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Temperatures

  • Hannu Karttunen
  • Pekka Kröger
  • Heikki Oja
  • Markku Poutanen
  • Karl Johan Donner
Part of the Springer Study Edition book series (SSE)

Abstract

Temperatures of astronomical objects range from almost absolute zero to millions of degrees. Temperature can be defined in a variety of ways, and its numerical value depends on the specific definition used. The temperature is welldefined only in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most astrophysical objects are not in equilibrium, they cannot be assigned a unique temperature. For many purposes it is still useful to describe phenomena in terms of a temperature, but its value will then depend on how it is defined.

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References

  1. Harwit, M. (1973): Astrophysical Concepts (Wiley, New York)Google Scholar
  2. Rybicki, G. B., Lightman, A. F. (1979): Radiative Processes in Astrophysics (Wiley, New York)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannu Karttunen
    • 1
  • Pekka Kröger
    • 1
  • Heikki Oja
    • 1
  • Markku Poutanen
    • 1
  • Karl Johan Donner
    • 1
  1. 1.Observatory and Astrophysics LaboratoryUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinki 13Finland

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