Chemical Diffusion in Magmas: An Overview of Experimental Results and Geochemical Applications

  • E. Bruce Watson
  • Don R. Baker
Part of the Advances in Physical Geochemistry book series (PHYSICAL GEOCHE, volume 9)

Abstract

The subject of chemical diffusion in magmas has attracted the interest of penologists and geochemists seeking to place time constraints on phenomena ranging from magma mixing to crystal growth. Experiments have been devised to examine chemical diffusion effects during such processes as interdiffusion of two liquids, growth and dissolution of crystals, exchange of halogens with oxygen in the air, reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron oxide, and introduction of dissolved volatiles. A few experiments have even been done using a temperature gradient to induce thermal migration.

Many of the studies carried out to date have incorporated variations in temperature, pressure, and dissolved H2O content, so the collective results allow diffusivities in magmas to be estimated quite well for most geologically- realizable conditions. In general, the following major characteristics appear to hold:
  1. (1)

    Network-forming species, most notably SiO2, are the slowest-moving magmatic components, although network-modifiers that form stable complexes in the melt may be equally sluggish;

     
  2. (2)

    alkalies, divalent cations, oxygen, and fluorine are the most mobile magmatic components when their transport is not rate-limited by counterdiffusion of slower species; and

     
  3. (3)

    the effect of H2O content on chemical diffusion of most components (includ- ing H2O itself) is extremely large, sometimes amounting to several orders of magnitude at crustal melting conditions.

     

Keywords

Crystallization Quartz Graphite Zircon Convection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albarede, F. and Bottinga, Y. (1972) Kinetic disequilibrium in trace-element partitioning between phenocrysts and host lava. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36:141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allègre, C.J., Provost, A. and Jaupart, C. (1981) Oscillatory zoning in plagioclase: Pathological case of crystal growth. Nature 294: 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arzi, A.A. (1978) Fusion kinetics, water pressure, water diffusion and electrical conductivity, interrelated. J. Petrol. 19: 153–169.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, D.R., and Watson, E.B. (1988) Diffusion of major and mace elements in compositionally complex CI- and F-bearing silicate melts. J. Non-Cryst Solids 102: 62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, D.R. (1990) Chemical interdiffusion of dacite and rhyolite: Anhydrous measure ments at 1 atm and 10 kbar, application of Transition State Theory, and diffusion in zoned magma chambers. Contrib. Min. Pet. 104: 407–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bottinga, Y., Kudo, A. and Weill, D. (1966) Some observations on oscillatory zoning and crystallization of magmatic plagioclase. Am. Mineral. 50: 792–806.Google Scholar
  7. Bowen, N.L. (1921) Diffusion in silicate melts. J. Geol. 29: 295–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brearley, M. and Scarfe, C. (1984) Dissolution of upper mantle minerals in alkali basalt melt at 30 kbar: Implications for ultramafic xenolith survival. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Progr. 16: 454.Google Scholar
  9. Chekhmir, A.S. (1984) Experimental study of diffusion processes in magmatic melts. Ph.D. thesis, Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow, USSR.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, C.F. and Turner, J.S. (1981) Crystallization in a double-diffusive system. J. Geophys. Res. 85: 2573–2593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Compston, W. and Williams, I.S. (1982) Protolith ages from inherited zircon cores measured by high mass-resolution ion microprobe. Abstrs. Fifth Int. Conf. Geochron, Cosmochron. Isot. Geol.: 63–64.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, A.R. (1965) Model for multi-component diffusion. Phys. Chem. Glasses 6:55–61.Google Scholar
  13. Crank, J. (1975) The Mathematics of Diffusion. Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 414 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Delaney, J.R. and Karsten, J.L. (1981) Ion microprobe studies of water in silicate melts: Concentration-dependent diffusion in obsidian. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 52: 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dingwell, D.B. and Scarfe, CM. (1984) Chemical diffusion of fluorine in jadeite melt at high pressure. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48: 2517–2525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dingwell, D.B. and Scarfe, CM. (1985) Chemical diffusion of fluorine in melts in the system Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 73: 377–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dowty, E. and Berkebile C.A. (1982) Differentiation and diffusion in laboratory charges of basaltic composition during melting experiments. Am. Mineral. 67: 900–906.Google Scholar
  18. Dungan, M.A. and Rhodes, J.M. (1978) Residual glasses and melt inclusions in basalts from DSDP legs 45 and 46: Evidence for magma mixing. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 67: 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunn, T. (1982) Oxygen diffusion in three silicate melts along the join diopside-anorthite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46: 2293–2299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunn, T. (1983) Oxygen chemical diffusion in three basaltic liquids at elevated tempera- tures and pressures. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47: 1923–1930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Freer, R. (1981) Diffusion in silicate minerals and glasses: A data digest and guide to the literature. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 76: 440–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fujii, T. (1981) Ca-Sr chemical diffusion in melt of albite at high temperature and pressure. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 62: 428.Google Scholar
  23. Gerlach, D.C. and Grove T.L. (198Z) Petrology of Medicine Lake highland volcanics: Characterization of endmembers of magma mixing. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 80:147–159.Google Scholar
  24. Green, T.H. and Watson, E.B. (1982) Crystallization of apatite in natural magmas under high-pressure, hydrous conditions, with particular reference to ‘orogenic’ rock series. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 79: 96–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grove, T.L. and Raudsepp, M. (1978) Effects of kinetics on the crystallization of quartz normative basalt 15597: an experimental study. Proc. Ninth Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf.: 585–599.Google Scholar
  26. Harrison, T.M. and Watson, E.B. (1983) Kinetics of zircon dissolution and zirconium diffusion in granitic melts of variable water content. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 84:66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harrison, T.M. and Watson, E.B. (1984) The behavior of apatite during crustal anatexis: Equilibrium and kinetic considerations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48: 1467–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hildreth, W. (1979) The Bishop tuff: Evidence for the origin of compositional zonation in silicic magma chambers. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 180: 43–75.Google Scholar
  29. Hofmann, A.W. (1980) Diffusion in natural silicate melts: A critical review. In: Hargraves, R.B. (ed) Physics of Magmatic Processes. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp 385–417.Google Scholar
  30. Holmes, A. (1936) Transfusion of quartz xenoliths in alkali basic and ultra basic lavas, south-west Uganda. Mineral. Mag. 24: 408–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jambon, A. (1979) Diffusion of water in granitic melt. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearbook 78: 352–355.Google Scholar
  32. Karsten, J.L., Holloway, J.R. and Delaney, J.R. (1982) Ion microprobe studies of water in silicate melts: Temperature-dependent water diffusion in obsidian. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 59: 420–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuo, L-C and Kirkpatrick, R.J. (1985) Kinetics of crystal dissolution in the system diopside-forsterite-silica. Am. J. Sci. 285: 51–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kushiro, I. (1983) Effect of pressure on the diffusivity of network-forming cations in melts of jadeitic compositions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47: 1415–1422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lesher, C.E. and Walker, D. (1985) Solution properties of silicate liquids from thermal diffusion experiments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50: 1397–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lindstrom, D.J., Lofgren, G.E. and Haskin, L.A. (1979) Experimental studies of kinetic effects on trace element partitioning. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 60: 402.Google Scholar
  37. Loomis, T.P. (1982) Numerical simulations of crystallization processes of plagioclase in complex melts: The origin of major and oscillatory zoning in plagioclase. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 81: 219–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McBirney, A.R. and Noyes, R.M. (1979) Crystallization and layering of the Skaergaard intrusion. J. Petrol. 20: 487–454.Google Scholar
  39. McBirney, A.R. (1980) Mixing and unmixing of magmas. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 7: 357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Medford, G.A. (1973) Calcium diffusion in a mugearite melt. Can. J. Earth Sci. 10: 394–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Muncill, G.E. and Lasagna, A.C. (1984) Chemical diffusion in plagioclase melts and petrologic implications. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Progr. 16: 603.Google Scholar
  42. Oishi, Y., Nanba, M. and Pask, J. (1982) Analysis of liquid-state interdiffusion in the system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 using multiatomic ion models. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 65: 247–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Powell, M.A., Walker, D. and Hays J.F. (1980) Controlled cooling and crystallization of a eucrite: Microprobe studies. Proc. 11th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf.: 1153–1168.Google Scholar
  44. Rapp, R.P. and Watson, E.B. (1985) Kinetics of monazite dissolution and diffusion of rare earth elements in granitic melts of variable water content. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 94: 304–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reid, J.B., Evans, O.C. and Fates, D.G. (1983) Magma mixing in granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada, California. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 66: 243–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Riebling, E.F. (1966) Structure of sodium alumino-silicate melts containing at least 50 mole % SiO2 at 1500°C. J. Chem. Phys. 44: 2857–2865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ross, A. (1982) The temperature and pressure dependence of silicon diffusion in a sodium alumino-silicate melt. Lunar and Planetary Science XIII: 659–660.Google Scholar
  48. Ryerson, F.J. and Hess, P.C. (1978) Implications of liquid-liquid distribution coefficients to mineral-liquid partitioning. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 42: 921–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sato, H. (1975) Diffusion coronas around quartz xenocrysts in andesite and basalt from Tertiary volcanic region in northeastern Shikoku, Japan. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 50: 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Scarfe, CM., Mysen, B.O. and Virgo, D. (1987) Pressure dependence of viscosity of silicate melts. In B.O. Mysen (ed) Magmatic processes: Physicochemical principles, Geochemical Society Special Publication No. 1 University Park, Pennsylvania, pp 59–68.Google Scholar
  51. Shaw, H.R. (1963) Obsidian-H2O viscosities at 1000 and 2000 bars in the temperature range 700° to 900°C. J. Geophys. Res. 68: 6337–6343.Google Scholar
  52. Shaw, H.R. (1972) Viscosities of magmatic silicate liquids: An empirical method of prediction. Am. J. Sci. 272: 870–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shaw, H.R. (1974a) Diffusion of H20 in granitic liquids. Part I. Experimental data. In: Hofmann, A.W., Giletti, B.J., Yoder, H.S. and Yund, R.A. (eds) Geochemical Transport and Kinetics. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 634: 139–154.Google Scholar
  54. Shaw, H.R. (1974b) Diffusion of H20 in granitic liquids. Part II. Mass transfer in magma chambers. In: Hofmann, A.W., Giletti, B.J., Yoder, H.S. and Yund R.A. (eds) Geochemical Transport and Kinetics. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 634: 155–170.Google Scholar
  55. Shimizu, N. and Kushiro, I. (1984) Diffusivity of oxygen in jadeite and diopside melt at high pressures. Geochim Cosmochim. Acta 48: 1295–1303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sibley, D.F., Vogel, T.A., Walker, B.M. and Byerly, G. (1976) The origin of oscillatory zoning in plagioclase: A diffusion and growth-controlled model. Am. J. Sci. 376: 275–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith, H.D. (1974) An experimental study of the diffusion of Na, K, and Rb in magmatic silicate liquids. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Oregon.Google Scholar
  58. Smith, V.G., Tiller, W.A. and Rutter, J.W. (1955) A mathematical analysis of solute redistribution during solidification. Can. J. Phys. 33: 723–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sparks, R.S.J. (1978) The dynamics of bubble formation and growth in magmas: A review and analysis. J. Volcanol. Geo therm. Res. 3: 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Spera, F.J., Yuen, D.A. and Kemp, D.V. (1984) Mass transfer along vertical walls in magma chambers and marginal upwelling. Nature 310: 764–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stolper, E. (1982) Water in silicate glasses: An infrared spectroscopic study. Contrib. Mineral Petrol. 81: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Turner, J.S. (1973) Buoyancy Effects in Fluids. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Turner, J.S. and Gustafson, L.B. (1981) Fluid motions and composition gradients produced by crystallization or melting at vertical boundaries. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 11: 93–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Walker, D., Lesher, C.E. and Hays, J.F. (1981) Soret separation of lunar liquid. Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. 12B: 991–999.Google Scholar
  65. Walker, D. and DeLong S.E. (1982) Soret separation of mid-ocean ridge basalt magma. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 79: 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Watson, E.B. (1976) Two-liquid partition coefficients: Experimental data and geochemical implications. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 56: 119–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Watson, E.B. (1979) Calcium diffusion in a simple silicate melt to 30 kbar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43: 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Watson, E.B. (1981) Diffusion in magmas at depth in the earth: The effects of pressure and dissolved H2O. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 52: 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Watson, E.B. (1982) Basalt contamination by continental crust: Some experiments and models. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 80: 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Watson, E.B. and Bender J.F. (1980) Diffusion of cesium, samarium, strontium, and chlorine in molten silicate at high temperatures and pressures. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Progr. 12: 545.Google Scholar
  71. Watson, E.B. and Jurewicz, S.R. (1984) Behavior of alkalies during diffusive interaction of granitic xenoliths with basaltic magma. J. Geol. 92: 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Watson, E.B., Sneeringer, M.A. and Ross, A. (1982) Diffusion of dissolved carbonate in magmas: Experimental results and applications. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 61: 346–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wendlandt, R.F. (1980) Oxygen diffusion in basalt and andesite melts. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 61: 1142.Google Scholar
  74. Williams, I.S. (1978) U-Pb evidence for the pre-emplacement history of granitic magmas, Berridale batholith, southeastern Australia. U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-file Rep. 78–701: 455–457.Google Scholar
  75. Yoder, H.S. (1973) Contemporaneous basaltic and rhyolitic magmas. Am. Mineral. 58: 153–171.Google Scholar
  76. Zhang, Y., Stolper, E.M. and Wasserburg, G.J. (1989) The mechanism of water diffusion in silicate melts. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70: 501.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Bruce Watson
  • Don R. Baker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations