PDGF-B genes but do not secrete mitogenic activity or dimeric platelet-derived growth factor protein. J Cell Physiol 136:479–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Van den Eijnden-van Raaij AJM, van Maurik P, Boonstra J, van Zoelen EJJ, de Laat SW (1988) Ultrastructural localization of platelet-derived growth factor and related factors in normal and transformed cells. Exp Cell Res 178:479–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Van den Ouweland AMW, van Groningen JJM, Schalken JA, van Neck HW, Bloemers HPJ, van de Ven WJM (1987) Genetic organization of the c-sis transcription unit. Nucleic Acids Res 15:959–970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Van Slyck EJ, Weiss L, Dully M (1970) Chromosomal evidence for the secondary role of fibroblastic proliferation in acute myelofibrosis. Blood 36:729–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. van Zoelen EJJ, van de Ven WJM, Franssen HJ, van Oostwaard TMJ, van der Saag PT, Heldin C-H, de Laat SW (1985) Neuroblastoma cells express c-sis and produce a transforming growth factor antigenically related to the platelet-derived growth factor. Mol Cell Biol 5:2289–2297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Vogel A, Raines E, Kariya B, Rivest M-J, Ross R (1978) Coordinate control of 3T3 cell proliferation by platelet-derived growth factor and plasma components. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:2810–2814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Wahl SM, Hunt DA, Wakefield LM, McCartney-Francis N, Wahl LM, Roberts AB, Sporn MB (1987) Transforming growth factor type β induces monocyte Chemotaxis and growth factor production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:5788–5792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Walker LN, Bowen-Pope DF, Ross R, Reidy MA (1986) Production of platelet-derived growth factor-like molecules by cultured arterial smooth muscle cells accompanies proliferation after arterial injury. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 83:7311–7315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Waterfield MD, Scrace GT, Whittle N, Stroobant P, Johnsson A, Wasteson A, Westermark B, Heldin C-H, Huang JS, Deuel TF (1983) Platelet-derived growth factor is structurally related to the putative transforming protein p28sis of simian sarcoma virus. Nature 304:35–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Webster G (1971) Morphogenesis and pattern formation in hydroids. Biol Rev 46:1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Weich HA, Herbst D, Schairer HU, Hoppe J (1987) Platelet-derived growth factor. Phorbol ester induces the expression of the B-chain but not of the A-chain in HEL cells. FEBS Lett 213:89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Westermark B, Wasteson A (1976) A platelet factor stimulating human normal glial cells. Exp Cell Res 98:170–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Westermark B, Nister M, Heldin C-H (1985) Growth factors and oncogenes in human malignant glioma. Neurol Clin 3:785–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Westermark B, Johnsson A, Paulsson Y, Betsholtz C, Heldin C-H, Herlyn M, Rodeck U, Koprowski H (1986) Human melanoma cell lines of primary and metastatic origin express the genes encoding the chains of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and produce a PDGF-like growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 83:7197–7200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Westin EH, Wong-Staal F, Gelmann EP, Dalla Favera R, Papas TS, Lautenberger JA, Eva A, Reddy EP, Tronick SR, Aaronson SA, Gallo RC (1982) Expression of cellular homologues of retroviral one genes in human hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:2490–2494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. White JG (1974) Physiochemical dissection of platelet structure physiology. In: Baldini MG, Ebbe S (eds) Platelets: production, function, transfusion, and storage. Grune and Stratton, New York, p 235.Google Scholar
  283. Wilcox JN, Smith KM, Williams LT, Schwartz SM, Gordon D (1988) Platelet-derived growth factor mRNA detection in human atherosclerotic plaques by in situ hybridization. J Clin Invest 82:1134–1143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Williams LT, Tremble P, Antoniades HN (1982) Platelet-derived growth factor binds specifically to receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells and the binding becomes nondissociable. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:5867–5870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Williams LT, Antoniades HN, Goetzl EJ (1983) Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates mouse 3T3 cell mitogenesis and leukocyte Chemotaxis through different structural determinants. J Clin Invest 72:1759–1763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Williams LT, Tremble PM, Lavin MF, Sunday ME (1984) Platelet-derived growth factor receptors form a high affinity state in membrane preparations. Kinetics and affinity cross-linking studies. J Biol Chem 259:5287–5294.Google Scholar
  287. Wilson E, Laster SM, Gooding LR, Lambeth JD (1987) Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates phagocytosis and blocks agonist-induced activation of the neutrophil oxidative burst: a possible cellular mechanism to protect against oxygen radical damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:2213–2217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Witte LD, Kaplan KL, Nossel HL, Lages BA, Weiss HJ, Goodman DS (1978) Studies of the release from human platelets of the growth factor for cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells. Circ Res 42:402–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Womer RB, Frick K, Mitchell CD, Ross AH, Bishayee S, Scher CD (1987) PDGF induces c-myc expression in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells but does not stimulate cell replication. J Cell Physiol 132:65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Yarden Y, Escobedo JA, Kuang W-J, Yang-Feng TL, Daniel TO, Tremble PM, Chen EY, Ando ME, Harkins RN, Francke U, Fried VA, Ullrich A, Williams LT (1986) Structure of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor helps define a family of closely related growth factor receptors. Nature 323:226–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Yarden Y. Kuang W-J, Yang-Feng T, Coussens L, Munemitsu S, Dull TJ, Chen E, Schlessinger J, Francke U, Ullrich A (1987) Human proto-oncogene c-kit: a new cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase for an unidentified ligand. EMBO J 6:3341–3351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Yeh HJ, Pierce GF, Deuel TF (1984) Ultrastructural localization of a platelet-derived growth factor/v-sis-related protein(s) in cytoplasm and nucleus of simian sarcoma virus-transformed cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 84:2317–2321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Zerwes H-G, Risau W (1987) Polarized secretion of a platelet-derived growth factor-like chemotactic factor by endothelial cells in vitro. J Cell Biol 105:2037–2041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Zullo JN, Cochran BH, Huang AS, Stiles CD (1985) Platelet-derived growth factor and double-stranded ribonucleic acids stimulate expression of the same genes in 3T3 cells. Cell 43:793–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. W. Raines
  • D. F. Bowen-Pope
  • R. Ross

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations