Acute Effects with the Exercise Bicycle System: The Physiological Process

  • Chandler Allen Phillips


The clinical application of FES exercise cycling recently has become commercially available through a company, T.T.I. This section describes the basic apparatus which may be used for both isokinetic leg training (phase I) and exercise bicycle ergometry (phase II). The clinical procedures for each phase (as currently recommended by the manufacturer) are also presented.


Spinal Cord Injury Bicycle Ergometer Blood Pressure Response Functional Electrical Stimulation Dynamic Exercise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Astrand, P.O., and Rodahl, K. Textbook of Work Physiology, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, M.D., Cotter, M.A., Hudlicka, 0., and Vrbova, G. The effects of different patterns of muscle activity on capillary density, mechanical properties and structure of slow and fast rabbit muscles. Pfluegers Arch. 361: 241–247, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coote, J.H., Hilton, S.M., and Perez-Gonzalez, J.F. The reflex nature of the pressor response to muscular exercise. J. Physiol. 215: 789–804, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Guttmann, L. Spinal Cord Injuries: Comprehensive Management and Research, 2nd ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1976.Google Scholar
  5. Holle, J., Frey, M., Gruber, H., Kern, H., Stohr, H., and Thomas, H. Functional electrostimulation of paraplegics. Orthopedics, 7:1145–1155, 1984.Google Scholar
  6. Hudlicka, 0., Brown, M., Smith, M., and Vrbova, G. The effect of long-term stimulation of fast muscles on their blood flow, metabolism and ability to withstand fatigue. Pfluegers Arch. 369: 141–144, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lind, A.R., Taylor, S.H., Humphreys, P.W., Kennelly, B.M., and Donald, K.W. The circulatory effects of sustained voluntary muscle contraction. Clin. Sci. 27: 229–244, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Marsolais, E.B., and Kobetic, R. Functional walking of paralyzed patients by means of electrical stimulation. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Rehabilitation Engineering, Houston, p. 61, 1982.Google Scholar
  9. McCloskey, D.I., and Mitchell, J.H. Reflex cardiovascular and respiratory responses originating in exercising muscle. J. Physiol. 224: 173–186, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Peckham, P.H., Mortimer, J.T., and Van Der Muelen, J.P. Physiological and metabolic changes in white muscle of cat following induced exercise. Brain Res. 50: 424–429, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Peckham, P.H., Mortimer, J.T., and Marsolais, E.B. Alteration in the force and fatigability of skeletal muscle in quadriplegic humans following exercise induced by chronic electrical stimulation. Clin. Orthop. 114: 326–334, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Petrofsky, J.S. Control of the recruitment and firing frequencies of motor units in electrically stimulated muscles in cat. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 16: 302–308, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Petrofsky, J.S. Sequential motor unit stimulation through peripheral motor nerves in the cat. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 17: 87–93, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Petrofsky, J.S., and Phillips, C.A. Constant velocity contractions in skeletal muscle by sequential stimulation of muscle efferents. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 17: 583–592, 1979a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Petrofsky, J.S., and Phillips, C.A. Microprocessor controlled stimulation in paralyzed muscle. IEEE NAECON Record, 79: 198–210, 1979b.Google Scholar
  16. Petrofsky, J.S., and Phillips, C.A. Active physical therapy—A modern approach to rehabilitation therapy. J. Neurol. Orthop. Surg. 4: 165–173, 1983.Google Scholar
  17. Petrofsky, J.S., and Phillips, C.A. The use of functional electrical stimulation for rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients. CNS Trauma J. 1: 57–74, 1984.Google Scholar
  18. Petrofsky, J.S., Rinehart, J.S., and Lind, A.R. Isometric strength and endurance in slow and fast muscles in the cat. Fed. Proc. 35: 291, 1976.Google Scholar
  19. Petrofsky, J.S., Heaton, H.H., and Phillips, C.A. Outdoor bicycle for exercise in paraplegics and quadriplegics. J. Biomed. Eng. 5: 292–296, 1983a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Petrofsky, J.S., Heaton, H.H., Phillips, C.A., and Glaser, R.M. Application of the Apple as a microprocessor controlled stimulator. Coll. Microcomput. 1: 97–104, 1983b.Google Scholar
  21. Petrofsky, J.S., Heaton, H.H., and Phillips, C.A. Leg exerciser for training of paralyzed muscle by closed-loop control. Med. Biol. Eng. 22: 298–303, 1984a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Petrofsky, J.S., Phillips, C.A., Heaton, H.H., and Glaser, R.M. Bicycle ergometer for paralyzed muscle. J. Clin. Eng. 9: 13–19, 1984b.Google Scholar
  23. Pette, D., Ramirez, B., Mueller, W., et al. Influence of the intermittent long-term stimulation on contractile, histochemical and metabolic properties of fibre population in fast and slow rabbit muscles. Pfluegers Arch. 361: 1–7, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Phillips, C.A., Petrofsky, J.S., Hendershot, D.M., and Stafford, D. Functional electrical exercise: A comprehensive approach for physical conditioning of the spinal cord paralyzed individual. Orthopedics, 7: 1112–1123, 1984.Google Scholar
  25. Rack, P.M.H., and Westbury, D.R. The effects of length and stimulus rate on tension in the isometric cat soleus muscle. J. Physiol. 204: 443–460, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Salmons, S., and Vrbova, G. The influence of activity on some contractile characteristics of mammalian fast and slow muscles. J. Physiol. 201: 535, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandler Allen Phillips
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical and Human Factors EngineeringCollege of Engineering and Computer Science/School of Medicine, Wright State UniversityDaytonUSA

Personalised recommendations