Heterogeneity as a Multiscale Characteristic of Landscapes

  • Bruce T. Milne
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 86)


The consequences of heterogeneity have been a central theme in ecology at least since Cowles (1899) studied the successional pathways of Great Lakes vegetation. The different abilities of species to tolerate burial, inundation and competition create vegetational gradients that are correlated with proximity to the shore (e.g. Milne and Forman, 1986). Thus each location within the landscape contains a subset of the species pool. The composition of the subset is determined by the differential responses of species to the abiotic and biotic conditions present (Gleason, 1926; Whittaker, 1967; Huston, 1979; Sousa, 1979; Austin, 1985; Tilman, 1988) or to conditions in the past (Marks, 1974; Cole 1985).


Fractal Dimension Bare Soil Landscape Pattern Fractal Geometry Detrended Correspondence Analysis 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

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  • Bruce T. Milne

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