The History and Cardiac Diagnosis

  • Noble O. Fowler


The history and the physical examination can lead to a correct diagnosis or to a valid differential diagnosis in a large proportion of cardiac patients. These two procedures, properly performed, can direct one’s choice of or eliminate the need for expensive, time-consuming, and possibly dangerous diagnostic tests. Further, these procedures help to establish better rapport with the patient.


Aortic Stenosis Infective Endocarditis Atrial Septal Defect Mitral Valve Prolapse Primary Pulmonary Hypertension 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noble O. Fowler
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyUniversity of Cincinnati Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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