Dietary Treatment of Lipids and Lipoprotein Disorders

  • Byron J. Hoogwerf

Abstract

Several observations underlie the rationale for dietary alteration of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, especially when they are elevated. First, epidemiologically based studies and longitudinal studies of selected population cohorts have shown a relation between elevated plasma cholesterol and risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease, especially coronary heart disease. Second, clinical intervention trials using diet and drugs have shown that reduction in total cholesterol and, more particularly, a reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces the risk for coronary heart disease events. Such trials have generally used a combination of dietary and pharmacological therapy. Third, nutritional studies have shown that dietary change may significantly lower cholesterol.

Keywords

Cholesterol Obesity Corn Carbohydrate Estrogen 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Keys A. Coronary heart disease in seven countries. Circulation 1970;41(suppl 1):162–198.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gordon T, Kannel WB. Diabetes, blood lipids and the role of obesity in CHD risk for women; the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1977;87:393–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26 year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67:968–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T. Cholesterol in the prediction of atherosclerotic disease: new perspectives based on the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1979;90:85–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castelli WP, Abbott RD, McNamara PM. Summary estimate of cholesterol used to predict coronary heart disease. Circulation 1983;67:730–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Castelli WP, Garrison RJ, Wilson PWF, et al. Incidence of coronary heart disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels: the Framingham Study. JAMA 1986;256:2835–2838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson KM, Castelli WP, Levy D. Cholesterol and mortality: 30 years of follow-up from the Framingham Study. JAMA 1987;257:2176–2180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Perlman JA, Wolf PH, Ray R, Lieberknecht G. Cardiovascular risk factors, and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Northern California women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158:1568–1574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hankin JH, Rawlings V. Diet and breast cancer: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:2005–2016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mettlin C. Diet and the epidemiology of human breast cancer. Cancer 1984;53(suppl 1):605–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Graham S, Marshall J, Mettlin C, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1982;116:68–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jones DY, Schatzkin A, Green SB, et al. Dietary fat and breast cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I epidemiologic follow-up study. JHCI 1987;79:465–471.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hagerty MA, Howies BJ, Tan S, Shultz TD. Effect of low- and high-fat intakes on the hormonal milieu of premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 47:653–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stamler J, Wentworth D, Neaton JD (MRFIT Research Group). Is the relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded? JAMA 1986;256:2823–2828. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lipid Research Clinics Program. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial Results. I. Reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1984;251:351–364. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lipid Research Clinics Program. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial Results. II. The relationship of reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease to cholesterol lowering. JAMA 1984;251:365–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frick MH, Elo O, Haapa K, et al. Helsinki Heart Study: primary prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged men with dyslipidernia. N Engl J Med 1987;317:1237–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    NIH Consensus Development Conference. Lowering blood cholesterol to prevent heart disease. JAMA 1985;253:2080–2086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Expert Panel. Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:1–69.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nutrition Committee and the Council on Arteriosclerosis: Recommendations for treatment of hyperlipidemia in adults. Circulation 1984;69:1065A–1090A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hershcope RJ, Elahi D, Andres R, et al. Longitudinal changes in serum cholesterol in men: an epidemiologic search for an etiology. J Chronic Dis 1982;35:101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gordon DJ, Salz KM, Roggenhamp KJ, Franklin FA. Dietary determinants of plasma cholesterol change in the recruitment phase of the Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial. Arteriosclerosis 1982;2:537–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vaswani AH. Effect of weight reduction on circulating lipids: an integration of possible mechanisms. J Am Coll Nutr 1983;2:123–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carmena R, Ascaso JF, Tebar J, Soriano J. Changes in plasma high-density lipoproteins after body weight reduction in obese women. Int J Obes 1984;8:135–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hegsted DM, McGandy RB, Myers ML, Store FJ. Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1965;17:281–295. [Excellent references from articles dated from 1952 to 1965 are cited in this article.]. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gorder DD, Dolecek TA, Coleman GC, et al. Dietary intake in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT): nutrient and food group changes over 6 years. J Am Diet Assoc 1986;86:744–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Daniel-Gentry J, Dolecek TA, Caggiula AW, et al. Increasing use of meatless meals: a nutrition intervention substudy in the Multiple Risk Factor Interven¬tion Trial (MRFIT). J Am Diet Assoc 1986;86:778–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jones DY, Judd JT, Taylor PR, et al. Influence of caloric contribution and saturation of dietary fat on plasma lipids in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:1451–1456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cressman MD, Hoogwerf BJ, Naito HK, et al. Hypercholesterolemia: roles of the physician and registered dietitian. Cleve Clin J Med 1988;55:498–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vessby B, Gustafsson IB, Buberg J, et al. Substituting polyunsaturated for saturated fat as a single change in a Swedish diet: effects on serum lipoprotein metabolism and glucose tolerance in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Eur J Clin Invest 1980;10:193–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vega GL, Groszek E, Wolf R, Grundy SM. Influence of polyunsaturated fats on composition of plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. J Lipid Res 1982;23:811–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wolf RN, Grundy SM. Influence of exchanging carbohydrate for saturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in men. J Nutr 1983; 113:1521–1528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sacks FM, Ornish D, Rosner B, et al. Plasma lipoprotein levels in vegetarians: the effect of ingestion of fats from dairy products. JAMA 1985;254:1337–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mattson FH, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of dietary saturated, monoun-saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in men. J Lipid Res 1985;26:194–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zanni EE, Zannis VI, Blum CB, et al. Effect of egg cholesterol and dietary fats on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apoproteins of normal women consuming natural diets. J Lipid Res 1987;28:518–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Keys A, Anderson JT, Grande F. Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet. II. The effect of cholesterol in the diet. Metabolism 1965;14:759–765.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kelsey JL. A review of research on effects of fiber intake on man. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:142–159.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Anderson J, Story L, Sieling B, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effects of oat bran or bean intake for hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40:1146–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Van Hern BV, Liu K, Parker D, et al. Serum lipid response to the oat bran intake with a fat modified diet. J Am Diet Assoc 1986;86:759–764.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kuske TT, Feldman EB. Hyperlipoproteinemia, atherosclerosis risk, and dietary management. Arch of Intern Med 1987;147:357–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    American Diabetes Association. Nutritional recommendations and principles for individuals with diabetes mellitus: 1986. Diabetes Care 1987;10:126–132.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Keys A, Anderson JT, Grande F, Serum cholesterol response to changes in diet. I. Iodine value of dietary fat versus 25-P. Metabolism 1965;14:747–758. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    NIH Consensus Conference. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. JAMA 1984;251:1196–1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ginsberg H, Olesky J, Farquhar JW, Reaven GM. Moderate ethanol ingestion and plasma triglyceride levels. Ann Intern Med 1974;80:143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Farquhar JW, Frank A, Gross RC, Reaven GM. Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to high and low carbohydrate diets in man. J Clin Invest 1966;45:1648–1656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kohlmeier M, Strieker G, Schliert G. Influence of “normal” and “prudent” diets on biliary and serum lipids in healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:1201–1205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Weisweiler P, Janetschek P, Schwendt P. Fat restriction alters the composition of apolipoprotein B-100 containing very low-density lipoproteins in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:903–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jones DY, Judd JT, Taylor PR, et al. Influence of caloric contribution and saturation of dietary fat on plasma lipids in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:1451–1456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mattson FH, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of dietary saturated monoun-saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. J Lipid Res 1985;26:194–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in healthy men and women. Lancet 1987;1:122–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sirtori CR, Tremoli E, Gatti E, et al. Controlled evaluation of fat intake in the Mediterranean diet, comparative activities of olive oil, corn oil on plasma lipids and platelets in high-risk patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44:635–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grundy SM. Comparison of monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates for lowering plasma cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1986;314:745–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dyerberg J, Bong HD. A hypothesis on the development of acute myocardial infarction in Greenlanders. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1982;42:7–13.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Herold PM, Kinsella JE. Fish oil consumption and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease: comparison of findings from animal and human feeding trials. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:566–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sniderman AD, Shapiro S, Marpole D, et al. Association of coronary atherosclerosis with hyperapobetalipoproteinemia (increased protein but normal cholesterol levels) in human plasma low density liproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980;77:604–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sniderman AD Wolfson C Terg B, et al. Association of hyperapobetalipoproteinemia with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis. Ann In¬tern Med 1982;97:833–839. Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shepherd J, Packard CJ, Patch JR, et al. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated and saturated fat on the properties of high density lipoproteins and the metabolism of apolipoproteins A-l. J Clin Invest 1978;57:1582–1592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schonfeld GW, Patch W, Rudel LL, et al. Effects of dietary cholesterol and fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins. J Clin Invest 1982;69:1072–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Weiswerter P, Janetschek P, Schwondt P. Fat restriction alters the composition of apolipoprotein B-100 containing very low-density lipoproteins in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:903–909.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Majonnier MC, Hall Y, Berkson DM, et al. Experience in changing food habits of hyperlipidemic men and women. J Am Diet Assoc 1980;77:140–148.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    DeBakey ME, Gotto AM, Scott YW, Foreyt JP. Diet, nutrition and heart disease. J Am Diet Assoc 1986;86:729–731.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byron J. Hoogwerf

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations